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ALABAMIANS IN THE CRATER BATTLE. horses, we met Col. Weisiger, of the Twelfth Vir

ginia, wounded in the side, and supported by a solHON, GEORGE CLARK, WACO, TEXAS.

dier. The Colonel who was then in command of I have read with much interest and pleasure the

Mahone's Brigade, told us of the charge of the Virarticle in your January number by Col. Geo. T.

When we

ginians, which had already occurred. Rogers, entitled “The Crater Battle, 30th July,

reached the scene, we were met by Gen. Mahone, 1864," and as I was a participant in said battle,'i accompanied by Gen. Bushrod Johnson, and Gen. deem it due to history that some inaccuracies which

Mahone gave directions as to how he wished the

It was then about eleven a.m. have crept unintentionally into Col. Rogers'account

brigade formed. should be corrected. I do this with the feeling of

The rifle pits to the left of the crater (enemy's an old comrade for the Colonel, whom I knew and

right) were then held by the Virginia brigade, highly respected in those historic days. Doubtless

their right resting at the crater. I was sent by the long time which has intervened since the occur

Gen. Saunders to look over the ground, and went

forward to the rim of the crater. I there met and rences he relates, added to the fact that a regimen

talked with Lieut. Col. W. H. Stewart, and other tal line officer could not know particulars relating to the movements of other commands than his own,

acquaintances in the Virginia brigade, including must account for the injustice he does "Wilcox's

Col. Rogers, if my memory is correct, both of whom

I knew well, having served with them upon Genold Brigade," from Alabama, then commanded by the brave young Saunders.

eral Court Martial the preceding winter. I found I was a Captain in the Eleventh Alabama Regi

that while the Virginians had done their part of ment, and at the date of this battle was serving

the job thoroughly, and were holding their positemporarily on the staff of Brig.-Gen. Saunders, as

tions heroically, Wright's Georgia brigade had assistant adjutant general. I was also flag of truce

failed to carry the trenches on the right of the officer after the battle, and with Col. Jas. F. Doran,

crater (enemy's left), and the crater itself was still Twenty-fourth New York Cavalry (dismounted),

in possession of the enemy, filled not only with newho was the Federal truce officer, had charge of

gro troops, but also with a much larger per cent of the burial of the dead on the morning of August

white troops, as was demonstrated after the capture. 1st, 1864. My opportunities for knowing the move

I returned and reported the situation to Gen. Saunments of the brigade were therefore excellent, and

ders. At this time our brigade was resting on their the nature of the work before us on that day so

arms just east of a little branch or marsh under the

hill. strongly impressed itself upon me that I retain un

I was instructed by Gen. Saunders to pass til this day a most vivid recollection of all incidents

along the line, count the men, and inform them, as which came under my observation.

well as company commanders, that our attack would The regular position of the brigade at that time

begin at two o'clock, upon the firing of two signal was a short distance west of the right angle in our

guns from the batteries in our rear—that every defensive works, near the plank road. On the

man must be ready to rise and go forward at morning of the explosion, about three o'clock, the

the signal, slowly at first, and then at a double

quick Brigadier-General was aroused by an order from

rose the hill-that our Division Headquarters to get his men up and man

object was to recapture the rifle pits on our the works. This was immediately done.

As our

right as well as the crater, and for this purregular battalion of sharpshooters (under com

pose the brigade would be compelled to right obmand of Major James M. Crow, of Florence, Ala.) lique after starting so as to cover the points of athad been relieved from skirmish duty on the night

tack-no man was to fire a shot until we reached before, Gen. Saunders became anxious as his

the works, and arms must be carried at a rightskirmish line, and directed me to see that Maj.

shoulder shift. I was also instructed by Gen. SaunCrow went to the front with his battalion relieving

ders to inform the men that Gen. Lee had notified our pickets. This was done. The General and

him that there were no other troops at hand to restaff were sitting on the gallery of a little house

capture the works, and if this brigade did not sucwhich constituted our headquarters when the explo- again and renew the assault, and that if it was

ceed in the first attempt, they would be formed sion occurred. Immediately a tremendous bombardment opened from the enemy along the whole

necessary, he (Gen. Lee) would lead them. As a front. We galloped to the works, and took posi

matter of fact, a large portion of the army was on tion in the rear of the center of the brigade, near a

that day east of the James river. These directions

of Gen. Saunders were communicated at once to company of Washington Artillery. The bombardment was kept up an hour or two, perhaps longer,

every officer and man, and by actual count made by when Gen. Lee came to where we were and held a

me the brigade had in line 632 muskets. short talk with our brigade commander. About an

At the boom of the signal guns the Alabama briyhour, or perhaps two hours, after this, and after the ade rose at a “right-shoulder shift," and moved bombardment had slackened, we were ordered to forward in perfect aleignment--slowly at first, unquietly leave the works, retire to a ravine in the til we came in sight of the enemy and received his rear, and form. This was done, and nothing but

first fire, and then with a dash to the works. For the artillery was left in the line we abandoned. a moment or two the enemy overshot us and did no From Col. Rogers' description of the route pursued damage, but as we reached the works many were by his brigade to the scene of the explosion, we struck down and the gaps were apparent, but the must have traveled the same route.

On our way

alignment remained perfect. It was as handsome there, the general and staff having abandoned their il charge as was ever made on any field, and could





not have been excelled by the “Guard” at Waterloo, teries on James river. We withdrew from this pounder Ney.

sition on the night Richmond was evacuated. On reaching the works the real fight began. Our 2. The Alabama Brigade came up at the “Mine" men poured over into the crater and the ring of and did the work of capturing the crater, which steel and bayonet in hand-to-hand fight began.

was the

purpose of the movement, but it was not a Men were brained by butts of guns, and run through "walk-over," as the Colonel terms it. It was one of with bayonets. The brave Saunders (who sleeps the hardest fought fields of the war, and brilliant in Hollywood) had a regular duel with a big buck success was wrenched by valor from serious danger. negro, and both proved bad marksmen. Adjutant Doubtless our friends, the Virginians and the Fonville, of the Fourteenth Alabama (the bravest Georgians peppered away at the enemy during the soiuier ever under fire), was killed by a negro sol- charge, but their fire did not“ keep down all heads," dier. So was Lieut. John W. Cole, of the Eleventh as our lists of killed and wounded attest, nor did Alabama, and many other brave officers and men. they go down into the crater like the Alabamians This melee kept up for at least fifteen minutes, the did. With a handful of men more than treble its enemy fighting with desperation because they were numbers were captured, the lines re-established, impressed with the idea that no quarter would be and what promised at early dawn the closing victogiven. The credit of capturing the crater and all ry of the war for the enemy, was turned into disasits contents belongs to Morgan Smith Cleveland, trous defeat by a few ragged Alabamians. I once then Adjutant of the Eighth Alabama Regiment, asked a prominent officer on Gen. Grant's staff, who now fills a patriot's grave at Selma, Alabama. what the General thought ought to have been done I am told that his grave is unmarked, if not un- with Burnside for this failure at the Mine. He reknown, and that he was buried by charity; and I plied without hesitating, “He ought to have been hang my head in humiliation if this information is shot." true. Morgan Cleveland was as humane and tender as he was brave. Standing in the crater, in the Sketch by the late Judge S. A. Wilson, of Texas: midst of the horrid carnage, with almost bursting Judge Clark was born at Eutaw, Ala., July 18. heart he said to a Federal colonel who was near 1841. His Father, James B. Clark, was a distinhim, "Why in the h-- don't you fellows surrender?" and he put the accent on the cussword. The yankee replied quickly, "Why in the h- don't you let us?" A wink being as good as a nod, either to a blind horse or a brave soldier, the effect was instantaneous. The enemy threw down their arms, marched out as prisoners, some being killed or wounded by their own cannon as they filed past where I stood, and the day was saved as a glorious heritage for the Southern soldier and those who come after him. I remember helping Gen. Bartlett, of Boston (I think Bartlett was his name), who was trying to get out on two muskets inverted and used as crutches. I could see no evidence of physical pain in his face, and remarked to him that he must have nerves of steel, as his leg was shot away. He smiled and replied that he had lost his real leg at Williamsburg two years before, and the leg he had just had shattered was a cork leg.

This is a brief account of the Alabama Brigade on that day-too brief and imperfect to do even partial justice to my old comrades, most of whom have already "passed over the river." It was a gallant band, and many of them sleep their last sleep in the soil of old Virginia, having given their lives in defense of its firesides. I am sure the gallant Col. Rogers, himself a brave Virginian, would not intentionally do them the slightest injustice if he knew

And yet his article, without so intending perhaps, minimizes its services in these particulars:

i. Mahone's Brigade did not take charge of the line between the Appomattox and the James a lit

JUDGE GEORGE CLARK, tle after the battle of the crater, but the whole of Mahone's division, including Forney's Alabama guished lawyer of that State for fifty years, and Brigade (Wilcox's old Brigade), Harris' Mississippi served for many years as one of its chancellors. Brigade, Finnigan's Florida Brigade, Sorrell's His mother was Mary Erwin, of Mount Sterling, (Wright's) Georgia Brigade, and Mahone's Vir- Ky., where his parents married in 1825. ginia Brigade, took charge of that line in February, George was the seventh son in a direct line. He 1865; the Alabama Brigade occupying the extreme was within three months of his graduation at the left of the line, its left resting at the Howlett Bat- University of Alabama, when at the bombardment of Fort Sumter he joined the Eleventh Alabama at Amelia C. H., since the evacuation of RichRegiment (Col. Sydenham Moore) as a lieutenant mond, in which he was successful. Nothing from in Company B. He went with his regiment to Vir- the West except the confirmation of the fall of ginia, which joined Gen. Johnston at Winchester Selma, Ala. in the early part of July, 1861. Went across the April 9.---Captain R. C. Stewart and I went near mountains on July 18th to the relief of Beauregard, Pikeville to-day to purchase horses. I obtained but reached the battlefield too late to participate in


one. Saw Gen. Dibrell, Dr. McCord, and my the engagement of July 21st. Served with his reg- brother, Dr. J. L. Ridley, with whom we spent iment in continuous service until the close of the the night. war at Appomattox, taking part in the defense of

April 10.--This morning, before day, Dibre!l's Yorktown, and the battles of Seven Pines, Gaines' Mill, Sharpsburg, Fredericksburg, Chancellorsville,

scouts came in with two or three officers prisoners, Gettysburg, the Wilderness, Spottsylvania C. H.,

who stated that they had just received orders to

march, and had gone to a house to bid some ladies Hanover Junction and Cold Harbor, the siege of

good-bye when our scouts captured them. ReturnPetersburg, and numerous engagements. He was wounded at Gaines' Mill , at Gettysburg, and again place and the different corps moving ed to camp and found the consolidation had taken

toward at Reaves' Station, and escaped from Appomattox Raleigh. The army was divided into three corps, in company with Gen. Gary, of South Carolina.

Stewart, Hardee, and Stephen D. Lee. They broke through Sheridan's lines on the morn

Stewart's corps now is composed of Loring's divising of the surrender.

ion, made up of his old division, Patton AnderAfter the war he studied law under his father,

son's and Walthall's. Walthall is now commandwas admitted to the bar in 1866), removed to Texas

ing McLaw's and Anderson's, what was known as in 1867, located at Waco in 1868, where he has

Taliaferro's Division. Enemy advancing on us rapsince resided. Was a member of the Democratic

idly. Camp to-night west of Beaver Mill Bridge. State Executive Committee in 1872, Secretary of State and Attorney General 1874-6, Commissioner ing and pitched tents three miles west of Raleigh

April 11. Started about seven o'clock this mornto codify the laws of Texas 1876-8, Judge of Court

on Hillsboro road. Have heard nothing of enemy's of Appeals 1879-80, since which time he has prac

progress. As we passed the female Seminary in ticed law at Waco. Judge Clark was married to

Raleigh the beautiful schoolgirls greeted us warmMiss Mary Paul Johns, of Austin, and they have two lovely children, a boy and girl.

ly. Each one had a pitcher of water and goblet. We drank, took their addresses, and had a big time.

It was a terrible task to get Terry Cahal, Caruthers, LAST BATTLES OF THE WAR.

Stewart, and the other members of the staff away

from them. On this march my faithful boy, HanniB. L. Ridler's Journal- -Continued. Smithfield, bal, gladdened us with a rich' box of edibles from N. C., April 6, 1865.-- It never rains but it pours, my old grandmother at Oxford. and still the bad news comes--Selma, Ala., we hear April 12.- Started this morning at sunrise and officially, has been given up to a raiding party. landed this evening one mile east of Durham Depot, 'Tis said, too, that a column of nine thousand eighteen miles from Hillsboro. Gen. Johnston left yanks have entered it. We heard to-day from Raleigh on the cars to meet President Davis at Richmond that Lee lost all of his artillery but two Greensboro, and placed Gen. Stewart in command battalions, supposed to have been about 500 pieces of two corps, Lee's and his own, until his return. Of his loss in men we have not yet heard. Gen. S. Rumors of Lee's capture in Virginia are rife, but takes the death of his little boy at Auburn, Ala., not believed.

Notwithstanding his stern military April 13.- Camped this evening two miles east characte, he is a tender hearted man.

of Hillsboro. Gen. Johnston returned from GreensApril 7. I neglected to state that Gov. Vance boro. More rumors of Lee's capitulating, and and many ladies from Raleigh_came down to the some are led to believe. review of Hardee's corps. Everything went off April 14. To-day we passed through Hillsboro. well (aside from our decimated ranks). The ladies Saw a good many nice looking young ladies. cheered Gen. Hoke's division of North Carolinians. Crossed Eno River this side two miles and Haw's We hear the report of the yankees being at Selma River 16 miles. Camped near Squire Hoke's in a contradicted, but the telegrams in yesterday's pa- beautiful grove. Saw a Dr. Brown directly from pers and reports heretofore are too true. President the artillery in Lee's army. He says "that after Davis issues an address to the people of the Con- thirty hours travel from Farmville about forty pieces federacy imploring them to stand by him in re- of artillery halted at Appomattox Station to cook verses, and to be not disheartened, for he'll steer us and feed. The yanks overtook them but were resafely through.

pulsed with grape and canister; that during the April 8.-Captain R. C. Stewart, A. D. C., ar night Gen. Lawton received a dispatch from Lee rived to-day; reports the wagon train in ten miles. stating that he could be of no more use to him if He has been on leave of absence and, in fact, all of he could not join him by Sunday morning, and the staff but Cols. Gale, Sevier and myself. Maj. to cut down Caissons, bury the guns, divide the men Lauderdale, Qr. Mr., and Assistant A. & I. Gen. into squads of four or five, and let them make their Minnick Williams Iso came to-day. Prisoners

way out." taken state that Sherman will commence his move- April 15.--Our march to-day is only twelve miles ment upon us Monday. Lee has had another fight in consequence of heavy roads, causeil from rains.

very hard.

Have passed old Chapel Hill University, sacred to skirmish line. The enemy in Anderson's front was me as my father's alma mater, and now Graham, repulsed after a hot contest, but a glance to our left and camp to-night at Smith's Store. The farther disclosed the fact that the serried ranks of blue had we go the worse the news we get from Lee's army. swept away the skirmish line and were approaching Gen. S. succeeds in having a barrel of peach the bridge with rapid steps. It was at this brandy and a half box of tobacco given him by a critical juncture that Gen. Hardee dashed down Mr. Vaughn. Yum! yum! ha! ha! we are taking the road in the direction of the bridge, followed it along for medical purposes. Dr. Smepton in- by the 8th Texas and 4th Tennessee cavalry. vited the General and staff to his house this morn- These two regiments continned at a gallop in coling to partake of a mint-julep. To our surprise, umns of four to very near the bridge, then faced to w found he had sugar, coffee and ice, things the right in line and with a yell bore down upon scarce in these times. Every time we get into a the advancing Federals in as brilliant a charge as drive of this kind Gen. S. destroys Cahal's, Ca- the war furnished. They were too few in number ruthers' (his sons) and my prospects by telling to cover the entire front of the advancing Federals, these fellows that, and "sometimes the older but just as they gave an initial to the repulse, members of my staff partake of a julep, but the Cummings' Infantry Brigade, numbering about 800 younger members never touch it.” We just had to muskets, coming on the field at a dead run, struck look at that julep and "sigh" for a smile." Dib- that part of the Federal column not covered by rell's Cavalry has been suddenly transferred to rear. Baxter Smith's troopers, and with a timely enfilade They say he has gone to Greensboro to repel a raid. from the 10th Confederate, occupying Anderson's It turned out that they were to escort Jefferson extreme left, sent the attacking column back in Davis farther south.

beautiful confusion. A good number of prisoners April 16--March eight miles and camp in four were brought in by the different commands enmiles of Greensboro. Have just heard Lee's fare

Have just heard Lee's fare- gaged. The writer had an interesting conversation well address, he and his army were captured. He with several of the prisoners, but being short on says that greatly outnumbered as he was, contend- Dutch, while they were utter strangers to English, ing against such wonderful force, he was bound to history will lose the result of the interview. yield without further loss of blood. What next? After the repulse our infantry occupied the ex

posed position and our army was withdrawn across Judge G. K. Miller, who was captain of Company

the bridge about nighfall. At Bentonville, the A, Eighth Confederate Cavalry: Talladega, Ala.,

last battle of the army of Tennessee, its halfchd, March 7, 1895.-Having read the account of the re

ragged, footsore, hungry veterans displayed all of pulse of the Federals on our left at Bentonville on

the high soldierly qualities that had distinguished

them from Belmont to Averysboro, and no part of the afternoon of March 21st, 1865, as given by Capt. Ridley in the January number of the VET

it with more signal gallantry than the 8th Texas ERAN, and that of Capt. Guild in the February

and 4th Tennessee Cavalry and the heroic remnant

of Cummings' Brigade. number, as an observer of the whole movement that probably saved our army from disastrous defeat, permit me to say that both are partly correct

M. S. Kahle, Adjutant Pat Cleburne Camp, No. in the accounts given. Each tells a portion of the

88, Cleburne, Texas, sends resolutions concerning story, but not all. Johnston's lines at Bentonville

the life and character of the late M. A. Otis of that described a semicircle, with each wing resting on

camp: He was one of the true to honor, to truth a small but deep and nonfordable stream, spanned

and to the cause he loved so well, and his life was by but one bridge located some three or four hundred yards from our extreme left. Temporary en

freely offered for its success. His hand was always trenchments had been thrown up by our infantry,

ready to assist the fall; he was the friend of the

poor, and he was beloved by all nien who knew him. covering all of the left wing with the exception of

We loved him living, we love him dead. But he about one quarter mile nearest the river. This

is not dead: space was open woods, and on the afternoon in question was occupied by a mere skirmish line of

“He sleeps, but in that sleep beneath the sod, dismounted Cavalry. About 2 p. m., Anderson's

No dreams shall come, those dreams that

banish sleep; Brigade of Allen's Cavalry division, composed of the 3rd, 8th, and 10th Confederate, and 5th Georgia

No watchers there, naught save the eyes of God. regiments, came on the field and were dismounted

To watch this slumber long and still and deep. and placed in position behind the entrenchments

Then mourn him not as dead; he cannot die, from which infantry had been withdrawn and

And mourn him not as sleeping in that day, moved to the right. That part of the line thus oc

He wakes, he lives, not far in yonder sky, cupied by Anderson's Brigade was immediately to

But near us, though unseen, he walks to-day." the right of the skirmish line mentioned, and, be- Resolved, That Pat Cleburne Camp, No. 88, of ing on more elevated ground, afforded the writer a Confederate Veterans, extend to the bereaved loved good opportunity to observe the movement to turn ones our heartfelt sympathy in their loss of the deour left and capture the bridge.

voted husband, the kind and atfectionate father. About 3 p. m., in the midst of a pelting rain, a Resolved, That a copy of the above resolutions heavy column from the 17th Federal corps was be sent to the family of deceased comrade, also that hnried against our left, covering the front occupied a copy be sent to the CONFEDERATE VETERAN and by Anderson's Brigade and that of the unprotected to our city papers. M. S. KAHIE, J. L. MORGAN.


WHAT A KENTUCKY WOMAN HAS DONE. the Confederates of the county to organize for such

purposes, and she worked and toiled alone. Her The VETERAN presents the picture and sketch of

efforts have been crowned with success in having Mrs. Jennie Catherwood Bean, “Our Lady” of the

the Clark County Confederate Veteran Association Clark County Kentucky Confederate Veteran Asso- fully organized. She has also organized an association. She was born in Lexington fifty-six years

ciation of their sons and daughters. She has a ago, and soon after moved to Winchester, where complete list of the Confederate dead buried in the

Winchester Cemetery, and is perhaps the only pershe has ever since resided. Her father, John Cath

son who knows where every brave fellow rests. She knew personally nearly every one, always attends the burial of a comrade, and marks the grave with a card and the colors.

She once said the only epitaph she desired was, "She never forgot the Confederate soldier on tented field, behind prison bars, nor under the sod.”



Frances," a school girl of 1864, writes to the VETERAN of that awful battle at Franklin, which was fought late into the night:

I was a pupil in the old Franklin Female Institute—the alma mater of so many brilliant women, the mothers and grandmothers of the present generation.

Nashville owes a debt of gratitude to at least two of its graduates, Misses Fannie and Martha O'Bryan.

At the time of these reminiscences, Miss Walker (now Mrs. J. P. Hanner), was the principal. The pupils numbered about 175, and as wide awake set of Southern girls as could be found.

While we were trying to concentrate our minds on our books one ear was always open to the varied sounds of the fife and the rattle of drums, the clatter of horses' hoofs, and the electrifying notes of the bugle. We were allowed always to run to the front gate to see soldiers pass. If they were "our boys," we waved our bonnets and handkerchiefs—if

they were yankees, and we watched Buell's army of MRS. JENNIE CATHERWOOD BEAN.

thousands pass, we looked and felt dismayed.

On an ever memorable day, the 30th of Novemerwood, was for many years clerk of the Clark ber, we assembled at school as usual. Our teachers' County Court, and was one of its best citizens-a faces looked unusually serious that morning. The true Southerner in every sense of the word; he Federal couriers were dashing hither and thither. reared his children, boys and girls, in the pure The officers were gathering in squads, and the cavJacksonian school.

alry, with swords and sabres clanking, were drivThe war was no dream, but a true reality to her. ing their spurs into their horses' flanks and galShe ardently believed in the sacred principles her loping out to first one picket post and then another father and friends fought for. She is a worshiper of on the roads leading south and southwest of town. the memories of our cause, of the valor of our brave The bell called us in the chapel. We were told to soldiers and heroic leaders. To her loyalty to the take our books and go home, as there was every inliving, we owe the organization of Clark County dication that we would be in the midst of a battle Veteran Association.

that day. In 1871, grieved to see the graves of the seven At four o'clock that afternoon I stood in our front brave comrades in the silent city so neglected, with door and heard musketry in the neighborhood of that loving devotion that ever characterizes her, Col. Carter's on the Columbia pike. To this day I she prepared the garlands, and with a few school can recall the feeling of sickening dread that came children as her companions, in the softened glow of over me. As the evening wore on, the firing bea May evening, knelt at each grave, and lovingly came more frequent, and nearer and louder; then and tenderly covered them with beautiful flowers. the cannon began to roar from the fort. Every year since, through sunshine and rain, she

My father realizing that we were in range of the goes on “Memorial Day" with evergreen garlands guns from both armies told us to run down into the and beautiful flowers to decorate every grave. And cellar. We hastily threw a change of clothing into now her loving hands twine cypress, cedar, and a bundle and obeyed at once. My mother, who flowers for thirty-two instead of seven.

never knew what fear meant in her life, was a little with untiring zeal and devotion, she called upon reluctant to go and leave the upper part of the

For years,

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