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ABOLITIONIST. —With this word widely diver- are often classified as monopolists and antigent meanings are associated in different sections monopolists. of the country.

At the North an abolitionist is ANTI- RENTERS.—The anti - rent movement simply one who favors, or favored, the abolition bore a conspicuous part in the politics of New of slavery, and the name is in itself honorable. York during most of the decade prior to 1847. At the South it is a synonym for all that is It resulted from the attempt of the heirs of contemptible, mean, and dishonest, this in ad- General Stephen Van Rensselaer to collect rents. dition to its true derivative signification as Laws had been passed abolishing feudal tenures understood at the North. Many an affray has in 1779 and 1785; but the tenants of Van arisen in consequence of this divergence of Rensselaer-who by courtesy was styled the “Pameaning, and the consequent misunderstandings. troon" (a title never claimed) to the end of his The history of abolition is co-extensive with that long and useful life-still continued to enjoy the of the United States, the anti-slavery agitation farms upon which they lived on leases for life having begun before the Revolution, while Ver- tenures, or from year to year. Through the inmont abolished slavery within her borders in dulgence of the “Patroon " these tenants were 1777.

all in debt. When he died they resisted the ABSENTEEISM.—Adapted into American speech steps taken in the settlement of his estate, to from the Irish “ National” vocabulary, and gen- collect rents, and complained that these semi. erally used in this country with reference to feudal land tenures were totally inconsistent wealthy Americans who reside abroad.

with the spirit and genius of republican instituALBANY REGENCY.-So called from the resi- tions. When the matter was pressed, they armed dences of its members at the State capital of and disguised themselves as Indians, and offered New York. It was an association of Democratic such resistance to the civil officers that military politicians organized in 1820, and including in interference became necessary. The governor its early membership Martin Van Buren, Silas sent troops to quell the riotous proceedings, and Wright, John A. Dix, Dean Richmond, Peter the disturbances attracted national attention. Cagger, and many others. It absolutely, though The newspapers were full of the subject, it was unofficially, controlled the action of the party carried into politics, and then into the courts. In until 1854, when its opponents, having learned

the end, the State constitution of New York, in its methods, its power was broken.

1846, abolished all feudal tenures. The leases AMERICAN.-The “ American” party origi- were converted into freeholds—that is, the parnated in New York in 1844, its avowed object be- ties who had rented bought their farms, giving ing to oppose the usurpation of the city govern- mortgages ; and thus became freeholders instead ment by foreigners. Owing to the extreme of tenants. views of its leaders it fell into disfavor, but came ASHLANDERS. —A political club of rowdies to the front again in 1853, under the popular identified with Ashland Square in Baltimore, designation of “ Know Nothings" (2. v.). which city has been exceptionally prolific in

AMERICAN KNIGHTS.-Knights of the Golden names of this character, as “ Babes," “ PlugCircle (q. v.).


." “ Dead Rabbits," Blood-tubs," etc. ANTI-MASONRY.-A movement precipitated BALLOT-BOX STUFFING. - Originally practiced by the alleged murder of Morgan (9.v.) by in New York, where boxes were constructed the Free Masons in 1826. Wm. H. Seward, with false bottoms, so that an unlimited number Millard Fillmore and Thurlow Weed were of spurious ballots could be introduced by the among the leaders of the Anti-Masons, and party having control of the polling place. By the party wielded political power for several mutual consent of parties this is now almost imyears.

possible. ANTI-MONOPOLIST.-One who is opposed to BARBECUE (Spanish barbacoa, French barbe-d. existence of monopolies in the commercial world, queue).— To cook a large animal whole, over an on the ground that their political influence en- open fire. The French derivation suggests that dangers the liberty of the people. Legislators the goat, from beard to tail—de barbe-d-queue


-was the first victim of this species of cookery. organized a bolt.” The word derived this meanThe barbecue was formerly a conspicuous feature ing from its sporting application to a horse when of political meetings, and is still common at the he becomes unmanageable on the race track. South and West (see “ Burgoo.") This year it It is rarely used with its dictionary meaning in has reappeared in New York State, a genuine political connection, and when so used is barbecue having been held in Brooklyn.

generally misunderstood by the average reader. Bar'l (Barrel). -A wealthy candidate for office BOODLE.—A slang word adapted to political is said to have remarked, “ Let the boys know usage from the argot of counterfeiters. Origithat there's a bar'l o'money ready for 'em," or nally it meant the main portion of the counterfeit words to that effect. The use of the term in this money, and by an easy translation has come to sense became general about 1876.

mean a large roll of bills such as political manBARNBURNER.-A nickname given to certain agers are supposed to divide among their reprogressive New York Democrats about 1835, tainers. who were opposed to the conservative "Hunk- Boom.—Variously used as a noun or a verb. ers " (q. v.). The name is derived from the legend Derived, probably, from the nautical phrase of the Dutchman who set his barn afire in order “boom-out,” signifying a vessel running rapidly to kill the rats which infested it, the analogy be- before the wind. Within a few years it has ing that the Democrats in question would fain made its appearance in a variety of combinadestroy all existing institutions in order to cor- tions, as "the whole State is booming for Smith,” rect their abuses.

“the boys have whooped up the State to BLACK JACK.—An army nickname of General boom for Smith,” or “the Smith boom is ahead John A. Logan, given him because of his very in this State," etc., etc. dark complexion.

BORDER-RUFFIANS.—This came prominently BLEEDING KANSAS.-During the border troub- into use during the Kansas-Nebraska troubles les resulting from the passage of the Kansas of 1854-5, and was originally applied to bands Nebraska Bill (1854), there was fighting of a of voters who crossed the border from the slave more or less organized description, and many States in order to carry the elections in the Ter“ free soil" advocates were killed. “Bleeding ritories. Kansas” became a popular phrase with the Boss.—The political "Boss" is the leader Northern orators of the day, and was used scof- whose word is law to his henchmen. “Boss ” fingly by those on the other side. It is believed Tweed of this city is believed to have been the to have been originally coined to serve as a news- first to wear the title in a semi-official way. The paper headline.

phrase “Boss Rule" is said to have been inBLOODY CHASM.—“ To bridge the bloody vented by Mr. Wayne MacVeagh, and employed chasm was a favorite expression with orators by him in political speeches in Chicago. It is who, during the years immediately succeeding now in common use in this sense. Originally the Civil War, sought to obliterate the memory the word is Dutch (Baas), and is still used in New of the struggle.

York and vicinity in a semi-respectful way. BLOODY SHIRT.—This became the symbol POURBON.- A Democrat of the straitest sect. during the reconstruction period of those who A "fire-eater" (7.v.). Applied for the most part would not suffer the Civil War to sink into ob- to Southern Democrats of the old school. This livion out of consideration for the feelings of use of the word probably ante-dates the Civil the vanquished. To wave the bloody shirt " War, but no instance of such use has been found was to harrow up the exciting memories of the in print. Bourbon County, Kentucky, is popu

larly associated with this kind of Democrat, but Bolt.—Used as a verb to indicate the right we must look to the old Bourbon party in France of the independently minded to revolt against uncompromising adherents of political tradipartisan rule, as, “ He bolted the party nom- tion-for its true paternity. inations." Also pronominally, as “He has

CHARLES LEDYARD NORTON. (To be continued.)



SOLICITING VOTES IN 1758—The fol- [Perhaps Rhode Island was in sack-cloth lowing interesting item is copied from and ashes, bewailing her unjustifiable the Pennsylvania Gazette of Dec. 28, conduct. It is hoped that, by the next 1758. "From the London Magazine for anniversary, she will fully repent of all September, 1758. As many people are her misdemeanors ; be virtuous and honunacquainted with the Family of the late ourable, become a strong link in the brave Lord Viscount Howe, this adver- chain of union, and participate in all its tisment may inform them that he left joys.]-New York Packet, July 17, two brothers, the commodore, now Lord 1787.

PETERSFIELD Howe, and lieutenant-colonel Howe, at present with his regiment at Cape Bre- FRANKLIN COUNTY, PA., IN 1773– ton. So extraordinary an address from From a letter published in the Pennsylthe Mother of these truly noble Brothers, vania Magazine for October, 1884, we must strike every one with mingled Grief copy the following picturesque descripand Pleasure, and no doubt will have a tion: “It was in April, 1772, that I setdue effect upon the persons to home it is tled on this plantation. It is situated at addressed :

the distance of one hundred and fifty "To the Gentlemen, Clergy, Free- miles from Philadelphia, and is just as holders and Burgesses of the Town and far from Fort Pitt ; it lies in a large and County of the Town of Nottingham : beautiful valley, which runs all through

As lord Howe is now absent upon the Pennsylvania, Maryland and Virginia ; publick service, and lieutenant-colonel it consists of about four hundred and Howe is with his regiment at Louisburg, thirty acres, and there was a house of it rests upon me to beg the favour of two stories high, and office house upon your votes and interests that lieutenant- it. The house is built of square blocks colonel Howe may supply the place of of wood, worked or indented in one anhis late brother as your representative other; it is well plastered, so that it is in parliament.

warm enough, and I have six convenient Permit me, therefore, to implore the rooms in it. My plantation, which I call protection of every one of you, as the Cockerhill, after the name of the farm mother of him, whose life has been lost where my father lived and died, and in the service of his country.

where I lived so long (near Glasgow, CHARLOTTE Howe.' Scotland, a short distance from CrookHAMBURG, N. J.

M. W. L. ston Castle), consists wholly of limestone

land, and in general, limestone land is SULKY LITTLE RHODY-Extract of a reckoned the best in the country. I letter from Newport, to a gentleman in bless God that I came here and I heartBoston, dated July 5, 1787. “ Yesterday ily thank every man of you who encourbeing the Fourth of July—how was it aged me, and helped me to get the betcelebrated in Boston ? Here, every one ter of that that a man is under when he was to his farm and to his merchandize.” is to venture over so wide a sea."


NO MORE WAR: A PROPHECY FOR 1761 It is not sufficient to keep silent. You

THE PROPHETIC NUMBERS of Daniel should be attentive, seem to be interestand John calculated ; in order to show ed, and not wear the expression of a the Day of JUDGMENT for this first age martyr. There are those whose mien of the Gospel, is to be expected ; and when they listen seems to say : ‘Will he setting up the Millennial Kingdom of ever get through and let me give breath Jehovah and his Christ. By Richard to the words of wisdom !'or, ‘Poor me, Clarke, minister of the Gospel of Jesus how long will this torture last !' or, Christ. 'He that hath ears to hear, let ‘When you get through, I'll show you in him hear.' AMEN. (In which is pre- a word or two what nonsense you talk!' dicted - The anger of God against the Such listeners are generally persons that wicked in the year 1759'-God will be think their utterances much more heavily known by many in the year 1760, and freighted with wisdom than other people this will produce a great war.

think them.” Asia, Africa and America will tremble in the year 1761.

THE GARFIELD MONUMENT A great EARTHQUAKE over the whole The State Committee appointed by the world in 1763

Governor to collect funds in aid of the God will be universally known by all; Garfield National Monument at Cleve—Then general Reformation and Peace land, Ohio, of which Gen. James Grant for ever ; when the People shall learn Wilson is the chairman, have completed War no more.

their duty, by forwarding to the associaHappy is the man that liveth to see tion, of which ex-President Hayes is a this Day."]—Bradford's Pennsylvania prominent member, the sum of $10,Journal, May 10, 1759.

183.44, as New York's contribution to


the martyr's monument. This amount

was collected in the following thirtyTHE COUNTRY EDITOR— The printers eight counties, the other twenty-two havwish, as their Wood-Pile is already re- ing failed to respond to the committee's duced to freezing point, and will shortly appeal : be down to o, if not replenished, that Albany, Kings,

Queens, such of their customers as have promised

Cayuga, Lewis, Rensselaer,
Chautauqua, Madison, Richmond

Rockland, wood for the papers, may not neglect to Chenango, New York,


Cortland, improve the present good sleighing in

Niagara, Schenectady, Dutchess, Oneida,

Ontario, Sullivan, fulfilment of their engagements.—Cats

Fulton, Orange, Tioga, kill Packet, Feb. 4, 1793.


Hamilton, Oswego, Wayne,

Herkimer, Otsego,

Putnam, THE ART OF LISTENING—In the Men- The monument is now being erected tor, by Alfred Ayers, some very useful in Lake View Cemetery, Cleveland, on a hints are given in regard to conversation. commanding eminence, and will cost, “One must avoid interrupting,” says the when completed, the sum of one hundred author, and "one must learn to listen and fifty thousand dollars.

J. G. W.







CAPTAIN WASHINGTON—The follow- title, or reference where the book could ing item is from a Philadelphia newspaper be seen.

COLLECTOR of March 3, 1763 : “ Capt. Washington, in a Privateer belonging to Kingston

HARLEM HEIGHTS PROPERTY—Aaron [Jamaica] carried a Dutch sloop in Burr's advertisement of Real Estate for there."

sale on Harlem Heights in 1785. Where Can any of your readers give any in- was it exactly?

In Kollock's New York Gazetteer and formation of this member of the Washington family?

The Country Journal of July 1st, 1785, MINTO appears the following: "To BE SOLD

THE FARM on the Heights of Harlem PUBLICATIONS OF THE CONTINENTAL belonging to the estate of the late John CONGRESS-In my search for copies of Watkins, containing about three hundred the publications issued by order of the acres, bounded by the East and North Continental Congress I have not met with Rivers, where are plenty of fish, oysters, the one authorized by the following res- &c., and is remarkably well watered by olution of October 26, 1778:

living springs. The healthfulness of the Resolved, That a committee of three be situation, with the beautiful prospect it appointed to superintend the publication commands; the goodness of the land, of such matters relating to the disputes, and the large quantity of hay ground on petitions, and negotiations to and with the the farm, renders it an inviting purchase court of Great Britain, and such notes and to a gentleman. It will be sold as it is explanations thereon as to them shall ap- at present, or divided into such parts as pear proper, and that they agree with the will suit the purchasers. For terms apprinter for 1,300 copies of such publica- ply to Aaron Burr, Esq., corner of Nastion, on account of Congress; the mem- sau and Little Queen Streets. June 25th, bers chosen Mr. G. Morris, Mr. Drayton 1785." Where exactly was the farm ? and Mr. R. H. Lee.

Who was "the late John Watkins”? I presume the book was duly printed, Was the Jumel farm any part of it ? and would feel indebted for a copy of the



GRAY-Court (xii. 472] — Notwith- built the “Gray-Court" house for Danstanding the assurance “ It can't be so" iel Cromeline in 1715-16. Why Daniel of your correspondent “ Historicus," Cromeline named

Historicus,” Cromeline named the place “Graypermit me to say, on the authority of Court” must remain a matter of conjectrecords official, that Daniel "Cromel- ure, but he did so name it. There is ine" was the owner of the “Gray-Court sufficient record in reference to Charles tract in 1704, having purchased the “Crommeline in 1720, and Daniel same from Hendrick Ten Eyck by deed Crymline” in 1710. I have supposed dated Dec. 8 of that year. William Bull that the Charles of 1720 was the son

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