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THE FATHER OF OUR COUNTRY.
a past year or so, upon a beautiful spot in a suburb
of the town, which was a favorite resort by her. The The excellence and
mother of Washington reared two step-sons, four of eminence of the first
her own, George being the eldest, and a daughter. great character in our
Mt. Vernon, when George Washington was in his National history lost its
teens, belonged to his half-brother, Lawrence, who prominence, in a meas
took much pride in and advanced him in every posure, by the second great
sible way. He wanted to make George a midshipman American Revolution.
in the British navy, but Joseph Ball, Esq., his uncle, Even the South, with
who had studied law in London, opposed it; and so, never ceasing pride that
instead, the young gentleman became a civil engineer. George Washington was
When but sixteen years of age, he was given impora Virginian and promi
tant appointments by Lord Fairfax to survey extennent in founding South
sive landed estates, and afterwards, through the Fairern institutions, became
fax influence, he was made the Public Surveyor. 80 intensely concerned
George Washington was in his twenty-first year for success of Jefferson
when his brother Lawrence died, leaving him in Davis, General Lee, and
charge of an infant daughter, and his sole heir if the other representatives in
child should die. He had a year or so before his maintaiping their independence as States that she death procured the position for George of Adjutantceased to celebrate, as in former times, the natal day
General for the Northern District of Virginia. of the "father of his country," who was indeed first
Fortune favored Washington in every way. He in war, first in peace, and first in the hearts of his possessed wealth and fine military prominence at an countrymen.” On the other side, the northern people early age. He was fond of, and, of course, popular substituted Abraham Lincoln, Gen. Grant, and their subordinates, as characters of greatest concern.
Passing for a time the thrilling and awful experiences of the past third of a century, it seems fitting that we all should recur to our Washington and take mutual pride in the fame that he established as an American citizen.
The distinguished son of Augustine and Mary Ball Washington was born February 22, 1732, near Bridge's Creek, in Westmoreland County, Va. When baby George was three years old, his father moved his fam. ily to a place on the Rappahannock, opposite Fredericksburg, then a village. When George was eleven years old his father died, leaving a family of young children and a fine estate to the care of his widow, Mary, whose exemplary career has been the pride of Americans for a century and a half. Subsequently, Mrs. Washington moved into Fredericksburg. Visitors to the historic place are ever delighted to find the house in which she lived in excellent preservation. They may also see a monument, erected within Interior St. Peter's Church, Virginia, where Washington married
Martha Curtis, January 6, 1759). with the first ladies of his time. It is said that he was in love with Miss Mary Bland, who afterwards became the wife of “Light Horse Harry” and the mother of Robert E. Lee. Now and then critics bave insinuated against Washington's morality, but his life of heroic sacrifice marks him an upright.
When the Revolution began, Washington was, of course, a Rebel and concurred with Mr. Gadsden of South Carolina upon the determination to stand upon the broad ground of "Natural Rights." Resistance to Great Britain, it may be recalled, was strongest from North Carolina. Massachusette, however, led in the declaration that "a king who violates the chartered rights of his people forfeits their allegiance."
The story of the Revolution with Washington as the military leader is well known. The “Rebel” flag was the "stars and stripes." In this connection, it is consistent to revive a bit of history that should have
universal acceptance. In promulgating the patriotic MT. VERNON FRONT.-THE HOME
Declaration of Independence, we should not fail to give the highest praise to North Carolina for having because he commanded successfully the defensive done the same thing at Mecklenberg, May 29, 1775. army, but his patriotism induced sacrifices inmore than a year before July 4, 1776. On June 7, volving his entire personal estate, straining his credit 1776, Richard Henry Lee offered a resolution to to the utmost, and, when the war ended he was reimthe Congress that "the United Colonies ought, of bursed for the amount paid out by him nearly fifteen right, to be free and independent States." Wash- thousand pounds, but he neither charged nor received ington was very persistent in his plea for declaration any pay for his services. of independence "to secure foreign alliance."
Our President Davis, and our General Lee had a model in Washington. When Mr. Davis is being criticised for not making terms sooner, let it be remembered that our prospects for success were hardly as hopeless as were those of Washington's army. Gen. Lee followed quite often the methods of his noble, self-denying example. Hear Washington when resigning his commission to the Congress : “I consider it an indispensable duty to close this last act of my official life by commending the interests of our dearest country to the protection of Almighty God. Washington's career as President is not reviewed here.
The writer will be pardoned for expressing much sentiment upon this theme. His father was given the honored name Washington, and in his death left on boyhood's memory a very similar face. His first article for the press was written about a trip to Mt. Vernon, a little more than twenty.five years ago.
Frances Tavern, corner Broad and Pearl street, N. Y., in second floor,
corner room, Washington parts with bis officers, Dec. 4, 1783.
It is well to re-read the story of the Revolutionary war occasionally. The final success of American arms under Washington, must have been providential. When we consider how disobedience of orders by subordinates caused disasters, the incompetency and treachery of others whom he had trusted, at times of sorest depression, and then the inefficiency of the Continental Congress, the results seem indeed miraculous. No other event, perhaps, in the war was 80 shocking to Washington as the action of Benedict Arnold, who possessed not only his confidence but his affectionate regard. It depressed him sorely.
Washington had to be much more self-reliant than did Lee or Grant at any period of our later and greater war. The capture of Cornwallis at York. town was an achievement very similar to those of MT. VERNON VAULT-FOR GEORGE AND MARTHA WASHINGTON. "Stonewall Jackson's way,” when he dashed so often upon the Union forces unexpectedly and with such But for the inspiration of that visit there would disastrous results to them.
doubtless never have been founded a CONFEDERATE When the great war was over, and the horo was VETERAN, anyhow by the writer. He had the honor present before Congress to make a final report, he of being Commissioner for Tennessee to the centennial gave expression of the patriotism, and the unselfish- celebration of King's Mountain, (October 7, 1880), ness that had marked his career from the beginning. and has ever been gratified with John W. Daniel's He recommended in particular those who had contin- great oration on that occasion. He was at the ued with him in the service as "worthy of the favor. centennial celebration of Yorktown, heard
the able notice and patronage of Congress," and he con- oration by Mr. Winthrop, and heard Mr. Blaine read sidered it an indispensable duty to close the last act the order of the President, that the British flag be of his official life by "commending the interest of saluted, and there witnessed such an exhibition of our dearest country to the protection of Almighty firing from war ships as he had not witnessed in our God, and those who have the superintendence of them, four years of war. "He wituessed the centennial celeto his holy keeping." It is well to review the career bration of Washington's first inauguration as Presiof Washington, and the men of the South, yes, and dent on the Sub-treasury steps in New York, marked the men of the New England too, for they did noble then by a superb statue of Washington. He service. New England then was made up of a people was gratified to witness the homage paid that Virginmuch more similar to the South than it is now. ian, that great Statesman and patriot, by hundreds Washington was the father of the country not only of thousands. He has admired many statues of Wash
ington, and that magnificent monumentin Richmond. permitted me to buy an overcoat and a suit of gray Let us all learn lessons from the life of Washing- clothes. Returned to camp, only to be scolded by ton, who without example or guide established prin. Cols. Sevier and Gale, because I neglected them. ciples upon which so much of liberty and happiness March 30th.--Lieut. Terry Cahal returned this have been enjoyed.
evening from a long leave of absence, and brings All honor to Washington! Let the Capitol be us the intelligence that our wagons, which were left gilded and beautified while liberty lasts, and let that at Tupelo in February, will be here next week. He marble mark on the sky, the highest monument ever speaks of the kind treatment of the South Caroli. erected, stand as grateful tribute for sixty millions, nians towards him. Visited pickets to-day, by order and their children's children to the end of time. of the General; found them attentive.
To digress. Our troops took trains at Tupelo, LAST BATTLES OF THE WAR.-Continued.
Miss., after retreating from Nashville, and went via
Mobile, Montgomery, and Augusta; footed it through B. L. Ridley's notes from his journal, dated at Smith- Edgefield, Newbery, and Chester districts, s. c.;
thence boarded cars via Saulsbury, Greensboro, field, N. C., March 26, 1865.-General Bragg has been relieved from duty, it is said, at his own request, and
Raleigh to Smithfield to intercept Sherman, leaving his command, composed of a few North Carolina re
our transportation behind. It was a quick moveserves and Hoke's division, have been turned over to
ment to divert Sherman's course, hence we only got
to Bentonville with fragments of commands, and Hardee. This gives Hardee now a good command. Gen. Bragg still commands Department of North
made Smithfield the connecting point for the new
organization. Carolina, and left yesterday for Raleigh. No mov
March 316t.-Gen. Hood's report of operations ing. Orders anxiously awaiting the development of Sherman's movements. Dr. Lowe White tells me
from the time of his taking command at Atlanta that he has just heard of the death of his father,
until his succession by Johnston has just been remother, and little brother, caused by some disguised
ceived. He abuses a great many for tardiness and assassin, near Big Springs, Wilson county, Tenn.
dereliction of duty, and, I think, some unjustly.
Lieut. Gen. S. D. Lee arrived this evening with some Oh, the lingering agonies of the war! March 27th. Generals Cheatham, Clayton, and
of his troops. The balance fast coming—about six Walthall visited us this morning, and had their
thousand. This will ewell our ranks greatly, and minds quieted about the transportation which has
besides there are about 2,000 at Augusta, that have created so much anxiety for fear of excessive reduc
collected since he left. tion. Sent out this morning to learn the topography April 1st.–Senator Wigfall, of Texas, arrived at of this vicinity. This afternoon went with General
Johnston's quarters today. Maj. Gens John C. Stewart to depot, where we found Col. Allison, a Ten- Browy, of Tennessee, and Patton Anderson, of Flornessee Cavalryman, on his way westward with the body ida, reached us with a portion of their commands. of his son, who was killed a day or two ago near
Both had been absent on account of wounds; Goldsboro, trying to rescue some nice ladies from
Brown's last wound was received at Franklin, on the the clutches of the enemy. We saw a squad of forty
30th of November, 1864; Anderson's at Marietta. yanks, their prisoners. From their brazen looks,
April 2d.–Stoneman, it is said, is attempting to they consider us virtually whipped, and that our
reach the railroad, near Salisbury. Young's brigade complete overthrow is only a question of time. of cavalry are sent to meet him, and the soldiers that Numbers may subdue, but cannot conquer. Capt. Lee brought from Augusta are halted there. A cor. Charles F. Vanderford, ordinance officer is relieved dial reception awaits him. Heard to-day that Johnfrom duty with us, and now an assietant to army
ston had preferred charges against Hood for misrepordinance officer. We had a telegram from Gen. R. resentations in his report. E. Lee this morning. He says that Gordon took two April 3d.–To-day one or two other brigades of cavlines of the enemies' breastworks, but was compelled alry have gone after Stoneman. Hardee reviewed to give them up before night, and also the eight his corps of army this morning-Gen. Johnston wit. pieces of artillery they had captured. It was yester- nersed it. The postoffice of the army arrived yesterday stated officially that Maj. Gen. Howell Cobb day, glad news. Peace rumors rise again, but was in command of Department of Tennessee and laughed at here. Fighting supposed to be going on North Georgia, lately commanded by Gen. Hood. both at Mobile and Richmond. We have been living
March 28th.-Visited Raleigh to get an overcoat. for some days on shad, caught near Smithfield, exNo one but a North Carolinian allowed to call upon cellent to one unaccustomed to them. the State Quartermaster, but soldier.Jike I called April 4th.-I witnessed to day the saddest spectacle upon Gov. Vance-claimed kinship to North Caro- of my life, the review of the skeleton Army of Ten: lina on account of its being my father's birthplace. nessee, that but one year ago was replete with men, Old Governor Vance was so taken with my cheek and now filed by with tattered girmeuts, worn out that I got the order to his Quartermaster for the shoes, barefooted, and ranks so depleted That each smuggled goods.
color was supported by only thirty or forty men. March 29th.—Spent last night at Yarborough Desertion, sickness, deaths, hardships, perils and vi: House-miserably kept, and board $55.00 per day. cissitudes demonstrated themselves too plainiy upon The Capitol is made of imported granite, and excels that old army not to recur back to its history. Oh, any in the South, Tennessee Capitol excepted. The what a contrast between the Dalton review and his population of Raleigh nears five thousand. Maj. one! The march of the remnant was so slow-colors Hooper, Quartermaster, was exceedingly kind, and tattered and torn with bullets-it looked like a
funeral procession. The countenance of every spec- ley, his version of the affair, but the important part tator who saw both reviews was depressed and de- taken by the 8th Texas and the 4th Tennessee, as we jected, and the solemn, steru look of the soldiery was have detailed it, is correct. so impressive-Oh! it is beginning to look dark in the east, gloomy in the west, and like almost a lost
A YOUTH'S COMPOSITION UPON ROBT. E. LEE. hope when we reflect upon that review of to-day! April 5th.—The shades of sorrow are gathering
Master John Wilcox, Jr., age twelve, in "Seventh upon us-horrible rumors! We to-day have heard
Class” Nisbet School, Macon, Ga., January 18, 1895: of the distressing news that the fall of Richmond took place the first day of this month-understand
GEN, ROBERT E. LEE. that all the archives of the State were destroyed, Robert Edward Lee was born in Stratford, Westand that in the engagement Lieut. Gen. A. P. Hill moreland County, Va., January 19, 1807. was killed or captured, Heavens, at the gloom and His father's name was Richard Henry Lee, better how terrible our feelings! A city that has been pro- known as "Light Horse Harry.” When Robert was tected for four years now to succumb to the world's & boy he was kind, thoughtful and truthful. His minions—Lee has to give up and leave the bones of teacher said that it was a pleasure to teach him beour braves behind. About the three days' fight we cause he behaved so well. have not yet heard. It must be a great relief to Every day after school he would come home, hitch Grant to break up Lee's lipes about Richmond, "but the horses to the. buggy, arrange the cushions, put it is death to the frog.” Wigfall's comment upon his mother tenderly in and take her to ride. His Hood's report was very severe.
father died when he was only eleven years old, and his sister was off at school. He gave out the meals,
attended to the farm, and saw that the horses were Captain George B. Guild, present Mayor of Nash- taken care of. His mother said that he was both son ville, disagrees with Captain Ridley in his Diary, as and daughter to her. published in the January VETERAN.
He received his education at the West Point Mili. He refers to the closing scenes of the battle of Ben- tary School. He graduated in the year 1829 without tonsville, N. C., on the evening of the 21st of March, receiving a single reprimand and standing second in 1865, where the diary reports
a class of forty-six, when he was put on the engineer in large numbers appearing on our left flank was corps and sent to Florida to build forts. about to capture the bridge across the large creek At the beginning of the Mexican War he was asin our rear, which was the only means of escape signed to duty as chief engineer of the army under of our army, at which critical moment Capt. Ridley Gen. Wool, as captain. His abilities as an engineer says: "Cummings' Brigade, commanded by Colonel and his conduct as a soldier won the special recogni. Henderson, of the 420 Georgia, charged the enemy, tion of Gen. Scott, who attributed the fall of Vera driving them back," etc.
Cruz to bis skill. Now, Mr. Editor, if there is any thing on earth that When the civil war broke out he was asked to coman old soldier is jealous of, it is the reputation his mand the United States Army, but he said that he command made during the war, and he will not sit owed his first duty to his State. He wrote to the quietly by and see the honors that it won given to goveruor of Virginia and told him that he was others. I would not detract one particle from the at his service. He was then placed in command of gallantry of Cummings' Brigade, but if they were
the Army of Virginia, and was afterwards made present at this particular crisis I did not see them: commander in chief of the Confederate Army. He and there are a score or more of old soldiers in this fought bravely for four years, but at last was forced city wbo were on the ground and participated in the to surrender his army of eight thousand men to one movement, and will verify my version of the affair.
hundred and fifty thousand. He surrendered at About 3 o'clock on the evening in question, Gen. Appomattox Court House, on April 9, 1865. Mowers' division of the Federal Army had advanced He died at Lexington, Virginia, October 12, 1870, 80 far and unexpectedly on our left-rear as to after 'a useful life and a brave career, leaving a legacy threaten the bridge. Everything was in great con- of the grandest figure in modern history. fusion. Gen. Hardee came rushing down the road, and the first troops he came acrubs was a portion of
LETTER WITH THIRTY-FOUR DOLLARS. the Texas brigade (the 8th Texas and the 4th Tennessee cavalry regiments) commanded by Col. Baxter Smith. He at once ordered Col. Smith io charge the Gen. H. B. Stoddard, Bryan, Tex., February 11: enemy, which he did in gallant style, with these two The inclosed list and money order is the result of regiments, throwing Mowers' division into confusion the united work of Maj. J. W. Tabor, Drum Sergt. and driving them beck some distance. Then before
Then before J. W. Johnson, and Adjt. S. M. Derden. I am in. they could recover from the suddenness of the attack structed by these comrades to say that this list will or could realize that it was but a small troop of cavalry, be added to from time to time, and we hope to make some of our infantry cam i upon the scene and held the number at least seventy-five. As heretofore, no them in check until the army could recross the commission is charged, but if you desire, you might bridge, which it did hastily that evening and night. send a copy to Col. B. G. Baldwin, at this place, who Gen. Hardee accompanied us a portion of the way in at one time was Chief of Ordnance on the staff of the charge, and his son was killed at the head of our Gen. R. E. Lee, and to whom fortune has not been command.
kind since the days he wore the gray. A more galWe have read from other sources than Capt. Rid. lant officer never led a charge or faced a foe.
GEORGE PEABODY TO THE SOUTH. merchant prince. At the funeral services the Queen
of England was represented by General Gray, and
among the mourners were the Earl of Clarendon, HUNDREDTH BIRTHDAY OF THE GREAT PHILANTHROPIST.
Mr. Gladstone, the Prime Minister, the Lord Mayor,
sheriffs and undersheriffs of London; and among Few Americans pay respect to the memory of a the carriages that had followed the remains from man a quarter century after his death. The birth:
Eaton Square were those of the Queen and the Prince day of George Washington is four days later in the of Wales. What other American, what other mer. month than that of George Peabody, (63 years chant, had ever received such a burial? To be before) but this February VETERAN honors both.
mourned by the ruler, the princes, and the statesmen of a foreign nation, and to receive burial beside the kings, queens, statesmen, and men of letters of a long procession of centuries, in the noblest sanctuary yet reared by the hand of man-this surely was a tribute of respect and homage rarely paid to a plain citizen, and we may well feel a conscious pride in the fact that the man whose memory was thus hon. ored was an American,
And a little later there was another scene in this funeral drama whose solemn grandeur has never been surpassed. The remains of this "philan. thropist of two worlds” were to be conveyed to the land of his birth, and the vessel set apart for this service was the "Monarch," the noblest vessel in the Queen's navy; "and he who began life as a grocer's boy was to be borne to his transatlantic grave on as proud a bier as any dead king could have." To give added grandeur and dignity to this funeral cortege across the sea, the “Monarch" had for consorts an American and a French vessel that had been detailed for this service. Hon. Robert C. Winthrop, who was from the first the President of the Peabody Board of Trust until his death, said in the funeral oration :
Who, certainly, can contemplate the immediate close of this extraordinary life without rejoicing not only that it was so painless, so peaceful, so happy in itself; not only that it was so providentially postponed until he had been enabled once more to revisit his native land to completo his great American benefactions, to hold personal intercourse with those
friends at the South, for whose welfare the largest GEORGE PEABODY.
and most cherished of these benefactions were de. Mr. Peabody was born Feb. 18, 1795. While Wash- signed, and to take solemn leave of those to whom he ington was of the South, and Peabody of New Eng- was bound by so many ties of affection or of blood; land, the latter who had lived among our fathers was but that it occurred at a time and under circumbroad enough in his patriotism and philantrophy to
stances 80 peculiarly fortunate for attracting the give more to the South, because of her misfortunes by largest attention and for giving the widest impresthe war, than any man of any section.
sion and influence to his great and inspiring example? On the twentieth anniversary of Mr. Peabody's Mr. Peabody's parentage was humble, though he death, Nov, 4, 1889, Dr. William H. Payne, Chancel- came of sturdy, English stock, "with honesty inlor and President of the Peabody Normal College, grained in every fiber." While yet a mere boy he bewith which important position the College is still came a grocer's clerk in Danvers. Thence at the age benefited by his ability and zeal, delivered a memo
of eleven he went to Newburyport and engaged in rial address, extracts from which are here given:
business with his older brother; but in consequenca Twenty years ago today there died in the city of of a fire in 1811 he went to Georgetown, D, C., and London, at the age of seventy-four, a man whose spent some time. He was a volunteer in the war of fame as a philanthropist has filled two continents, 1812, and for a brief period served his country as a and in whose history we have a peculiar and personal common soldier. He became a partner with his uncle interest. On that day a midnight message was
Riggs in the wholesale drapery business. In 1815 flashed across ocean and continent, and struck sad.
they removed to Baltimore, where there was a rapid ness into the hearts of tens of thousands in Europe increase in the volume of business. In 1837 he beand America, where manifold deeds of mercy and
came a merchant and banker in London, and a few charity had made this man loved.
years later he was counted one of the world's merA day or two later there was opened in the world's
chant princes. proudest burial place, Westminster Abbey, a tempo- Further, in Dr. Payne's memorial address, he said: rary resting place for the mortal remains of this If George Peabody were now living, I feel sure that