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Madison. During the campaign of 1813, he visited the northern frontier. His flight from Washington, with Mr. Madison and his cabinet, at the sacking of 1814, gave the coup de grâce to his official career as Secretary of War. It was charged that the capital was lost by reason of his neglect to provide the means of defence. He was dismissed from office, and the duties of the War Department devolved upon Mr. Monroe, then Secretary of State. From that time he lived in retirement upon his estate at Red Hook, but passed a few years in Maryland. He published a brief history of the last war with England. He died at Red Hook, New York, April 1, 1843, aged eighty-four years.
Armstrong, William.—He was born in Lisburn, Antrim County, Ireland, December 23, 1782. He came to this country in 1792; had a limited education; studied law in Winchester, Virginia; devoted himself to mercantile pursuits. In 1813 he was appointed by President Madison Collector for the Sixth District of Virginia; in 1818 and 1819 he was a member of the Virginia House of Delegates; in 1822 and 1823, a member of the Board of Public Works; and in 1820 and 1824 he was a Presidential Elector; for many years a Justice of the Peace; one year High Sheriff of Hampshire County; and he was a Representative in Congress from 1825 to 1833. Since that time he has lived in retirement in the pleasant valley of the South Branch of the Potomac.
Armold, Benedict.—He was a member of the Assembly of New York, from Amsterdam, Montgomery County, in 1816 and 1817, and was a Representative in Congress, from that State, from 1829 to 1831.
Arnold, Isaac N.—Born in Hardwicke, Otsego County, New York, in November, 1815; while engaged in acQuiring an education he taught school, studied law, and came to the bar in 1835; in 1836 he removed to Chicago, Illinois; in 1837 he was First Clerk of the City of Chicago; in 1843 he was elected to the Illinois Legislature, and took an active part in the canal improvements; in 1844 he was Presidential Elector; was for a time attorney for the Illinois and Michigan Canal; and in 1860 he was elected a Representative,
from Illinois, to the Thirty-seventh Congress, serving as chairman of the Select Committee on the Defences and Fortifications of the Great Lakes and Rivers. In 1862 he was elected for another term to the Thirty-eighth Congress, serving on the Committee of Manufactures, and as Chairman of that on Roads and Canals.
Arnold, Lemuel H.-Born in St. Johnsbury, Vermont, January 29, 1792, and removed to Rhode Island at an early age. He graduated at Dartmouth College, in 1811; was educated for the bar, but turned his attention to mercantile pursuits. In 1831, he was elected Governor of Rhode Island, and reelected in 1832; he was a member of the Governor's Council during the Dorr rebellion in 1842; was a Representative in Congress, from 1845 to 1847; and died in Kingston, Rhode Island, June 27, 1852.
Arnold, Samuel.-He was born in Haddam, Middlesex County, Connecticut, June 1, 1806; received his education at Plainfield Academy, in Connecticut, and Westfield Academy, in Massachusetts; has devoted the most of his life to agricultural pursuits, and to various interests of commerce; having also for many years carried on one of the most extensive stone quarries in the Union. He was, also, for a number of years, President of the Bank of East Haddam. He served his native county, in the Legislature, during the years 1839, 1842, 1844, and 1851, and was elected to the Thirty-fifth Congress, as a Representative from Connecticut, serving as a member of the Committee on Claims.
Arnold, Samuel G.--Born in Providence, Rhode Island, April 12, 1821; graduated at Brown University in 1841; having taken a year from the course to travel in Europe and the East; spent two years in a counting-house in Providence, and again visited Europe; spent two years at the Harvard Law School, and having graduated, came to the bar in 1845; but instead of practising, again visited Europe, and also South America. In 1852 he was elected Lieutenant-Governor of Rhode Island ; in 1859 and 1860, he published the History of the State of Rhode Island, a work upon which he had long been engaged; in 1861 he was a Delegate to the Beace Convention, and again chosen Lieutenant-Governor of the State; and on the breaking out of the Rebellion, he took the field, for a few weeks, in command of a battery of artillery, as aide-decamp to Governor Sprague. In 1862, he was again elected Lieutenant-Governor of Rhode Island, and was soon afterwards chosen Senator in Congress from Rhode Island, for the unexpired term of J. F. Simmons, resigned, serving on the Committees on Commerce and Claims.
Arnold. Thomas D.—He was elected a Representative in Congress, from Knox County, Tennessee, from 1831 to 1833, and for a second term, from 1841 to 1843, representing Greenville County; he was a member of the Committees on Elections and Claims.
Arrington, Archibald.—He was born in North Carolina, and represented that State in Congress, from 1841 to 1845, after which he retired to private life. He was a member of the Committee on Expenditures in the War Department.
Ash, Michael W.-He was born in Pennsylvania, and was a Representative in Congress, from that State, from 1835 to 1837, serving as a member of the Cómmittee on Naval Affairs.
Ashe, John Baptiste.—He was a Representative in Congress, from 1790 to 1793; was elected Governor of the State of North Carolina, in 1801; and died November 27, 1802. He was a Delegate to the Continental Congress in 1787 and 1788.
Ashe, John B.-He was elected a Representative in Congress, from Tennessee, from 1843 to 1845, representing the Tenth District, and serving as a member of the Committees on Invalid Pensions, and Expenditures in the State and Treasury Departments.
Ashe, William S.—Born in Wilmington, North Carolina; a lawyer by profession; served in the State Legislature in 1846, and was re-elected in 1848; he was a Representative in Congress, from 1849 to 1853, serving on the Committee on Expenditures in the State Department.
Ashley, Chester.—Born at Westfield, Massachusetts, June 1, 1790, but was removed in infancy to Hudson, New York, where he resided until he reached the age of twenty-seven. He then went to Illinois, and after practising law in that State for two years, removed to the Territory of Arkansas, and established himself in Little Rock, then a mere landing. He was chosen a Senator in Congress, in 1847, and was Chairman of the Judiciary Committee in that body. He served until his death, which occurred in Washington City, April 29, 1848.
Ashley, Henry.—He was born in Cheshire, New Hampshire, and was elected a Representative in Congress, from Delaware and Greene counties, New York, from 1825 to 1827.
Ashley, James M.–Born in Virginia in 1824; was self-educated; became an adventurer at the age of fifteen, at one time acting as clerk on the store boats of the Ohio and Mississippi, and then doing service in a printing office. He studied law, and was admitted to the bar of Ohio in 1849; but, instead of practising his profession, he went into the business of boat-building, and was connected with the press. He subsequently settled at Toledo, and went into the wholesale drug business, and was elected a Representative from Ohio, to the Thirty-sixth Congress, serving as a member of the Committee on Territories. Re-elected to the Thirty-seventh Congress, and made Chairman of the Committee on Territories, and also re-elected to the Thirty-eighth Congress, serving on the Committee of Claims, and as Chairman of the Committee on Territories.
Ashley, William H.-Born in Powhatan County, Virginia, and emigrated to Missouri, then Upper Louisiana, in 1808, and settled near the Lead Mines. In 1822, he projected the scheme of the “Mountain Expedition,” by uniting the Indian trade in the Rocky Mountains with the hunting and trapping business. He enlisted about three hundred hardy men in the business, and, after various successes and reverses, having sustained numerous losses by Indian robbery and river disasters, he and his associates realized a handsome fortune. He was the first LieutenantGovernor of Missouri, after it became a State, and a Representative in Congress, from 1831 to 1837. He died near Boonville, Missouri, March 26, 1838.
Ashmore, John D. — Born in Greenville District, South Carolina, August 7, 1819; served as a merchant's clerk for several years, and then taught school until he became of age ; studied law, but instead of following that profession, turned his attention to agriculture; when quite young, filled various offices in the State Militia; was a member of the South Carolina Legislature in 1848, 1850, and 1852; in 1853, he was elected Comptroller-General of the State for two years, and re-elected for a second term ; and he was subsequentl elected a Representative from Sout Carolina to the Thirty-sixth Congress. Resigned in December, 1860.
Ashan won. Eli Pease.—He was a distinguished lawyer, and for several years a member of the House of Representatives and Senate of Massachusetts; and was elected, in 1816, to succeed General Warnum as Senator from that State, in Congress; this office he resigned in 1818. He died at Northampton, Massachusetts, May 10, 1819, aged forty-eight. g
Ashmum, George. — Born in Brandford, §sassachusetts, December 25, 1804; graduated at Yale College in 1823; studied law and settled in Springfield in 1828. He served in the State Legislature during the years 1838, 1835, 1836, 1838, and 1841, officiating as Speaker of the House in the latter year. e was a Representative in Congress from 1845 to 1851, and was a member of the Committees on the Judiciary, Indian Affairs, and on Rules. Since that time he has been devoted to the practice of his profession. In 1860 he was elected President of the Chicago Convention, convened to nominate a President and Vice-President.
Atchison, David R.—He was born in Frogtown, Fayette County, Kentucky, August 11, 1807; was educated for the bar; and removed to Missouri in 1830. He was elected to the Legislature of that State in 1834 and 1838. In 1841 he was appointed Judge of the Platte County Circuit Court; and during the year 1848, was appointed a Sena
tor in Congress, to which position he was twice elected, serving until 1855, frequently at the head of important committees, and for several sessions as President pro tempore of the Senate. He was subsequently devoted to agricultural pursuits.
Atherton. Charles G.—He was born in Hillsborough County, New Hampshire, July 4, 1804; graduated at Cambridge in 1822; studied law, but engaged in politics when quite young; he was for many years in the Legislature of New Hampshire, and for three years Speaker of the House; he was a Representative in Congress, from 1837 to 1843; a Senator in Congress, from 1843 to 1849; and, in November, 1852, he was re-elected a Senator to fill a vacancy, and died of apoplexy in Manchester, New Hampshire, November 15, 1858. He was Chairman, in the Senate, of the Committee on Finance.
Badger, Luther.—Born in Partridgefield, Berkshire County, Massachusetts, April 10, 1785, but his father removed to Broome County, New York, in 1786. Having made sufficient acquaintance in the common branches of an English education, he entered Hamilton College at the age of nineteen, and spent two years there. In 1807 he commenced the study of law, and was admitted to the bar in 1812, and continued to practise his profession until 1824, when he was elected a Representative to the Nineteenth Congress. He had been engaged in military services in his State, and in 1819 was appointed, by Governor Clinton, Judge-Advocate for the 27th Brigade of Infantry of New York State, which office he held for eight years. In 1832 he resumed the practice of law, and in 1840 was appointed Examiner in Chancery and Commissioner of United States Loans, which office he held for three years. From 1846 to 1849 he was United States District Attorney for New York.
Baer, George.—He was a Representative in Congress, from Maryland, from 1797 to 1801, and again from 1815 to 1817. .
Bagby, Arthur P.-He was born in Virginia in 1794; was liberally educated; adopted the profession of law, and settled in Alabama in 1818; was elected a member of the Legislature in 1820 and 1822, and was Speaker of the House; was Governor of Alabama from 1837 to 1843; and a Senator in Congress, from that State, from 1842 to 1849. His last public position was that of Minister to Russia, to which he was
IBailey, Jeremiah.—He was born at Little Compton, Rhode Island; graduated at Brown University, and studied law. He was a member of the Maine Legislature from 1811 to 1814; a Judge of Probate from 1814 to 1835; and a Representative in Congress, from Lincoln County, Maine, from 1835 to 1837, serving on the Committees on Agriculture and Expenditures in the Post-office Department. He was also Collector of Customs at Wiscasset, from 1849 to 1853; and died in July of that year.
JBailey, John.—He was born in Norfolk County, Massachusetts; was a member of the Massachusetts Legislature from 1815 to 1818; a clerk in the Department of State for a year; a State Senator in 1881 and 1834; and a Representative in Congress, for Massachusetts, from 1823 to 1881, serving on the Committees on Public Expenditures and Expenditures in the State Department; and died at Dorchester, Massachusetts, June 26, 1885. - .
Bailey, Theodorus.-He was born in 1752; was a Representative in Congress, from New York, from 1793 to 1797, and again from 1799 to 1803; and a Senator in Congress, from 1803 to 1804, when he resigned and was appointed Postmaster of New York City. He died September 6, 1828.