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The most minute particulars of the death of Christ were typified under the law: but we shall fix our attention at present on that only which is specified in the text.
The sacrifices on the great day of annual expiation were to be burnt without the camp
[The sacrifices on the great day of atonement were distinguished far above all others, and accompanied with circumstances of peculiar solemnity. Their blood was carried within the vail, and sprinkled upon the mercy seat, as the means of propitiating the incensed Deity, and of obtaining pardon for the sins committed by the whole nation through the preceding year. A part of most other sacrifices belonged to the priest who offered them: but of this not the smallest portion was to be preserved for the use of man: all, except the fat which was consumed upon the altar, was carried without the camp, (in later ages, without the city of Jerusalem,) to be destroyed by fire. Probably this was intended to exhibit God's indignation against sin, and to shew how utterly they must be consumed by the fire of his wrath, who should not be interested in this atonement. But the words before us reflect a light on this ordinance, which it is of great importance to observe. The burning of the whole of these sacrifices shewed that no legal services whatever could entitle a person to partake of them: not even the high priest himself, who carried their blood within the vail, had any privilege beyond the poorest and meanest of the people. They could obtain an interest in them only by faith; nor could he taste of them in any other way: though his services were the most sacred, and his access to God far more intimate than any other person, or even he himself at any other period could enjoy, yet had he no more part in this atonement than every other person might have by the exercise of faith: and consequently they, who, under the Christian dispensation, should trust in the sacrifice of Christ, would participate the benefits, from which the high priest himself should be excluded, if he rested in the outward services without looking through them to the great, the true Atonement.]
Agreeably to this typical ordinance, our Lord suffered without the gate of Jerusalem
[The death of Christ was that which the annual sacrifices typically represented. He died for sin, and, after he had offered himself upon the cross, entered into heaven itself with
bLev. vi. 30. and xvi. 27. . .
his own blood, there to present it before the Father on our behalf: and it was by this means that he " sanctified,” or consecrated to himself, a peculiar people, who should for ever enjoy the virtue of his atonement- But, in order that his death might produce the full effect, it was necessary that it should be conformed in every respect to the ordinances whereby it had been prefigured: hence it was accomplished “ without the gate" of Jerusalem; so strictly did it accord with the most minute particulars, that had been before determined in the divine counsels.
Whether there was any mystery couched under this event, we cannot absolutely determine. We should not indeed have discerned perhaps any thing particular in it, if light had not been thrown upon it by an inspired writer. But, as we are certain that this event was a completion of the pre-existing ordinance, it is not improbable that it might have some fur: ther signification. While it shews us, to what a degree "Christ became a curse for us," it may also intimate, that the virtue of his sacrifice was not to be confined, to those who were within the pale of the Jewish church, but rather, to extend to those who were without it, even to the whole Gentile world.]
The exhortation, which the apostle grounds upon these circumstances, leads us to point out II. The conformity, which Christians also are to bear,
both to the law and to him who fulfilled it Doubtless, every thing which Christ has done for us, en. tails on us an obligation to conform ourselves to his mind and will. But the circumstances before considered, suggest to us some appropriate and important duties.
1. We must renounce all legal hopes, that we may depend on Christ
[The particular injunction to go forth to Christ without the camp, intimates, that we must turn our back upon all the legal services, and trust alone in that sacrifice, which he offered without the gate. The importance of this observation would be more strongly felt by an Hebrew convert, who was assailed with arguments respecting the obligations of the Mosaic law. But it is, in reality, no less important to us: for, if we do not trust in the blood of bulls and goats, we are ever ready to substitute something in the place of Jesus, as the ground of our confidence. But services, of whatever kind, whether ceremonial or moral, must be renounced in point of dependence. They must not even be blended in any degree with the atonement of Christ, as though the performance of them could procure us an interest in this. We must be “justified by his blood,” and by that alone. If St. Paul himself desired to be found in Christ, not having his own righteous. ness, much more must we. Let us remember then what, not the gospel only, but even the law itself, speaks to us on this subject; and let us look for a participation in the great sacri. fice, not for, or by our works, but by faith only.]
2. We must forsake all worldly lusts that we may walk with Christ
[What a perfect deadness to the world did Jesus manifest, when he went forth to the place of execution, giving up him- i self to that accursed death, from which he could have been so easily delivered! But the world had nothing that could fasci. nate him: its cares, its pleasures, its honours, its society were all alike indifferent to him: He had one only wish, to fulfil his Father's will, and finish the work he had been commissioned to perform. In turning his back on that devoted city, he felt no regret, except indeed for the blindness and hardness of the people's hearts. Thus must we come out of the world which lieth in wickedness: we must be crucified to the world, and the world must be crucified to us.” “ All that is in the world, the lust of the flesh, the lust of the eye, and the pride of life,” must be abandoned as objects of indifference, as objects of abhorrence. The things that are dearest to flesh and blood, if they stand at all in competition with Christ, are to be hated and forsaken. Our former companions, if they will not travel with us in the heavenly road, are to be left behind; for " what communion hath light with darkness, or a believer with an unbeliever? Wherefore, saith God, Come out from among them, and be separate.” Even father and mother, and wife and children, yea, and our own lives also, are to be of no account with us, if they interfere with our duty to God, or retard the execution of his commands.]
3. We must submit to all indignities that we may re. semble Christ
[This is the principal point to which the text refers. Jesus, when carrying his cross from the city to· Mount Calvary, was an object of universal execration. Thus, in a measure must we also be, if we will be his disciples. The world will hate, revile, and persecute us, as soon as ever we become his faithful adherents. “ If they have called the master of the house Beelzebub, so will they those of his household.” But we must not be deterred from our duty by these things: we must “ follow our Lord without the camp, not only bearing his reproach,” but esteeming it our riches, and rejoicing that
we are counted worthy to suffer shame for his sake." He has told us beforehand that “ in the world we shall have tribulation," and that, in proof of our attachment to him, we must “ take up our cross daily and follow him.” Expecting this therefore, we must “count the cost;” that, if we be treated was the filth of the world and the off-scouring of all things," we may, like him, “ endure the cross and despise the shame." Nor should it ever seem hard to us to go in the path which he has trodden before us. On the contrary, to be conformed to him should be our highest ambition: “ for if we suffer with him for a time, we shall reign also with him;"k in glory for evermore.]
hi Acts v. 41.
i Heb. xii. 2.
62 Tim. ii. 12.
. CXXXIV. THE MEAT OFFERING A TYPE OF CHRIST. Lev. ii. 13. Every oblation of thy meat-offering shalt thou
season with salt; neither shalt thou suffer the salt of the covenant of thy God to be lacking from thy meat-offering: with all thine offerings thou shalt offer salt.
THERE certainly is need of much sobriety and cau. tion in intepreting the typical parts of scripture, lest, instead of adhering to the path marked out for us by the inspired writers,' we be found wandering in the regions of fancy and conjecture. But there are some types, which, notwithstanding they be soberly explained, appear at first sight the mere creatures of one's imagination ; which, however, on a more full investigation, evidently appear to have been instituted of God for the express purpose of prefiguring the truths of the gospel. Of this kind is the ordinance now under our consideration : for the eluci. dating of which, we shall I. State the various circumstances that were to be ob· served in the meat-offering
· [Meat offerings were annexed to many of the more solemn sacrifices, and constituted a part of them. But they were also frequently offered by themselves. They were to consist of fine flour, mixed with oil, and accompanied with frankincense. The quantity offered was at the option of the
offerer, because it was a free-will offering. The wheat might be presented either simply dried and formed into flour, or baked as a cake, or fried as a wafer:C but, in whatever way it was presented, it must by all means have salt upon it.d It was on no account to have any mixture in it, either of honey or of leaven. A part, or a memorial of it, was to be taken by the priest, (but with all the frankincense) and be burnt upon the altar:f and the remainder was for the maintenance of the priest himself, as holy food. When it was duly offered in this manner, it was most pleasing and acceptable to God."]
Having briefly stated what this chapter contains respecting the meat.offering, we proceed to Il. Explain its typical import
The scriptures clearly represent the meat-offering as typical 1. Of Christ's sacrifice
[The meat-offering, or mincha, is often spoken of in direct reference to Christ, and his sacrifice. In the Epistle to the Hebrews, we have a long passage quoted from the Psalms, to shey that neither the meat-offering (mincha) nor any other sacrifice was to be presented to God, after that Christ should have fulfilled those types by his one offering of himself upon the cross. And it is of great importance in this view to remember, that though the meat-offering was for the most part eucharistical, or an expression of thankfulness, it was sometimes presented as a sin-offering to make an atonement for sin: only, on those occasions, it was not mixed with oil, or accompanied with frankincense, because God could not smell a sweet savour from a sin-offering.k This is a clear proof, that it must typify the sacrifice of Christ, who is the true, the only propitiation for sin."
Now there was a peculiar suitableness in this offering to represent the sacrifice of Christ. Was it of the finest quality, mixed with the purest oil, and free from any kind of leaven? this prefigured his holy nature, anointed, in a superabundant measure, with the oil of joy, and gladness,m and free from the smallest particle of sin." Its destruction by fire on the altar denoted the sufferings he was to endure upon the cross; while the consumption of the remainder by the priests, marked him out as the food of his people's souls, all of them being par
h Ver. 9.
c Ver. 4, 7, 14.
d Ver. 13.
e Vers 11. f Ver. 16.
& Ver. 3. i Compare Ps. xl. 6—8. with Heb. x. 5-10. k Lev. v. ll, 13. See also 1 Sam. iii. 14. 19 John ij. 2. m Ps. xlv. 7. John iii. 34. n 1 Pet. ii. 22.