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priests and elders going out to meet him in a solemn procession, and assisted him to reduce and expel the Egyptian garrison. In return for this (at that crisis, important) service, Antiochus granted the Jews many considerable immunities, and confirmed to them the privilege that no stranger should enter within the Sept or Chel of the temple. *
The Roman army, under the command of Titus Quintus Flaminius, having obtained a decisive victory over Philip at Cynocephalus, in Thessaly, † the war respecting the Egyptian monarch and his territories remained to be decided between the republic and Antiochus.
On the death of Simon, the high priest, he was succeeded by his eldest son, Onias the Third.
Antiochus, although encouraged by the presence and assisted by the counsels of Hannibal, the celebrated Carthaginian general,|| who had been forced to fly from his own country, having been defeated by the Romans in five successive battles, s at last sued for peace, upon the terms of paying them
* Prid. ii. 154. Upon one occasion, this monarch selected a chosen band of two thousand Jews from Babylonia, to suppress a dangerous rebellion in Phrygia and Lydia. Prid. ii. 155.
+ Prid. ii. 157. | Prid. ii. 157.
s Prid. ii. 162. || The inveterate hatred, and formidable plans of this wily African, were defeated by the superior address of Publius Villius, the Roman ambassador ; who, by affecting great intimacy with Hannibal, and constantly visiting him, roused the suspicions of Antiochus, lest in advising him to carry the war into the plains of Italy, as bad been the favourite scheme of the Carthaginian in the Punic wars, he was only practising some fraud in concert with the Romans. Prid. ij. 164.
I 1. by Acilius Glabrio, at Thermopylæ. 2. by C. Livius, near mount Corycus, in Ionia, in a naval fight. 3. by Æmilius, on the coasts of Pamphylia, in another naval fight. 4. by Æmilius again, in a third naval fight, near Myonnesus, in Ionia. And, 5. finally by Lucius Scipio, in a great battle, near Magnesia, under Sipilis. Prid. ii. 161-170.
fifteen thousand talents,* and granting to them and surrendering up all Asia on that side of mount Taurus.t
Antiochus had contrived to detach the Egyptians from their alliance with the Roman republic, and to marry his daughter, Cleopatra, to the infant monarch, Ptolemy Epiphanes; and soon after the death of Antiochus, who was assassinated in the temple of Jupiter Belus, in the province of Ptolemais, Cleopatra was delivered of a son, afterwards Ptolemy Philometer.||
Amongst the other principal inhabitants of the provinces, who visited the Egyptian court upon that occasion, was Hyrcanus, who was sent by his father, Joseph, to represent him and his office. I
Hyrcanus took advantage of the confidence thus placed in him, to supersede his father in the receivership of the province, but of which he was deprived after the death of his father, Joseph.**
During the reign of Seleucus Philopater, who succeeded his father Antiochus on the throne of Syria, a schism happened between Simon, a Benjamite, who was governor and protector of the temple at Jerusalem, and Onias, the high priest.ft Seleucus had been a friend to the Jews, and had magnified the temple, by bearing all the costs belonging to the service of the sacrifices at his own expense ;## but upon account of the above dispute, Simon disclosed to Apollonius, the governor of the province, the great riches that were laid up in the temple. Upon the governor making this report to his sovereign, he dispatched his treasurer, Heliodorus, to take possession of the treasure, but was prevented by a miraculous manifestation of divine power.SS
* Prid. ii. 173.; where see a learned note. + Prid. ii. 171. Prid. ii. 163. f Prid. ii. 174. || Prid. ii. 177. See p. 359. ** Prid. ii. 180. ++ Prid. ii. 184. ** 2 Macc. iii. 3.
$$ 2 Macc. ij. 3. Prid. ij. 181.
Simon continuing his revolt against the authority of the high priest, and deluging the city with murders, Onias went himself to Seleucus at Antioch, in order to obtain redress; but he had not been there long before that monarch was assassinated by his treasurer, Heliodorus. *
This usurpation being suppressed, Antiochus Epiphanes, or Epimanes, succeeded to the throne of his deceased brother.
Soon after his accession, Jesus, or Jason, a brother of Onias, prevailed upon the new monarch to sell him the office of high priest for three hundred and sixty talents, and to keep Onias in confinement at Antioch; and having succeeded in that object, he obtained permission, for one hundred and fifty talents more, to erect a gymnasium & and ephebeum|| at Jerusalem, thereby introducing many of the Greek and other pagan customs amongst the Jews. I
* A place of exercise. + A place for training up of youth. Prid. ii. 165. § Prid. ii. 158-190. || Prid. ii. 191.
Prid. ij. 192. In 2 Macc. iv. 18, 19, the patron god of Tyre is called Hercules ; but it is to be observed that he was not known to the Tyrians by that name, but that of Malcarthus, which being compounded of the two Phænician words, Melec and Kartha, did, in that language, signify the king or lord of the city. The Greeks, from some similitude which they found in the worship of this god at Tyre, with that wherewith they worshipped Hercules in Greece, thought them to be both the same; and, therefore, called this Tyrian god Hercules; and hence came the name of Hercules Tyrius among them. This god seems to be the same with the Baal of the Holy Scriptures, whose worship Jezebel brought from Tyre into the land of Israel; for Baal, with the addition of Kartha, signifieth the same as Melec, with the same addition. For, as the latter, in the Phænician lan. guage, is king of the city, the other, in the same language, is lord of the city. And as Baal is put alone to signify this Tyrian god in Scripture, so do we find Melec also put alone to signify the same god; for Hesychius tells us, Mulic is the name of Hercules among the Amathusians. And these Amathusians were a colony of the Tyrians in Cyprus. Prid. ii. 193, 194.
A war having broke out between Antiochus Epiphanes and Ptolemy Philometer, respecting Syria, the former came to Joppa to inspect the frontier towns, and thence proceeded to Jerusalem, where he was received by Jason with great ceremony and respect. *
The ensuing year, Jason sent his younger brother, Onias, or Menelaus, to Antioch, to pay his tribute money; when the latter supplanted bim in the priesthood, by the same means as Jason had supplanted Onias, his elder brother, giving to Antiochus three hundred talents more than Jason had given; but having been defeated in his first attempt to obtain possession of that sacred office, he returned to Antioch, and pledging himself to forsake the religion of Jehovah, the monarch sent with him to Jerusalem an armed force, which enabled him to expel Jason from Jerusalem, and to take
A pious German, whilst bewailing the sufferings of his countrymen during the revolutionary war of France, makes the following just reflections upon this conduct of the Israelites. “ The Israelites, and even the priests, followed the heathen games, (2 Macc. iv. 14, 15, 16.) and God sent these heathens, whose games they imitated, to punish them; and then we read, 'It is not a light thing to do wickedly against the laws of God.' We, also, should attend to this; for how many games, dances, and vanities have we borrowed from a certain nation? wherefore God hath sent them to punish us, and though we have beaten them, he hath soon healed their wounds, because we no sooner take breath, than we spend our time, especially in winter, in games, operas, plays, and vanities, and in the spring we take the field again, after so bad a preparation. Hence God at this time imbitters our sinful diversions, and connives at us no longer, but puts a stop to sin by his punishments. If any one escape with impunity, and grow secure, to him may be applied the words of chap. vii. 35. · Thou hast not yet escaped the judgment of Almighty God, who seeth all things.'” Bogatsky ii. August 21. The same remark will also apply to the conduct of Herod the Great, and others who held the supreme power in Judea.
. Prid. ii. 196.
refuge amongst the Ammonites, and immediately exerted himself to establish the pagan rites and ceremonies. *
Menelaus having neglected to pay the tribute money, was summoned to Antioch, and the king being absent with his army, Menelaus directed his deputy at Jerusalem, to raise the amount by sale of the sacred vessels. Onias, who was still at Antioch, having reproached Menelaus for his sacrilegious conduct, the latter procured his assassination; but when Antiochus returned, he was so incensed, that he ordered his own lieutenant governor, Andronicus, who had planned the assassination, to be publicly executed on the same spot where Onias had suffered.t
Whilst Menelaus was gone to Antioch, he had left a brother, of the name of Lysimachus, as his deputy; but when he attempted to remove the sacred vessels, the populace rose upon him, and after dispersing his guard of three thousand men, slew him beside the treasury within the temple. I
Antiochus having defeated the forces of Ptolemy Philometer, near Pelusium, took up his winter quarters at Tyre, where three Jewish delegates came to him to complain of the conduct of Lysimachus, and the sacrilege of Menelaus; but the latter having bribed one of the king's officers, that monarch, as it is supposed, contrary to his previous intention, absolved Menelaus, and caused the poor delegates to be put to death: an act of such wanton cruelty, that the Tyrians caused them to be honourably buried.
At this period, through all the city of Jerusalem, for the space almost of forty days, there were seen horsemen running in the air, in cloth of gold, and armed with lances, like a band of soldiers; and troops of horsemen in array, encountering and running one against another, with shaking of
+ Prid. ii. 199.
• Prid. ii. 197.
$ Prid. ii. 202.