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SEVENTH ADMINISTRATION.—1829 TO 1837.-EIGHT YEARS.
President—ANDREW JACKSON, Tennessee. Vice-Presidents—JoBIN C. CALHOUN, South Carolina; MARTIN VAN BUREN, New York. Secretaries of State—Martin Van Buren, of New York, March 6, 1829; Edward Livingston, of Louisiana, 1881; Louis McLane, of Delaware, 1833; John Forsyth, of Georgia, 1834. Secretaries of the Treasury—Samuel D. Ingham, of Pennsylvania, March 6, 1829; Louis McLane, of Delaware, 1831; William J. Duane, of Pennsylvania, 1833; Roger B. Taney, of Maryland, 1838 (not confirmed by the Senate); Levi Woodbury, of New Hampshire, 1834. Secretaries of War—John H. Eaton, of Tennessee, March 9, 1829; Lewis Cass, of Ohio, 1831. Secretaries of the Navy—John Branch, of North Carolina, March 9, 1829; Levi Woodbury, of New Hampshire, 1831; Mahlon Dickerson, of New Jersey, 1834. Postmasters-General—William T. Barry,” of Kentucky, March 9, 1829; Amos Kendall, of Kentucky, 1835. Attorneys-General—John M. Berrien, of Georgia, March 9, 1829; Roger B. Taney, of Maryland, December 27, 1831; Benjamin F. Butler, of New York, June 24, 1834.
EIGHTH ADMINISTRATION.—1837 To 1841. – Four YEARS.
President—MARTIN VAN BUREN, New York. Vice-President—RICHARD M. JoHNSON, Kentucky. Secretary of State—John Forsyth, June 27, 1834. Secretary of the Treasury—Levi Woodbury, June 27, 1834. Secretary of War—Joel R. Poinsett, March 7, 1837. Secretaries of the Navy–Mahlon Dickerson, June 30, 1834; James K. Paulding, June 30, 1838. Postmasters-General—Amos Kendall, May 1, 1835; John M. Niles, May 25, 1840. Attorneys-General—Felix Grundy, of Tennessee, September 1, 1838; Henry D. Gilpin, of Pennsylvania, January 10, 1840.
NINTH ADMINISTRATION.—1841 to 1845—Four YEARs.
President—GENERAL WILLIAM HENRY HARRISON, Ohio. Died April 4, 1841. Vice-President—JoBN TYLER, Virginia. President—John TYLER, Virginia (from April 4, 1841). Secretaries of State—Daniel Webster, March 5, 1841; Hugh S. Legaré, May 9, 1843, died June 20, 1843; Abel P. Upshur, June 24, 1843, died February 28, 1844; John Nelson, acting, February 29, 1844; John C. Calhoun, March 6, 1844. Secretaries of the Treasury—Thomas Ewing, March 5, 1841; Walter Forward, September 13, 1841; George M. Bibb, June 15, 1844. Secretaries of War—John Bell, March 5, 1841; John C. Spencer, October 12, 1841, transferred to Treasury Department; James M. Porter, March 8, 1843, rejected by the Senate; William Wilkins, February 15, 1844. Secretaries of the Navy—George E. Badger, March 5, 1841; Abel P. Upshur, September 18, 1841, transferred to Department of State; David Henshaw, July 24, 1843, rejected by the Senate; Thomas W. Gilmer, February 15, 1844, died February 28, 1844; John Y. Mason, March 14, 1844. Postmasters-General—Francis Granger, March 6, 1841; Charles A. Wickliffe, September 13, 1841.
* Before the accession of Andrew Jackson to the Presidency, the Postmaster-General was looked upon as the head of a bureau, but President Jackson invited Mr. Barry to a seat in his cabinet meetings, since which time the head of the Post-office Department has been considered a regular member of the cabinet.
Attorneys-General—John J. Crittenden, of Kentucky, March 5, 1841; Hugh S. Legaré, of South Carolina, September 13, 1841, died; John Nelson, of Maryland, January 2, 1844.
TENTH ADMINISTRATION.—1845 TO 1849.-FOUR YEARS.
President—JAMES KNOX POLK, Tennessee. Vice-President—GEORGE M. DALLAs, Pennsylvania. Secretary of State—James Buchanan, of Pennsylvania, March 5, 1845. Secretary of the Treasury—Robert J. Walker, of Mississippi, March 5, 1845. Secretary of War—William L. Marcy, of New York, March 5, 1845. Secretary of the Navy—George Bancroft, of Massachusetts, March, 1845; John Y. Mason, of Virginia, in 1846. Postmaster-General—Cave Johnson, of Tennessee, March 5, 1845. Attorneys-General—John Y. Mason, of Virginia, March 5, 1845; Nathan Clifford, of Maine, December 23, 1846; Isaac Toucey, of Connecticut, June 21, 1848.
ELEVENTH ADMINISTRATION.—1849 TO 1853. –Four YEARS.
President—ZACHARY TAYLOR, Louisiana. Died July 9, 1850. Vice-President—MILLARD FILLMORE, New York. President—MILLARD FILLMORE, New York. Succeeded Zachary Taylor, on his death, July 9, 1850. Secretaries of State—John M. Clayton, of Delaware, March 7, 1849; Daniel Webster, of Massachusetts, July 20, 1850, died October 24, 1852; Edward Everett, of Massachusetts, November, 1852. Secretaries of the Treasury—William M. Meredith, of Pennsylvania, March 7, 1849; Thomas Corwin, of Ohio, July 20, 1850. Secretaries of War—George W. Crawford, of Georgia, March 7, 1849; Charles M. Conrad, of Louisiana, August 15, 1850. Secretaries of the Navy—William B. Preston, of Virginia, March 7, 1849; William A. Graham, of North Carolina, July 20, 1850; John P. Kennedy, of Maryland, in 1852. . Secretaries of the Interior—Thomas Ewing, of Ohio, March 7, 1849; Alexander H. H. Stuart, of Virginia, September 12, 1850. Postmasters-General—Jacob Collamer, of Vermont, March 7, 1849; Nathan K. Hall, of New York, July 20, 1850; Samuel D. Hubbard, of Connecticut, 1852. Attorneys-General—Reverdy Johnson, of Maryland, March 7, 1849; John J. Crittenden, of Kentucky, July 20, 1850.
TWELFTH ADMINISTRATION.—1853 To 1857.-FOUR YEARS.
President—FRANKLIN PIERCE, New Hampshire.
THIRTEENTH ADMINISTRATION.—1857 To 1861.-Four YEARS.
President—JAMES BUCHANAN, Pennsylvania. Vice-President—JoBN C. BRECKINRIDGE, Kentucky. Secretaries of State—Lewis Cass, of Michigan, March, 1857; Jeremiah S. Black, of Pennsylvania, December, 1860. Secretaries of the Treasury—Howell Cobb, of Georgia, March, 1857; Philip F. Thomas, of Maryland, December, 1860; John A. Dix, of New York, January, 1861. Secretaries of War—John B. Floyd, of Virginia, March, 1857; Joseph Holt, of Rentucky, December, 1860.
Secretary of the Navy—Isaac Toucey, of Connecticut, March, 1857.
Secretary of the Interior—Jacob Thompson, of Mississippi, March, 1857.
Postmasters-General—Aaron W. Brown, of Tennessee, March, 1857, died; Joseph Holt, of Kentucky, March, 1859.
Attorneys-General—Jeremiah S. Black, of Pennsylvania, March, 1857; Edwin M. Stanton, of Ohio, December, 1860.
FOURTEENTH ADMINISTRATION−1861 to 1865.—Four YEARs.
President—ABRAHAM LINCOLN, Illinois.
Vice-President—HANNIBAL HAMLIN, Maine.
Secretary of State—William H. Seward, of New York.
Secretaries of the Treasury—Salmon P. Chase, of Ohio; William P. Fessenden, of Maine.
Secretaries of War—Simon Cameron, of Pennsylvania; Edwin M. Stanton, of Ohio, 1861.
Secretary of the Navy—Gideon Welles, of Connecticut.
Secretaries of the Interior—Caleb B. Smith, of Indiana; John P. Usher, of Indiana, 1863.
Postmasters-General—Montgomery Blair, of Maryland; William Dennison, of Ohio.
Attorney-General—Edward Bates, of Missouri.
PRESIDENTIAL E L E C T OR S.
THE election of the President and of the Vice-President, by Colleges of Electors, chosen in each State, was first proposed in the Convention for the formation of the Constitution, by James Wilson, a delegate from Pennsylvania. It was adopted after a prolonged discussion, and was regulated by an Act of Congress, of March 1, 1792. The Electors must be chosen within thirty-four days preceding the first Wednesday of December of the year in which an election of President and VicePresident takes place. They must be equal in number to all the Senators and Representatives in Congress, but no Senator or person holding an office of trust or profit under the United States can be appointed an Elector. The Electors were at first chosen in four different modes, viz.: by joint ballot of the State Legislature, by a concurrent vote of the two branches of the State Legislature, by the people of the State, voting by general ticket, and by the people, voting in districts. This latter mode was evidently that which gave the fairest expression to public opinion, by approaching nearest to a direct vote. But those States which adopted it were placed at the disadvantage of being exposed to a division of their strength, and neutralization of their vote; while the Electors chosen by either of the other methods voted in a body on one side or the other, thus making the voice of the State decisively felt. This consideration induced the leading States of Massachusetts and of Virginia, which originally adopted the district system, to abandon it in 1800.
An Act of Congress was approved January 23, 1845, to establish a uniform time for holding elections for Electors in all the States of the Union, whereby they are appointed in each State on the Tuesday next after the first Monday in the month of November of the year in which they are to be appointed. Each State may also by law provide for the filling of any vacancy or vacancies which may occur in its College of Electors, when such College meets to give its electoral vote; and when any State shall have held an election for the purpose of choosing Electors, and shall fail to make a choice on the day aforesaid, then the Electors may be appointed on a subsequent day in such manner as the State shall by law provide.
The Electors meet at the capitals of their respective States, on the first Wednesday of December, and vote by distinct ballots for President and Vice-President, one of whom shall not be an inhabitant of the same State with themselves. They make lists of the number of votes given, and of the persons voted for, which they transmit sealed, by a special messenger, to the President of the Senate at Washington.
The Senate and House of Representatives, having met in convention on a day fixed, the President of the Senate opens all the certificates, and the votes are counted. The person having the greatest number of votes for President is duly elected, if such a number be a majority of the whole number of Electors appointed. If no person have such a majority, then from the persons having the highest number, not exceeding three, in the list of those voted for as President, the House of Representatives shall choose immediately, and by ballot, the President. If the House of Representatives shall not choose a President, whenever the right of choice devolves upon them, before the 4th of March next following, then the VicePresident shall act as President, as in the case of the death, or other constitutional disability of the President.
Should the offices of President and Vice-President both become vacant, it then becomes the duty of the Secretary of State to communicate information thereof to the Executive of each State, and to cause the same to be published in at least one newspaper in every State, giving two months’ previous notice that Electors of President shall be chosen or appointed in the several States, within thirty-four days next preceding the first Wednesday in December ensuing, when the choice of President must proceed as usual.
FIRST PRESIDENTIAL ELECTION.
GEORGE WASHINGTON was unanimously elected President, receiving 69 votes. JoHN ADAMS was elected Vice-President, receiving 34 votes; while John Jay had 9 votes, Robert H. Harrison 6, John Rutledge 6, John Hancock 4, George Clinton 3, Samuel Huntington 2, James Armstrong 1, Edward Telfair 1, and Benjamin Lincoln 1. The Electors were:
Benjamin Bellows, Ebenezer Thompson. 1. John Pickering, 2. John Parker, 3. John Sullivan. MASSACHUSETTS. Caleb Davis, David Sewall. 1. Samuel Phillips, Jr., 4. Moses Gill, 7. William Sever, 2. Walter Spooner, 5. Samuel Henshaw, 8. William Shepard. 3. Francis Dana, 6. William Cushing, - CONNECTICUT. Samuel Huntington, Erastus Wolcott. 1. Oliver Wolcott, 3. Richard Law, 5. Matthew Griswold. 2. Thaddeus Burr, 4. Jedediah Huntington, NEW JERSEY. David Brearley, David Moore. 1. James Kinsey, 8. John Neilson, 4. Matthias Ogden. 2. John Rutherford, IPENNSYLVANIA. Edward Hand, James Wilson. 1. George Gibson, 4. David Grier, 7. Lawrence Keene, 2. James O'Harra, 5. Collinson Read, 8. Alexander Graydon. 3. John Arndt, 6. Samuel Potts, DELAWARE. Gunning Bedford, George Mitchell.
1. John Baning.
MARYLAND. John Rogers, Philip Thomas. 1. George Plater, 3. William Tilghman, 5. Alexander C. Hanson, 2. Robert Smith, 4. William Richardson, 6. William Matthews. - VIRGINIA. Patrick Henry, W. Tikhugh. 1. John Pride, 4. Anthony Walke, 7. John Harvie, 2. Edward Stevens, 5. James Wood, 8. John Roane. 3. Zachariah Johnston, 6. David Stuart, SOUTH CAROLINA. Christopher Gadsden, Edward Rutledge. 1. Henry Laurens, 3. Charles C. Pinckney, 5. John F. Grimke. 2. Arthur Simkins, 4. Thomas Heyward, Jr., GEORGIA. George Handley, John Wilson. 1. George Walton, 2. H. Osborne, 8. John King.
SECOND PRESIDENTIAL ELECTION.—1793.
GEORGE WASHINGTON was again unanimously elected President, receiving 132 votes. JoHN ADAMS was elected Vice-President, receiving 77 votes; while George Clinton had 50 votes, Thomas Jefferson 4, and Aaron Burr 1. The ElectorS Were : NEW HAMPSHIRE.
Josiah Bartlett, Benjamin Bellows. 1. John T. Gilman, 3. Jonathan Freeman, 4. Ebenezer Thompson. 2. John Pickering, MASSACHUSETTS. Azor Orne, Francis Dana. . Samuel Holten, 6. Walter Spooner, 11. Thompson J. Skinner, . Ebenezer Mattson, Jr., 7. Moses Gill, 12. Daniel Cony, Thomas Dawes, 8. Solomon Freeman, 13. Dwight Foster,
. William Sever, 9. William Shepard, 14. Peleg Wadsworth. . Increase Sumner, 10. Nathaniel Wells,
Arthur Fenner, Samuel J. Potter. 1. George Champlin, 2. William Greene.
CONNECTICUT. . Samuel Huntington, John Davenport, Jr. 1. Oliver Wolcott, 4. Elijah Hubbard, 6. Sylvester Gilbert, 2. Thomas Grosvenor, 5. Thomas Seymour, 7. Marvin Wait. 3. David Austin, VERMONT. Samuel Hitchcock, Lemuel Chipman. 1. Lot Hall, 2. Paul Brigham. New York. Jesse. Woodhull, David Van Ness. 1. Edward Savage, 5. William Floyd, 8. Stephen Ward, 2. Samuel Clark, 6. Volkert Weeder, 9. John Bay, 3. Johannes Bruyn, 7. Abraham Ten Eyck, 10. Samuel Osgood. 4
. Abraham Yates, Jr.,