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marched against the Jews who had sided with the Phænicians; and having besieged and taken Jericho, made many captives, and led part of them with him into Egypt, and sent a great number of others into Hyrcania, and there planted them on those parts of that country which lay on the Caspian Sea.*
On the death of Johanan, he was succeeded in the priesthood by his son Jaddua,+ during whose pontificate, that extraordinary transaction with Alexander the Great took place, which, although it rests on the testimony of Josephus alone, appears to have obtained general credit amongst learned men.
Philip, king of Macedon, having reduced the states of Greece to submission to his authority, and procured himself to be appointed captain general of the whole territory, engaged in a war with the Persians; and was about to join his army, when he was assassinated by one of his own subjects, just at the moment he was impiously assuming the power and authority of the Deity. I
Alexander, his son, succeeded to his throne and avthority over Greece; and after a short interval marched with thirty thousand foot and five thousand horse to Sestus, and thence crossed the Hellespont into Asia, with a view to the conquest of the Persian empire.
Having defeated the Persian army at the battle of Granicum, away in the day of the wrath of Jehovah. Job, xx. 28. See an interesting account of Sidon, the modern Seyda, in Buckingham's Travels ainongst the Arabs, pp. 385–433. * Prid. i. 554.
† Prid. i. 559. | It is observed by Diodorus, that, in this solemnity, the images of twelve gods and goddesses being carried before him into the theatre, he added his own for the thirteenth, dressed in the same pompous habit, whereby he vainly arrogated to himself the honour of a god; but he being slain as soon as this image entered the theatre, this very signally proved him to be a mortal. Prid. j. 56).
§ Prid. i. 563.
I am Jehovah, when I shall have executed judgth of allegame one and the other betrayed the Zidonians, and are 104. Old Tym to come into the city, which was well fortified twel by Nebodinus
mselves thus be The Tycan xxxi. 30.
the dead carcass of the man you have slain ? And the
During the same pontificate, Ochus, who had
Jos. ii. 128. Antiq. xi. 7,
† Prid. i. 547. This was probably one of the oldest cities in t named after the eldest son of Canaan. (Gen. x. 15. 19. a great city. (Josh. xi. 8. xix. 28.) She was the mot! (Is. xxiii. 12. Newton, i. 175.); and she is included denunciations against both Old and New Tyre; but th seems peculiar to herself, and to foretel this very sieg “Son of man set thy face against Zidon, and prophesias mi scrii say, Thus saith the Lord God, Behold I am againsd, no dubte, in and I will be glorified in the midst of thee, and the shall be sanctified in her. For I will send into two go out blood into her streets, and the wounded shall be ju the pristaline of her by the sword upon her on every side, and this pople in while I am Jehovah." Ezek. xxviii. 21, 22, 23. “Tenne king of Zidon, and he had with him Mentor, the thousand Greek mercenaries; but on the approach sea. The inhabitants, find their houses, set fire
their own hen forty thousand men
ven and child and last of all,
himself to death vast quantiti
er in Sidon when pened, and
4 down by the fue the ashe
great sums of
the goods of
I his companions proceeded to an ut Jerusalem, called Sapha. As soon is extraordinary assemblage, instead
orders, he hastened toward Jaddua, .. saluted him with religious venerais own officers and army.
nerals, having enquired his reason under told him that he did not pay it to Jaddua's God; for that when he nia, and there deliberating with himcarry on his war against the Persians, .bt about the undertaking, this very per
habit, appeared to him in a dream, and "buy aside all thoughtfulness and diffidence and pass boldly over into Asia; promising
be bis guide in the expedition, and give , the Persians. And that therefore, on his .. and knowing by his habit, as well as
untenance, that he was the very same that it Dio, he assured himself from hence, that tont war under the conduct of God, and by his assistance, conquer Darius, and
jan empire, and succeed in all things con'ng to his desire; and that, therefore, in the - high priest, he paid adoration unto him.* mbracing Jaddua, he entered Jerusalem with 11, manner, and offered sacrifices to God, in
Jaddua having shewn him the prophecies ich predicted the overthrow of the Persian recian king, he asked what he could do to on of the ! in compliance with their
request, granted them the freedom of their country, laws, and religion, and that they should be exempted from paying tribute every sabbatical year.
When Alexander returned from his conquests in India to Babylon, he proposed to restore the temple of Belus, which had been destroyed by Xerxes; and the various nations composing his army were employed, in their turns, to clear away the immense ruins of the ancient structure, erected by Nebuchadnezzar. Amongst the other nations there were some regiments of Jews, but they one and all refused to work, alleging that their religion would not allow them to assist in the restoration of an idolatrous temple. At first, Alexander was exceedingly angry, and inflicted severe punishments upon them for their disobedience, but finding them invincible in their purpose, and admiring their constancy, he gave them as a reward their free discharge, and sent them all home into their own country.†
* Prid, i.571, 572. We bave inserted this relation from Prideaux, who has adopted it from Josephus, b. xi. and also from Jahn, i. 230. 232.; but as no mention is made either in Quintus Curtius, Diodorus Siculus, or Arrian, of Alexander's visiting Jerusalem at all, we confess we are not without doubts of its authenticity. Still, however, as it is clear that Alexander marched from Tyre to Gaza, which he besieged, and thence into Egypt, it perhaps is hardly probable he would have passed by Jerusalem. That he did visit Jerusalem, see Un. Hist. ii. 162.; and both Arrian and Curtius assert that Alexander took all the cities of Syria. Jahn (Heb. Commonwealth, i. 233.) alleges that Q. Curtius alludes to a similar transaction ; but there is nothing of the sort to be found in that author, although there is in the supplement of Freinshemius, book ii. chap. II. propè finem ; but which appears to be evidently transcribed from Josephus. Dr. Clarke treats this relation as authentic, but resers only to Josephus. Notes on Nehem. xii. ll.
+ Prid. i. 603. This relation, too, rests on the sole authority of Josephus. As he was no friend to the Samaritans, and we are in
By the conquests of Alexander, the thrones of Asia having been subverted, and its royal dynasties eradicated, on his decease, the supreme sovereign authority was vested in Aridæus, a bastard brother of Alexander, till Roxana's issue of a son should be able to assume the reigns of government; but Aridæus being an idiot, Perdiccas, another of Alexander's generals, was appointed a sort of regent, or protector over the whole empire ;* and all the immense territories of this mighty monarch, after a multitude of assassination and contention, were divided amongst his remaining general officers; in which division, Egypt was assigned to Ptolemy, and Syria, Phænicia, and Judea, to Laomedon.
On the death of Jaddua, the high priest, who held that office twenty-one years, it devolved upon his son, Onias.
Ptolemy conceiving the great advantage it would be to his Egyptian territories, to secure the frontier provinces of Syria and Phænicia, invaded the dominions of Laomedon, and soon made himself master of the whole, except Judea. The Jews, however, shewing upon this occasion a just regard for their oath of allegiance, refused to submit to him; whereupon, Ptolemy laid siege to Jerusalem, and took it by assault on the sabbath day, the inhabitants to their honour, even if upon a mistaken principle, refusing to break the commandment of Jehovah, even in their own defence; unlike modern Christian commanders, who but too often seem to select the sabbath by choice, for their offensive warfare. Having taken the city, Ptolemy carried more than one hundred thousand of the Jews captives into Egypt; but reflecting upon more consi
formed some of that nation bad joined the Macedonian army, but not that any of the Jews had, is it not probable they were Samaritans, and not Jews, who made this noble stand? Prid. I. 606.
+ Prid. i. 606-613. # Prid, i. 612.