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French Court, and at Passy. I see that the Count de Vergennes, the Duc de la Vauguyon who is gone to Spain, and Dr Franklin, have an affection for him, and are labouring to support him.

These circumstances are much in favour of his happiness, and if he has that pure and inflexible Virtue, that thorough Penetration into the hearts of men and the system of affairs, and that unchangeable attachment to our Country, that you require in a public man, you will honour him with your support. You know from his correspondence with Congress whether he is this man. I know nothing to the contrary. But I confess to you that the ardent friendship of Courtiers and Diplomatic flatterers to any American Minister is to me a cause of suspicion. I know it to be impossible for any man to do his Duty to his Country and possess it. All he can hope for is to be esteemed and respected, it is well if he is not hated and despised.

But Mr Jay is master of the character in question I have heard with pleasure that Mr Charmichael in their last interview settled things to the satisfaction of Mr Jay and cleared up some things which Mr Jay had not been satisfied in. You may know the truth from him

I am disposed to favour Charmichael, from all I have heard of him and know of him at least so far as to wish for his continuance in service provided. You dont see symptoms of his endeavours to support his character upon foreign interests at the expense of those of our country

But there is too marked a Love for him for my taste in characters in whose Friendship for America I have no confidence

The greatest danger to our foreign offices has ever arisen from this, and ever will, from an endeavour to obtain a reputation in America by gaining the friendship of countries and obtaining their Recommendation in their private letters for themselves and their connections. These favours are never obtained but by sacrifices. It is remarkable that native Americans are rather avoided and there is a constant endeavour to throw American Employment in Europe into the hands of persons born or educated in Europe, at least such as have lived long enough in Europe to become assimilated.

There is nothing more dreadful to America, than to have the Honour, the Reputation and the Bread of their Ministers abroad depend upon their adopting sentiments in American affairs conformable to those which may be entertained and endeavoured to be propagated by the Ministers with whom they treat. You had infinitely better choose the Count de Florida Blanca and the Count de Vergennes at once for your foreign Ambassadors. I have seen and felt so much of it, that I dread it like Death, and Mr Jay does not dread it less.

And you have not a less important thing to attempt in the choice of a minister for St James. Whoever he is he will be in more danger there than any where, of too much complaisance to Ministers, Courtiers, Princes & King. Indeed it is probable to me that whoever goes there, first, if he is honest will have his Reputation ruined in America by the Insinuations which will go against him, both in public Papers and private Letters. Lyars and slanderers are more impudent there than any where, and they have more old connections in America among whom to circulate them

With much affection your old Friend & very
humble Servant.

John Adams

My regards to your Colleagues. If Temple comes to N York and is received as Consull I hope you will contrive some way to make peace or truce between him and Sullivan. I hope Temple will be prudent and cautious if not he may do Mischief, but you have weight with him I know.

Unpublished Letter from Chief- Justice Marshall to George Washington of Georgetown, on the

occasion of the death of Judge Bushrod Washington. Contributed by Mr. Wm. Alexander Smith, New York City.

Richmond, V:
To Hon. George Washington,

Nov 29th 1829
My dear Sir,

I am much obliged by the kind attention manifested by your letter of 26th ins! The intelligence it communicates is indeed most afflicting. I had few friends whom I valued so highly as your Uncle, or whose loss I should regret more sincerely.

I had flattered myself when we parted last spring, that I should leave him on the bench when retiring from it myself ; but Heaven has willed otherwise. We have been most intimate friends for more than forty years, and never has our friendship sustained the slightest interruption. I sympathise most truly with M" Washington.

With great respectful esteem,

I am, dear sir,
your obed:

J. Marshall


ORASMUS H. MARSHALL-In the death search than his paper published in the of this distinguished and public-spirited MAGAZINE OF AMERICAN HISTORY, in man, the bar of Buffalo has lost one of its 1882, on the original charter by Charles most trusted members, and the Histori- I. to his brother, the Duke of York, of cal Society of that city one of its strong- the territory now comprised within the est pillars. The greater part of his State of New York. seventy well-rounded years have been He lived a large as well as a noble life, closely identified with the progress and never seeking honors, but always comdevelopment of Western New York. He manding the respect and love of his conpossessed a clear, logical mind, was in- temporaries. He was in every respect spired by the strictest integrity-a stately, the typical American Christian gentleerect personage, courteous and digni- man. fied, whom once to meet was to remember. His wide culture and scholarly William A. WHITEHEAD—As we go to tastes led him into many researches of a press the news comes of the death of literary and historical character, and he another eminent scholar and historian, long since came to be considered an au- Hon. William A. Whitehead, of New thority upon all subjects bearing upon Jersey. He was three years the senior the history of the aboriginal inhabitants of Mr. Marshall, his birth-year being of the West. He wrote with great care, 1810. His public life was one of great and in a pleasing style. Among the val- usefulness, but he was best known in uable productions of his pen were his connection with the historical records of papers on Champlain's Expeditions in New Jersey and with meteorological ob1613-15, on De Celeron's to the Ohio in servations. As Corresponding Secretary 1749, his narrative of the expedition of of the Historical Society he made rethe Marquis de Nouville against the searches into the colonial history of the Senecas in 1687, and on the building and State, and it was under his direction and voyage of the Griffon in 1679,' covering by his efforts that the State began the the early exploring expeditions of La publication of the colonial documents. Salle, Hennepin, and La Motte, with the Two of the works which he published history of their perilous voyage of the are "East Jersey and the Proprietors" rivers and the lakes, and the tragic end and “Contributions to East Jersey Hisof the Griffon, whose errand was more tory.” He was an industrious contriburomantic and adventurous than that of tor to current literature, and wrote nuthe Argonauts for the golden fleece ; his merous pamphlets on historical subjects. elaborate paper on the visit of La Salle He also wrote frequently on theological among the Senecas, is part of a series topics. In New Jersey he was regarded of historic studies, which have given him as an infallible authority on all subjects high rank among the annalists of the connected with the history of the State country. Perhaps nothing better illus- and with reference to geological mattrates Mr. Marshall's love of historical re- ters. His favorite pastime was making


daily meteorological observations. Ev- the assemblage of the three notable ery month for forty years he issued a characters named for the discharge of weather report over the signature of their high duties as Visitors of the new “W.” in the Newark Daily Advertiser. Central College in Virginia.

How rare These reports were made use of by mete- is the occurrence of so many eminent orologists of other cities.

He was

characters being brought together in member of Trinity Episcopal Church, such interesting juxtaposition. We are and took a deep interest in religious here reminded also, that the writer of as well as educational affairs. He leaves this note made the request, near the close a wife and two children. One of his of his life, that " Father of the Universons is Bishop Cortlandt Whitehead, of sity of Virginia" should be inscribed on Pittsburg, Pa.

his tombstone.

H. C. V. S. A RARE

AUTOGRAPH—An original MANLIUS, N. Y., August, 1884 manuscript letter or note in my possession reads as follows : “Th: Jefferson CUSTER—A few weeks ago I had the to the President of the U. S. Finding great pleasure of being permitted a sight subsequently what had not before been of an historic painting, now being exeattended to, that the law had appointed cuted by the artist, Mr. John Elder, of the ist day of our Spring and Autumn Richmond, Virginia, entitled “Custer's District Court for the stated meeting of Last Charge.” It pictures that brave the Visitors of the Central College, it officer at the head of his already wearied is concluded that our meeting should be and thinned command, endeavoring to on the 5th instead of the 6th of May cut his way out of the dense circle of (noted in my letter of the 13th); that Indians who surrounded him at the time being the ist day of both our County of that pitiless massacre eight years ago. and District Courts, the collection of the The canvas is about 4 feet by 7 feet. people will be great, & so far give a The central figure of course is Custer, wide spread to our object. We shall who with uplifted sabre is forcing his hope therefore to see you on that day, almost exhausted steed upon the painted Mr. Madison will join us the day before savage before him. On either side is the -Ever and affectionately yours.

slender line of his troops dashing on the “Monticello, Apr. 15–’174" foe-the grim determination on the face

Thus we have here an autograph note, of each savage, and the abandon of the written in 1817, at the age of seventy- troopers, who fight as if in despair, but four, by Thomas Jefferson, then an ex- with desperate courage, is very inspiring. President of the United States, address- Mr. Elder was a soldier in the Confeded to James Monroe, President of the crate army, and, like the writer, not only United States; into which note the dis- has participated in almost similar scenes, tinguished writer introduces the honored but has that admiration for Custer, name of James Madison, another ex- which his distinguished gallantry and President of the United States. The cruel but hopeless death, excited even in interesting subject of this unique note is those who once fought him as bravely as

did the Indians. The painting is to of events and names, and are glib in grace the mansion of a Southern gentle- chronology, we too often feel that we man, who has purchased it, when fin- have studied History. Yet we have not ished.

H. E. N. one whit more than has the child studied

music who has mastered the multiplicaTHE STUDY OF HISTORY—There are tion table. Mathematics has to do with many beautiful and suggestive passages music, but mathematics is not music, in Miss Elizabeth Cleveland's excellent Chronicle and chronology have to do essay on history, recently prepared for with History, but they are not History. the benefit of young lady graduates in We must learn of the event; it is indissome of our prominent schools. It pensable. But it is not the whole. We might reach all classes of students, or must take the event as a starting-point, even a much larger audience, with ad- and travel from it to the man and the vantage.


“The study of men behind it. We must obtain all the History does not hold its due place in accessories of time, place, and circumthe hearts of people because they have stances. It is the truth which we must not an adequate idea of what History is possess, or rather of which we must be Nor, having this, do they see why it possessed. It is sympathy with the Past should be studied more than anything which can unlock the inner halls of Hiselse. So they do not study it at all; or, tory and reveal to us its grandeur. Date, if studied, it is studied inadequately, name, and event are but the furniture of which is nearly as objectionable as leav- the feast. We wish to see the company, inz it out of the curriculum altogether and make acquaintance with the guests. Our business, therefore, will be to find The Past is simply Humanity. We must answers to three questions: What is be saturated with a sense of kinship. History? How should History be stud- Adam stands, as we approach the realm ied ? Why should it be studied ? A of History, at one end of the row, you wrong notion of History we must first and I at the other; and as in the childislodge, in order to make room for the dren's game, we must all take hold of right one. History is not merely a record hands. The spirit of a common huof past events; and History is not an manity stands in the center, and gently exact science. It cannot be reduced to reunites whenever the ring is broken. formulas and equations and chronologi- Woe to us if we break ranks. We are cal tables. When we have learned lists no longer in the game."


MURILLO—HIS INFLUENCE ON AMERI- we any noticeable eviderce of his influCAN ART- Bartolomé Esteban Murillo, ence on American art ? Can any of the the great Spanish painter (1618-1682), readers of the MAGAZINE OF AMERICAN seems to have possessed the power of History tell me-even with approximate adapting the higher subjects of art to accuracy-how many of his paintings the commonest understanding. Have are owned in the United States at the

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