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persons from “ Kenebeck,” fifteen from "Shipscoate,” sixteen from “Cape Bonawagon,” fifteen from “Damaris Cove," eleven from “Pemaquid," and eighteen from "Monhegan.” It was granted, and in 1674 four commissioners, “Left Tho Gardiner, of Pemaquid, Cap* Edmund Patteshall, of Kennebeck, John Palmer, Se", of Monhegin, and Robert Gamon, of Cape Nawaggen," were appointed to take charge of all matters pertaining to the places east of the Kennebec that came within the jurisdiction of Massachusetts, and which were organized into the county of Devon or Devonshire, and a court was authorized to be held at Pemaquid, of which Richard Oliver, of Monhegan, was appointed recorder and clerk. This was but a short time before the breaking out of King Philip's war, during which the whole region was desolated. The inhabitants from around the Kennebec and Sheepscot rivers, and from Pemaquid and neighboring places, fled for safety, first to Damariscove Island, and then to Monhegan. Probably at least three hundred souls were here gathered. Measures for safety were taken, for an attack was expected even here.* On the coast the work of devastation went on, the burning of many of their homes and villages being plainly visible. After some two or three weeks, during which time they were unmolested, receiving no aid from Boston, or elsewhere, “they took the first opportunity to set sayle, some for Piscataqua, some for Boston, and some for Salem, at one of which Places they all safely arrived." +

When the General Court of Massachusetts levied its taxes upon these eastern settlements for the expenses incurred during this war, Monhegan's share was the largest. Although Monhegan was again re-peopled, after Philip's war, yet the population must have dwindled to a very small number previous to the Revolution, for about the year 1774, a Mr. Trefethen went from Portsmouth, N. H., and bought the island of one Rogers, for $1,000.00. After the Revolution, Trefethen returned to Portsmouth, giving the island to one of his sons, Henry, and two sons-in-law, Josiah Starling and Thomas Orne, who afterwards had to pay a claimant, one Jennings, of Boston, $1,000.00; and, about the year 1807, still another $1,000.00 to Government, because of a defect in the title. Descendants of the Trefethens and Starlings are still among its inhabitants. The ruins of some of the ancient houses are still to be seen, and occasionally some relic is dug from the earth where it has lain nearly 200 years. I

* There they settled three Guards, and appointed five and twenty to watch every night, not knowing but that the Indians might come every Hour. Hubbard's Indian Wars, Drake's Edition, vol. 2, p. 164.

+ Hubbard's Indian Wars, pp. 43, 44. I MS. letter from Mrs. Wilson L. Albee, a resident of Monhegan.

Monhegan, together with its neighbor Manana (Monanis), is in Lincoln County, and was organized as “ Monhegan Plantation" about forty-five years ago. It is situated eleven miles southeast of Pemaquid Point, nearly equidistant from the mouths of the Kennebec and Penobscot Rivers. It is about a mile and a half long, from a half to three-quarters of a mile wide, and contains about a thousand acres. It has now a population of 150.

Its officers are three selectmen and assessors, a plantation clerk, treasurer, collector of taxes, constable and a school supervisor. It is taxed for State, county and school purposes. Its valuation in 1880, was $10,305.00. Rate of taxation, 2} per cent. There are about thirty houses, besides a school-house, and a chapel built in 1880, the gift to the island of a Philadelphia gentleman. These dwellings cluster around the little harbor,--with its solitary, dilapidated wharf,-between Monhegan and Manana, in which the fleet of fishing boats lie at anchor, when their owners are not absent following their vocation ; for its principal occupation is today what it ever has been, fishing; although there is enumerated among its employments, one boat builder, a carpenter, a smith, a dealer in oilclothes, and one in fish-oil. Casual visitants can easily detect the presence of the latter commodity, but it is not so easy to see where the other occupations are domiciled.

On the highest point of the island, standing sentinel over the quaint little village—with its one rough, narrow, crooked roadway running through it-is a granite light-house, with a first-class flashing, white light, a wel. come beacon to many a storm-tossed mariner.* Near the top of the hill, just under the light-house, is the inevitable “God's Acre," where sleep the tired Monheganites of many generations. On neighboring Manana, which has the mysterious hieroglyphical characters on its rocks, which have puzzled so many savants, government maintains a steam fog-horn; and lying a little way off from the head of the harbor floats a doleful whistling buoy. Until recently Monhegan had no post-office; but the mail which accumulated at Herring Gut, now Port Clyde, on George's Islands, was brought over by any casual fishing boat chancing to be bound toward the island, when it was distributed to the expectant group which gathered about the self-appointed mail-carrier.t

* The light-house keeper twenty years was Mrs. Betsey Humphrey,-wife of a former keeper,--who died in 1980. At night the island went early to its slumbers, and only the lighthouse on the hill kept watch. It dazzled the eyes if one looked up, and rendered the darkness more profound.”

+ A recent visit to this island, by the editor of the Boothbay Register, was thus chronicled:

“ The Monheganers are a hardy race of men, who depend upon the sea for their sustenance. They are fitted for all kinds of fishing and do not depend upon any one class of fish. In the win

VOL. XII.-No. 3.-18

Away from the village, beyond the light-house, pasturage; and then a wilderness of trees and shrubbery. On its southern shore is the bold, perpendicular cliff called “ White-head," a hundred and fifty feet in height. Standing on its summit, the eye sweeps over the immensity in front and around you, with here and there a sail dotting the blue waters, the trailing smoke of a passing steamer, and with the surging white-caps away down below you. Grand, indeed, is the view; impressive and awe-inspiring! but grander still to stand there at sunrise, or as the furious blasts of a northeast storm rage around this wild, bleak peak, isolated as it is from all other sights and sounds of civilization ; thus circumstanced, a feeling of weirdness and desolation would creep over one, as if deserted by all human kind; and you would hardly sing with Cowper:

How sweet, how passing sweet is solitude !" Between Monhegan and Pemaquid Light occurred the famous naval battle between the Enterprise and Boxer, Sept. 5, 1814. The British flag * was humbled, but both commanders, Lieut. William Barrows and Capt. Samuel Blyth, were killed. They were buried side by side in the Portland cemetery. In "My Lost Youth,” Longfellow thus commemorates this event :

“I remember the sea-fight far away,

How it thundered o'er the tide !
And the dead captains, as they lay
In their graves o'erlooking the tranquil bay,
Where they in battle died."



ter and early spring it is lobsters, next cod, cusk and haddock, then comes hake, followed by mackerel and pollock. Sometimes for days no mackerel are to be seen, then they catch pollock or hake. The vessels have dwindled to two or three, owned wholly on the island, though several parts of vessels that hail from Portland are owned here. About 40 or 50 sail boats have moorings in the harbor, but smail boats, dories and other craft, foot up to over 100.

“In search for shelter from a coming storm, some of the ladies came upon an artist's studio in an old fish-house. An antiquated boat upon the shore was temporarily fitted with sails and used as a model for a wreck. Monhegan is a rich spot for the marine painter. Its little harbor filled with boats of all sizes and kind-sits bold, rocky shores-mackerel seiners casting their nets in the immediate vicinity--all combine to teach what a true fishing port is

* The old flag, now tattered and torn-17 ft. 9 in. in length, by 11 ft. 3 in. in width, with 15 stripes and 15 stars—which floated from the mast-head of the Enterprise during this engagement, is now in possession of Horatio G. Quincy, Esq., of Portland, Me.




Contributed from the collection of Mr. 1. J. Austin, Newport, Rhode Island.

(FIRST LETTER.) To Elbridge Gerry Esq.

AUTEUIL near Paris Nov 4, 1784. My dear Friend.

We are going on with as much dispatch as the nature of our Business will admit of, and we proceed with wonderful Harmony, good Humour and Unanimity. The Dr [Dr Franklin) is confined to his house and garden *

He has not been further from home than my house at Auteuil which is within a mile of his, for this twelve months. He cannot ride in a carriage because the motion of that machine * * * *

He cannot walk out, nor in the house, without suffering as I am told. All these things considered, we are obliged to conduct all our negotiations at Passy. There is some reason to think that Spain will urge us to go to Madrid. The Dr cannot go, and the Journey would be horrible to Mr Jefferson and me. We cannot go before the other business is finished here, which will take up the two years probably.

Besides Congress has pinched us in our Salaries to such a degree that it is impossible for us to bear double expenses, indeed it is impossible for us to see any company or to live in character.

My Loan of last spring has not yet been ratified, and my Bankers at Amsterdam, are uneasy on that score. I beg it may be dispatched. Do you consider that Holland has furnished us as much money as France ? I have obtained there half a million sterling, and another half a million was there furnished us at the Requisition of France, and France herself has furnished us but one Million exclusive of that which she obtained for us in Holland. is to these considerations we add that the Dutch money has all been remitted in hard Dollars, or paid to redeem Bills at an advantageous exchange instead of being eaten up by the Rats, as a great part of the French money was, we shall find ourselves much more obliged in the article of money in Holland than France. Besides Holland is in future our only Resource.

I wish Congress would separate the foreign from the domestic debt-I foresee such delays in consequence of Keeping them united as will ruin our credit abroad. If the states all agree in giving to Congress the power they ask, it will be so long before they agree upon an act, and that act will be attended with such difficulties in the execution that we shall fail of our promises and break, at least it appears so to me at this distance, perhaps I am mistaken

I have small hopes of doing anything with England, I see no symptoms of a Disposition there, and I am afraid we shall not agree with Spain. God grant we may not get involved in a war with both these powers at a time. In such a case I Know not where we should find aids or Friends and I am sure we should want both.

The project of doing without Ministers in Europe is as wild and impracticable as any in the flying Island of Legado. You will find yourselves obliged to have Ministers and Ambassadors too, and to support them like other Ministers and Ambassadors, and the Fact will be when you have ruined and discouraged us who are now here and driven us home in despair, it will not be three years afterwards before you will send a number of Ambassadors to Europe with six or eight thousand Pounds a year. There is no man more averse to unnecessary foreign Connections or less addicted to expensive showy life than I have been all my days, but I see and feel every day that you must have Ambassadors to maintain or Generals and Admirals who will cost you ten thousand times as much money besides shedding your blood like water. Thank God we shall no longer fight with halters about our necks, or axes brandishing over our heads, and therefore if our countrymen delight in war they may have it without giving you and me so much chagrin and vexation as we have seen. I am my dear friend with the most affectionate Esteem and Respect.

Your humble servant,

John Adams.


AUTEUIL near Paris April 13. 1785. To Elbridge Gerry Esq Dear Sir.

I am this moment informed that the Packet is arrived but neither Dr F nor I have any letters as yet. This is unlucky because we shall not be able to answer by this Packet.

I suppose it is a question with you whether you shall send a Minister to Spain. I really hope you will, it is a question too, no doubt, who to send. There will be some, perhaps many, perhaps all for Mr Charmichael. I know not this gentleman personally. He is active and intelligent, by all I have learnt. He has made himself Friends among the Spanyards and among the foreign Ministers, and at the

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