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never was effected. How far this circumstance may be connected with the date of the first portent, the very night of the young man's death, or whether that coincidence was simply accidental, is matter for conjecture. The old lady, his relative, who afterwards visited Clairon, and told her a tale calculated to fill her with superstitious dread, may herself have been the maid-servant's employer for some similar purpose; or (which is at least equally probable) the tale may have had nothing whatever to do with the sound, and may have been perfectly true. But all experience in such cases assures us that the love of mischief, or the love of power, and the desire of being important, would be sufficient motives to the maid for such a deception. The more frightened Clairon was, the more necessary and valuable her maid became to her, naturally. A thousand instances of long-continued deception on the part of young women, begun in mere folly, and continued for the reasons just mentioned, though continued at an immense cost of trouble, resolution, and self-denial in all other respects, are familiar to most readers of strange transactions, medical and otherwise. There seem to be strong grounds for the conclusion that the maid was the principal, if not the sole agent in this otherwise supernatural part of this remarkable story.
To thy glass the Star of Eve
Never come the newt or frog,
Heaven be still within thy ken,
Through the veil thou wearest,— Glimpsing clearest, as with men,
When the boughs are barest!
A BUNDLE OF EMIGRANTS' LETTERS.
A SCHEME has been propounded by MRS. CHISHOLM, a lady to whose great exertions in reference to the emigration of the poor, especially of her own sex, the public is much indebted,-for the establishment of what it is proposed to call' A Family Colonisation Loan Society.'
The design is based, in the main, upon three positions. First that it is melancholy to reflect that thousands of British subjects should wander about, more like spectres than beings of flesh and blood; and that hundreds should die from starvation, while our vast colonies could provide abundantly for them.' Secondly, 'that in England a society is much needed, the great moral aim of which should be to check crime, by protecting and encouraging virtue.' Thirdly, that the zealous endeavours of the charitable, combined with the industrious and frugal efforts of the working classes themselves,' could accomplish great ends in the way of emigration.
For these leading considerations, it is proposed that the projected society should assist persons desiring to emigrate, by loans of money for two years or longer without interest. That these loans should be made to friendly parties or groups of approved individuals, acquainted with the character of each other, and becoming jointly and severally responsible for the loans made to them. That agents should be appointed in different parts of Australia, to maintain a general knowledge of the emigrants so assisted, and a general communication with them; and that the advances should always bear a certain proportion to the amount of the funds raised by the emigrants themselves, or by their friends in the Colonies, at the time of their making application for assistance to quit this country.
The re-uniting of various members of one family when some have emigrated, while others have been left at home; and the removal of the difficulty too often found in raising sufficient funds to effect this re-union, is one important object of Mrs. Chisholm's
scheme. And it must not be forgotten that money lent and repaid, would be lent again and again; and thus the good effected by one small sum would become quite incalculable.
It is admitted in the published letter setting forth the design, that the friends and wellwishers of the society can hardly expect the full confidence of the public at its commencement; the great moral problem being yet to be solved; whether the various grades of our working classes can be trusted, or whether, with all our religious, moral, social, and commercial advantages, we are rearing rogues or honest men ;' at the same time it is understood on the authority of the projectress, that in numerous cases where private advances have been made with similar objects, the rule has These remarks have originated in the cirbeen gratitude and honesty-not ingratitude cumstance of our having on our desk certain and dishonesty; and that her personal ex- letters from emigrants in Australia, written perience on this point, under many disadvanta- to relatives and friends here-to serve no geous circumstances, is powerfully encouraging. purpose, to support no theory, but simply There may be difficulties in the details of to relate how they are doing, and what they such a plan; and it is possible that many per- know about the country, and to express their sons who would retain an honourable sense desire to have their dearest relatives and friends of an obligation to an individual, would about them. As the truth, whatever it may subside into a more lax morality, if the obli- be, on such a subject, cannot be, we think, too gation were to a Board. The observation is plainly stated or too widely diffused in this trite enough, that a number of individuals country, we consider ourselves fortunate in united in an association will do, without any the possession of these documents. We are scruple, in the name of the society, what each responsible, of course, for their being genuine, of them would deem unworthy of his own and we write with the originals before us. The character; but there are two sides to this passages we shall give are accurately copied, question, and it is equally certain that many with no correction, and with no omission, but persons will take advantage of an associated that of names when they occur. body, if they can, who would hesitate to cheat any single member of it.
The first is from a man in Sydney, who writes to his brother. He would like to come to England for one day and no more to see the Railways and the baptist chappel.'
Reserving such questions, there can be little doubt, we apprehend, of the soundness of the three positions we have briefly stated. It is If you can emigrate out i shall be able to provide unquestionably melancholy that thousands for you Send me word in your next what progress upon thousands of people, ready and willing to labour, should be wearing away life hope- do not stop there to staarve for as bad as Sydney you are making toward finding your way out here lessly in this island, while within a few months' is no one that is willing to work need want i am sail-within a few weeks' when steam commu- beginning to think of expecting some or all of you nication with Australia shall be established-out i have told you what i can do and look to God there are vast tracts of country where no man and he will do the rest for you dear brothere send who is willing to work hard (but that he must answer to this as soon as Possoble that is if you be, or he had best not go there), can ever know can understand it but it is wrote so bad i think it want. That we have come to an absurd pass, will take some time to make it out. in our costly regard for those who have committed crime, and our neglect of those who have not, must be every day more manifest to rational men whose thoughts are not confined within the walls of prisons, but can take the air outside. Nor is it to be contested-either that where it is possible for the poor, by great self-denial, to scrape together a portion of the means of going abroad, it is extremely important to encourage them to do so, in practical illustration of the wholesome precept that Heaven helps those who help themselves; or that they who do so help themselves, give a proof of their fitness for emigration, in one essential, and establish a strong claim on legitimate sympathy and benevolence, to do the rest. Besides which, it appears to us that there are strong reasons in favour of this emigration
of groups of people. It is not only that colonial experience, acting on this side of the water, can wisely proportion the amount of strength and the amount of weakness in each group-the number of single people, the number of married people, the number of men, the number of women, and the number of children-but it is, that from little communities thus established, other and larger communities will rise in time, bound together in a love of the old country still fondly spoken of as Home, in the remembrance of many old struggles shared together, of many new ties formed since, and in the salutary influence and restraint of a kind of social opinion, even amid the wild solitudes of Australia.
The next is from a man at Melbourne writing to his wife :
My Dear and most beloved Wife this is the 7th letters I have written and sincerly hope this may find you and my dear children in good health likewise all my friends and acquaintances but I have not yet received one from you excepting the one Mr W brought I am realy very anxious about you particularly as I hear such bad accounts from home you are in my thoughts day and night Oh that I could see you here then you would spend the the care and trouble on your mind here as there hapiest days you have ever yet spent there is not is at home but God knows I have my share of it about you but I persevere for your benefit. My dear wife do keep up your spirits and come as soon as you can you will not have to study wich is the cheapest way to get a meal here you can judge for
yourself when I tell you that the best flour is only 20 shillings the sack and such quality that you cannot buy in England the bread is the best bread I ever eat in my life and the meat very fine and no price at all for instance I saw a man on Saturday night last buy a very fine round of beef and a fine leg of mutton for 2 shillings and for all that Butchers is a very good trade here there are several Establishments called the boiling down houses where they boil down Bullocks and sheep for the fat only and one house alone will boil down 800 and sometimes a 1000 in one day this may seem almost incredible to you but it is a fact and the beast must be of the best quality sheeps heads and plucks you can have by wheel barrows full for fetching away for people never think of eating such stuff as they call it ox tails you can have for fetching away but you must skin them yourselfe so much for meat. Tea is 1s 6d lb but it can be bought for 18 by the chest Coffee is 9d lb wich can be bought for 5d but you must roast yourselfe or send it to the roasters but you can do it at home very well for every body has what is called a lamp oven here which costs about 7 or 8 shilling and you can bake your bread or your dinners at your own fireplace Potatoes are rather dear they are 1d lb but they are butifully fine onions the same price Cabbages 1 and 2d each fresh butter 1s6d lb and salt do 1s 2d lb Mushrooms grow very plentiful you may go and get a bushell some time before breakfast I have taken a deal of notice in the people here they do not study economy as they ought if you where here we could save money fast I am determined to buy a peice of ground shortly and I intend joining the building society but I dont know what to do untill I heare from you I am daily expecting a letter from you I know I could not have had one much sooner for I recon upon ten months to get an answer. I am still living in the little cottage and I have worked very hard lattely I dare say you will be suprised when I tell you that I have been at work as a joiner the last 3 months and I have made 3 Chests of drawers at home in my over time since for a Master Cabinet Maker I expect a winters work at the carpentering as there are a great many Buildings going on here I am happy to say that I enjoy most excellent health indeed it would be a sin to wish for a better state of health I never have had the slightest cough since I came here I have had a slight touch of my old Complant in the legs but I bave got a presription which cures it directly the Chemist that made it up told me that my stomach must be like iron and my Constitution as strong as a horse to take it the doctor told me to wear
fanell drawers so I got 2 pair and since then I never have it. Rents are rising rapidly here you cant get a cottage with 2 rooms under 7 or 8 shillings a week they have rose my rent to 5s almost forgot to say that I shall have 10s monthly to pay in the Building Sosiety and 108 entrance it began in january so I shall have the back money to pay and it is expected that it will run out in six years and then you will get 120 pounds out if you let it lay the whole time there is two of them and they are going on flourishing. I have 'been at work at the builders now 11 weeks and have not lost an hour till last week and then I only lost a quarter which was 1s 6d but I got 10s profit for I had an infant to bury. I made the coffin after I done work that is the first funeral I have been to they never keep a corpse more than 2 days. I
have been thinking a great deal about Alfred wether his master will give him his time out to come with you Tell my dear sarah that I have got a beautiful parrot for her I tried hard to rear some to send home to jane and one for poor C. but they died I think of Mr and Mrs C. and fameley very often I wish he was here to have a glass of ale and a pipe with him but he must not expect a long pipe here for they smoke nothing but short pipes about 6 inches long and the blacker they are the better they like them and you have to give each for them give my best respects to him I shall always be glad to hear of his welfare I do hope it will be in my power to reward him for his kindness before long and to Mrs C. and fameley give my love to my brothers and sisters with one exception tell master he would do well here it is an excelent business here indeed one of the best give my love to my dear children. Oh that the day may not be far distant when my happiness may be more Complete by seeing them and you on the happy shore in the Province of Victoria this is the new name given by the Queen for Port Phillip. My dear as soon as I get a letter from you letting me know that you are coming then I shall begin to make up things for my selfe but untill then I am unsettled which way to act for I have saved a few pounds wich will be very much wanted to lay out and I have bought myselfe several things since I have been here that I could not do without, I have been very carefull and am almost a Teetotaler I very seldom drink anything but I will live well and I feel the benefit of it in my strength for I have lately often worked from 4 in the morning till 11 at night and dont feel half so tired as I used with half a days work but sometimes I am almost compelled to go and get a pint of beer for the sake of company as I am at home by my selfe and no one to speak to. I get very dull there is no notice taken of Easter here. I worked all day on Good friday and Easter monday the Melbourn races are thought the most of it lasts 3 days but I worked all the time and did not go to see them I cant enjoy pleasure untill you come to share it with me.
This poor fellow seems to be possessed of an appetite which must have been very inconvenient to him at home. This is his account of a light supper he had one night:
I almost forgot to say that I wanted something butchers to get some chops and I had a pound for my supper saturday night so I went to the and half of the loin 2d fine sheep hearts and a sheep kidney and how much do you think they was why only 4d the lot a fine bullocks kidney is only 2 and a very fine shin of beef 4d or 6d what will the London butcher say to this. Poultry is rather dear but it is about the same price as
Finding himself not quite well, and perhaps a little affected in his digestion by the trifling meal just described, he put himself on short commons as follows:
Yesterday being sunday I took some medecin so I got 4 lbs of the neck of mutton and made my selfe some nice broth and some suet dumplings the meat only cost me 4d I think my dear I have stated facts wich ought to cheer you up and you must consider that the sun has been clouded from
us a long time but thank God that cloud I hope is being removed and our sunny day are yet to come. I have no doubt about it I can assure you I have not the slightes wish to see England again I dont know wether I told you that all sorts of clothing is much about the same here as home there is some very fine linen drapers shops here there is one thing that is very dear here and that is artificial flowers the comonest is a shilling a sprig flannel is 1 8 a yard the ladies dress very fashionable here My dear as I have nothing more to say at present I must conclude with hoping you will keep up your spirits and that you may have a pleasant and prosperous Voyage wich there is no fear of for it is considered the best voyage out of london. I shall write directly I receive your letter which I am sure will not be long.
A gentleman, who has been ordained as a clergyman of the Church of England, writes thus of Sydney at present:
My Dear Brother and Sister I now take this opportunity of writing a wrote in haste in which I Enclosed a Draft for more lengthened letter than my last which I the sum of twenty five pounds £25 payable to you on the Bank of Australasia in Austin Friars London thirty days after sight, which I hope you will get Safe. I also send by this ship's Mail | another Draft for the same money only to Ensure the money safe in case one ship might get lost on the passage to London and one Draft I Keep myself. hope as soon as you receive my letter that you will not make any Delay but write to me Immediately and I hope and trust you will send me a long letter for nothing will give me more pleasure than to hear a little about you all not Omitting one of you you wrote to me for £30 but £25 is all I can spare for the present. I have been perfectly aware of the state of England Ever Since I left or I should have been among you many years since but now I have banished all thoughts from my mind of ever seeing England, the way to Say it is don't want, for ever since I have been here I have not seen anybody in want but at the present time wages is not quite so good as they were when I wrote to you first that is in Consequence of the late Influx of Emigration of late, you say you have not left a stone unturned to try to get to me the reason is you dont understand farming nor sheep, I am sorry poor mother has met with the accident of which you Say poor A poor woman at Sydney, re-united to her firm, and I am happy to hear my sister marys Creature Mother must by this time be quite Inchildren, writes,
Child I will now say a man Thomas is quite well I suppose he cannot recollect me 20 years since I saw him, I have often thought of him when he first Called me uncle, If I am not mistaken you are the only one who had written anything to me about him I was very fond of him and my Kind love to him and I hope he has the use of his feet. I was not aware of you being married you never stated how long you had been so whether girls or boys what age, now this is unkind of you was it my case I should have told you all particulars with their age and Everything, assist poor Mother all you Can for what kindness I have received from her now think of that. It appears to me that you are all in a thriving way you four Children and your Sister Eight, as I stated in my last letter here I am Tom nobody but myself but you must Endeavour to Increase your family to the same number. I suppose your wife will laugh at me making so bold to Say so but she must forgive me and she must Say so in your next Letter to me my kind love to her and your Children and I hope I shall have that happiness of seeing you all with me before this time 12 months. I will try to make you all as comfortable as my circumstances will admit please the Almighty to spare me but I have my troubles in another way to yours. I be
Sydney is at present crowded with respectable young men,-Bankers and merchants' clerks, artists and such kind of people, are not wanted at all, so that many of them having but small means are quite in despair. They are almost useless to the settlers and people in the Bush and can find no occupation in town and are therefore liable to every temptation. I hope you will exert all your influence in preventing such people from coming out here, unless they come prepared to go into the Bush as shepherds, &c.
A vast number of the orphans who have come out here have turned out ill in consequence of the bad training at home. They fancy they are young ladies and that they ought to sit and knit or just take a walk on the race course or in the domain, with children. They have not the slightest idea of industry, nor do they understand what household work is. All this they should be practically taught in the old country, and it would save much disappointment and misery when they arrive here.
Your kind note of Dec. 4th I have received informing me that you had obtained passage to this port for my children. They safely arrived by the Castle Eden all in good health. They however left their box of clothes behind at Plymouth and I have not as yet been able to get any account of it. It appears to be lost, but as they arrived safe I do not care to trouble any one to enquire for this. The oldest girl got married about five months since to a respectable young man a tradesinan, a pretty good match-the next boy is apprenticed six months ago to the wheelwright business and the next boy is four months apprenticed to a boot and shoemaker-the other the little one I have myself. My own health is pretty good, and although times are rather dull just now yet I hope that I shall find enough to do to keep along with. Many ships have arrived here with emigrants and this for a time causes rather more to be looking for situations than there are situations to be filled, but most of them go into the country.
An orphan girl at Bathurst, to whom the Emigration Company granted a free passage,
writes thence to a lady in Ireland, 'If in case any emigrants were coming to Sydney, to send me my little sisters which I left at home.' Another sighs from 'Patrick's Plains, New South Wales,' for another sister. In these cases, and in that of the wife of the good fellow with the appetite, it seems to us that a society on the proposed plan would do great service, and run little risk. Also in such an instance as the following:
Melbourne, Port Phillip
lieve I told you I had separated from my wife
ing cow from £1,0,0, to thirty shillings some-
meant for untill they came to these Colonies they
The writer of the next, sent out as a labour-
In Sydney times are rather dull at present-