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and imperishable rewards in contests for principles luxury succeeded the ardor of patriotism, the thirst of which were to corrupt and ruin their fellow men. The military glory, the enthusiasm of liberty, in the Grevoice of humanity has proclaimed them to be the great cian states, we no longer look for those splendid exambenefactors of the world. The flight of time, and the ples of heroic virtue which we all delight to contemsuccession of events throw no mists around their names. plate. The Grecians were enervated, and their greatEvery conflict of virtue, knowledge and patriotism ness was remembered as a thing that had been. An gathers fresh flowers, to add to the unfading garland of unrestrained press and freedom of opinions, are not their renown. Their works have left a bright track liable in a healthy state of society, to produce a frightbehind them for the admiration of all coming time, and ful mental excitement. The principles of the reformaare carrying light and liberty and happiness down into tion, of civil and ecclesiastical liberty, are more strongly the dark regions of futurity. The final recompense for all rooted in the American soil than any where else. And their labor, and the coronal to all the visions and trans- yet, no author here has attempted to win a lasting ports of their patriotism, is reserved for that period name by injuring the institutions of his country, or by which is yet veiled in the womb of coming events, tearing down the temples of morality and religion. when the efforts of patriots shall have completely van- Their works will form a bright and never-fading leaf quished the power of despotism and slavery, when in the annals of literature. Virtue itself feels exalted knowledge shall hold its triumphant banner, proudly because they have written, and their countrymen, for floating over the last shattered forces of ignorance and ages to come will be proud of their fame. error, when the mild influences of the gospel shall have National greatness and importance depend upon the bowed the vile lusts of men and of nations into the development of the resources, and the exercise of the dust at the feet of Jesus, and its effulgent beams of powers of the nation. The moral and intellectual worth light shall have formed the never-fading bow of hope of a people, is their most valuable treasure, and is the and promise, in the last remnants of the dissipated richest inheritance for posterity. Knowledge opens storm of the passions, upon which mortals will gaze before them the recorded experience of other ages, and with admiration and delight forever.
points to the causes which led to the rise and to the It was better to suffer persecution at the hands of fall of empires, and lifts a warning voice against licenthe Roman catholics for a season, than to remain for- tiousness. And though poison is sometimes thrown ever in the lowest state of moral and intellectual degra- into the sacred fountains of learning, shall they be dation. The incense of a thousand different altars, abandoned, when we have the means of cleansing them which have been erected by the dictates of piety, is of the evil? Every human thing is liable to injury and more acceptable than the offerings of hecatombs of to corruption. All the works of nature yield to the lambs and heifers in the ancient and stupendous temple destructive influence of time. The mountain falls, and of bigotry, superstition, ignorance and licentiousness. cometh to nought. The river changes its course, and Men never were designed to think and feel exactly the sea its bed. The frail monuments of human greatalike ; and all attempts to coerce them, have resulted ness cannot escape the destroyer. The most stupenin crime and bloodshed, and in the promulgation of the dous efforts of physical power soon pass even from the dark and destroying principles of infidelity.
recollection. Man's intellectual and moral struggles Freedom of thought leads to investigation, and in- only, are endowed with any force to resist the encroachvestigation brings to light objects which tend to arouse ments of decay. They remain to tell the future what the energies. Intellectual excitement, then, is the the past has been—to arouse the sleeping energies of result of the cultivation of knowledge. Is this excite patriotism, and to rekindle the fires of genius and virment dangerous to the happiness and the social institu- tue. If poor degraded Greece ever again rises above tions of man? It has destroyed many an ancient sys- the ruins of her fall, the love of country, the emotions tem, and turned into dust the lofty columns of many a of heroic fortitude and the aspirations after the rewards proud fabric. It has robbed ignorance of its enchant- of an honorable and useful life, will have been imment, and acquired an immortality of fame for nations, planted in the bosom of her sons by the melodies of It has led to the discovery of truths, which have ex- her poets and the songs of her minstrels, by the polalted the condition of man as a rational being, and ished histories of her ancient renown, and by the elothrown light into the darkest corners of creation. It quence of her orators. And if the world should ever led Newton to bequeath a rich and invaluable legacy again relapse into the moral and political darkness and to all that should come after him. It led Columbus to degradation of the middle ages, the feelings of the phidiscover the new world ; and raised Franklin to a high lanthropist and the patriot, imbodied in the works of eminence whence he was enabled greatly to disarm the literature, would be handed down to other times, and, storm of its terror, and to confound the enemies of hu- when oppression was drunken with the brutalizing man liberty. It led to the gushing forth of those lofty draughts of licentiousness, they would raise up a Bruce strains of Shakspeare, Homer, Dante and Milton, or a Tell, a Washington or a Lafayette, to assert the which flow on as if beneath the touch of an enchanter's rights of outraged humanity, and to free the world wand, breathing heavenly melodies, singing undying from bondage. songs to which man will listen with rapture, profit and ecstasy forever. Man being a restless, improvable being, the excitement of his rational faculties will urge him on in the pursuit of objects that will increase his
FAME. happiness. Lethargy to him is a fatal disease. He must have action, or all his energies hasten at once to Fame is a dowerless virgin, whom one must wed decay. As soon as the ease and the refinements of from love, and not from lucre.-Anon.
LETTER FROM MALTA.
and Mercury. This last was the most revered, as he
was thought to be the protector of their commerce, To the Editor of the Southern Literary Messenger. to which alone the isle of Hyperia owed its wealth and
settlement. Malta--its first settlement by the Phæacians-afterwards by the
Phæricians, Greeks, Carthagenians, Romans, Vandals and By the Phæacians the island was called Ogygia : it Goths, Arabs, Normans, Germans, French and Spaniards-- was governed by kings; and several coins, as also two ceded by Charles V. to the knights-taken possession of by monuments, are now visible in the museum of the Malthe order.
tese library, which are of Punic origin, and covered The question has not been unfrequently asked, whe- with their characters. The Phæacians having retained ther Malta was situated in Europe or Africa. England, uninterrupted possession of Ogygia for nearly eight by a vote of her parliament, and for a political purpose, hundred years, were at last defeated and driven out by voted it to be in Europe, while for centuries the kings their Greek rivals, who colonized in their turn, and of of Sicily always termed it one of their African posses- whom no traces now exist, save in the ruins of a wall or sions. Geologists have each in their turn, as might favor fort built in honor of Phalaris, the tyrant, and some their views, stated it to have been originally joined small sepulchral mounds, of which there is much doubt with Sicily, or Africa ; from its proximity, it might whether they are, or are not, of Grecian build. Wheremore naturally be said with the former, as Cape Pas- ever the Greeks made a conquest of a place, and formed saros lies distant to the north only fifteen leagues, while a settlement, they always erected a temple to Apollo Cape Bon, the nearest land of Africa, runs in a west- one was built at Citta Vecchia, the site of which is now northwest direction, at a distance little less than two occupied as a public square, and will be pointed out by hundred miles. This is the sole reasoning of those any Cicerone, although not a vestige remains to tell of who call it an European island. On the other hand, the ancient ruins, which there for ages existed. During many who have given the subject their study, have as the period the Greeks had possession of Malta, they serted, that though it was more distant from Africa, yet were first governed by a high priest whom they called the soundings to that continent were gradual, that it Hierothites, and afterwards by archons vested with was peopled in ancient times by the Carthagenians, similar powers, as those who under the same name once that the islanders have to this day the Arab features, presided at Athens. Through the kindness of the and speak a dialect of a language, by which they make librarian of the Maltese library, I have seen several anthemselves easily understood by their Arab neighbors— tiquities of these people, all of which are doubtless the and lastly, that the stratification of the whole southern remains of a much later date, than that of which we border of the island, exactly corresponds with that of are now speaking: the most remarkable, is a small Barbary, which runs in the line of its direction. The square altar, on which two figures are sculptured in the decision one makes on this subject, is of no trifling im- act of offering up to the goddess Proserpine (to whom portance to the better class of islanders; for, if Malta the same was dedicated) a small fish-also a statue of is in Europe, they are termed, in the broad sense of Hercules, a naked figure, and of white marble, well the word, Europeans; if in Africa, they are Arabs.executed, and in the highest state of preservation; Ptolemy has placed it in Africa, while Pliny and several medals, the most of which have upon then the Strabo have given it a situation between the islands effigy of an Isis, or a Juno, with an ear of corn, expresof Italy.
sive of the fertility of the soil : the word Melaisaion is Malta is, in its historical recollections, far more cele- found on all which were shown to me. brated than any other island in the Mediterranean. It About five hundred and twenty-eight years before will not compare with Sicily for fruits, with Candia for the christian era, the Carthagenians made war with the oil, with Scio for almonds, or Tenedos for wines--yet Greeks, and conquered them. The conquerors permitted in sacred history they must all yield to that of Malta. the inhabitants to retain their dwellings and worship Some writers have supposed that this island received their household gods. At this time, the Greek and its name from the Greeks, and that they called it Meli- Phænician languages were equally spoken in the ta, by which denomination it was known for nearly island. two thousand years, from the fine quality of honey In the first Punic war, Melita was attacked and which to this day it produces. This supposition is plundered by Attilus Regulus, and seized upon by most probably correct. Others have thought that it Cornelius. The Romans, however, did not long retain was called after Melita, the daughter of Nereus and it. Some two hundred and forty years before Christ, Doris.
the Carthagenians were again defeated by the Romans, The most ancient writer who makes mention of Mal. and Malta a second time fell into the bands of its former ta is Homer, and in his Odyssey, he terms it the “isle masters—it having been stipulated in the treaty beof Hyperia.” According to tradition, it was at that tween the two powers that all the islands between period inhabited by the Phæacians, a race of giants, Africa and Italy should be yielded to the conquerors. who have left as their remains the tower at Goso, and Sempronius, in the second Punic war, completely esthe huge tombs now visible in the Benjemma mountains, tablished the Roman power at Malta. which we may describe hereafter. These people colo- Two pieces of marble are the only remains which nized the island some fifteen hundred years before the Carthagenians have left us, supposed to have been Christ, and enjoying as they did the chief navigation of the base, and shaft of a chandelier, on each of which this sea, it was to them of no little importance. They there is an inscription in the Greek and Phænician worshipped not only their own Gods, but also those language. We are indebted to the learned Abbe Barof Egypt and Persia. They erected several temples, thelemy for the only good translation, which runs as one in honor of Juno, as also others to Isis, Osiris I follows:
"We Abdassar and Asseremor, the sons of Assere- inhabitants the same commercial advantages which
the son of Abdassar, having made this vow to they enjoyed under the ancient Romans, and the island our Lord Mélere, the tutelar divinity of Tyre, may never became so celebrated, as it was ages before, when he bless and guide us in our uncertain way, Dio- under the government of the same power. It is said nysius and Serapion, of the city of Tyre, the sons the Greeks, who at this period divided the trade, were an of Serapion to Hercules, surnamed Archegetes." abandoned people, having none of the virtues of their It is thought that those who made this vow were ancestors, but cursed with all their pride, extravagance, seamen, and prayed for a continuance of prosperous and follies: these traits of character drew upon them voyages.
the enmity of the other inhabitants, who on an opporThe Romans soon became aware of the importance tune occasion, sacrificed them to the Arabs. During of the island, serving as it did to prevent the encroch- the long period of three hundred years, from the time ments of the infidels, and to afford an easy and safe of Justinian to the conquest of the island by the Arabs, shelter to their shipping. They made use of all the we have only, as remains, a half defaced inscription, means in their power to retain it, granting to the Greek and a small and singularly made figure of bronze: it inhabitants a continuance of all their ancient customs, represents a youth kneeling, with his arms extended, and permitting them to be governed by their own laws. and in his hands a small bowl; the whole figure is coThey particularly encouraged commerce and manu- vered with Greek, Etruscan, and unknown characters, factures : linen cloths were brought to such fineness, and is prized by the lovers of antiquity as a rare, an that they were exported to Rome, and considered by interesting, and a valuable curiosity. The Greeks, these enervated people as a great article of luxury. after many years of the most servile oppression, rose, They beautified and adorned the temples, offered in- retook the island, and held possession for thirty-four cense to the protecting gods of the island and their years, when they were in their turn again defeated, trade, and made the allars of those gods respected. In and by this conquest, their power was most effectually excavating, some twenty years ago, at the head of the destroyed. The Arabs killed all those who by age were great harbor, the Roman remains of a vast mole were capable of bearing arms, and disposed of the women found, which once bounded the fort; and very latterly, and children as slaves. These barbarians treated all indeed within the last two months, while the workmen the other inhabitants with lenity, paid a proper respect were engaged in digging a place to serve as a founda- to the christian religion, and imposed no taxes on the tion for the monument which is now being erected to people. Not a long time ago, the Baron Zara had in the memory of the late respected Major General Sir his possession a large sepulchral stone, which was Frederick Ponsonby, they came upon a pavement which entirely covered with an Arabian inscription, and the well answered their purpose, and which was doubtless Marquis Barbaro still retains in his museum some golof Roman build, and perhaps the ruins of a temple. den coins of Arab circulation. The stones were laid in that shape, which induced all Anno Domini one thousand and ninety, the Normans who saw them to entertain this belief. The Ro- conquered the island, and permitted those of the mans have left us, as evidences of their rule at Malta, Arabs, who wished to leave, to carry with them all many medals, a few inscriptions, and a couple of sta. their property. Those who remained, enjoyed their tues, the head of Augustus in basso relievo, and the bust religion by the payment of a small tribute. Count of Antonius, sculptured from native stone. Their in- Roger, who made this conquest, has left us some coins, scriptions make mention only of the repairs of the tem- ; with his arms upon them: this nobleman, after making ple of Proserpine and Apollo, and the enlargement of a treaty with the barbarians that all christian slaves their theatre. The medals bear upon them the head of captured at sea by their corsairs should not be held in Juno, the Latin word Melitaion—while on the reverse bondage, returned to Sicily. In 1224, Frederick II. is a triumphal chain with a Romaic inscription. I had made a conquest of Celano, in Calabria, and sent the almost neglected to mention an antiquity which is, of prisoners he made in that province as exiles to Malta. all the Roman remains, the most solemn and interest. For seventy-two years the Maltese were subjects of the ing—it is a large sepulchral lamp, of a singular shape, emperors of Germany, beautifully and curiously made. It was discovered Fortune next threw the island into the hands of some two hundred years ago, and is now exhibited in Charles of Anjou, who was king of Sicily; it was not, the public museum.
however, long held in his possession, although it reThe Roman empire being dismembered, the Vandals, mained for a few years subject to the French governin 455, took possession of Malta, and retained it ten ment
t-the brother of Charles being at that period Louis years, when they were driven out by the Goths, who IX. king of France. remained as rulers for several centuries : while these In 1298, Corneille, who commanded the French fleet people governed, the temples were plundered, and the cruising off Malta, was attacked by Roger, an Arragocommerce destroyed. Very little is to be met with at nian admiral, defeated and killed : the victors landed, this day, which may serve to bring to our recollection took possession of the island, the inhabitants having of the dominion of the Goths; a small inscription in made no resistance. Charles made an attempt to rethe church of St. Agatha in the old city is indeed their conquer it, but his fleet was dispersed, and the empire only monument.
of his enemies firmly established. Pious foundations Belisarius, who was sent by the Emperor Justinian are the only remains, which the Norman, German, and to wrest Africa from the Vandals, landed at Malta in French princes have left us of their government. From 553, took possession, and united it to the Roman em. this time, and indeed for a period of one hundred and pire. Under this protection, the inhabitants became thirty years, little is recorded on the page of history, wealthy--the emperors, however, did not allow to the l which would be interesting for the general reader to peruse-it mentions only of the tyranny practised by In the early part of 1525, when the knights were the rulers, who were sent by the kings of Arragon and wanderers in different parts of Europe, the king of SiCastile to govern the Maltese, and of the islanders cily proposed, should the inhabitants consent, to yield having subscribed, in 1428, thirty thousand forins, to them Malta for their habitation. L'Isle Adam, the have the islands annexed by king Alphonso, to the celebrated grand-master of Rhodian memory, in June of kingdom of Sicily.
the same year, sent eight commissioners to explore the
rock, and report on their return, whether it would be a
suitable place of residence, or, in other words, he might PART II.
have said banishment, for it could be but little less to In the preceding chapter we have given a brief state them, who had for so many years been enjoying every ment of the history of Malta, from its first settlement, luxury on a fertile island, and dwelling at the same some fifteen hundred years before Christ, until the time in the beautifully built and strongly fortified city period when it was permanently annexed to the king of Rhodes. The emissaries at this period Aattered dom of Sicily. While doing this, we have had recourse themselves, as did the grand-master, that with the to several works, all of which are acknowledged to be promised assistance of galley slaves from France, of very imperfect : it appears as if each author, had slu. money from Spain, and artillery from England, they died to contradict the statements of the other. Where should be enabled to make a successful attack on ever we have observed any thing which we thought Rhodes, and drive the infidels from the city. The remight be interesting, we have copied it; and for the port which they drew up was therefore any thing but historical notices we are chiefly indebted to the volumes flattering. They stated that the island of Malta was of Boisgelin and Vertot, both of whom were knights, merely a rock of a soft sand stone called tufa, about six and consequently in all their feelings prejudiced in favor or seven leagues long, and three or four broad ; that the of the order.
surface was scarcely covered with more than three or The island of Malta but a rock of limestone, and four feet of earth, which was likewise stony, and very were it not that veins of granite and marble had been unfit to grow corn and other grain, though it produced found in the vicinity of the Benjemma hills, which ex- abundance of figs, melons, and different fruits; that the tend from Valetta in a north-west direction, it might principal trade of the island consisted in cotton, and literally be said throughout its whole extent to be of the cumin, which the inhabitants exchanged for grain; that same soft species. The soil has been made by the except a few springs in the middle of the island, there islanders, and nothing can be more erroneous than the was no running water, nor even wells-tbe want of assertion given by Brydone, that the earth was origini- which the inhabitants supplied with cisterns; that nally brought from Sicily. In Hennen's topography, wood was so scarce as to be sold by the pound—which we have noticed a long and interesting article on the forced them to use wild thistles, for dressing food; that manufacture of the soil, which we should like to the island contained about twelve thousand inhabiquote entire, as given from the pen of Dr. Tully; tants-of both sexes—the greatest part of whom were we shall, however, content ourselves with briefly no- poor and miserable, owing to the barrenness of the ticing it at present, and turn to it again hereafter: soil ; and, in a word, that a residence at Malta appearwe have often witnessed the process, and can vouch for ed extremely disagreeable, indeed almost insupportable, its veracity.
especially in summer. Such was the state of this A countryman wishing to make a barren rocky sur- island, as reported by these commissioners upwards of face a cultivated plat of earth, commences by breaking three hundred years ago. Indeed, it was so discouraging up the stones which lies on the surface, and for a depth that the L'Isle Adam wept while giving a perusal to of some six inches. This fine powder is carefully laid the document, which gave him the unwelcome intelliaside and mixed with the calcareous earth, which is in- gence. The grand-master found, that the promised variably found under the first layer of stone-a half succors were not forthcoming-his treasury empty-the acre, which is the avarege size of a field, cleared in this strength of the order greatly reduced, by the number of way, is then covered with this artificial soil. By the those who had fallen in fair fight against the Turks, assistance of manure, “and by its great aptitude in its and by those who were deceased from the plague on new form to the absorption of moisture from the atmos- their voyage to Europe; with all these accumulated phere, its bulk very perceptibly increases, and soon misfortunes on his memory, he exclaimed in full counforms a sort of concrete texture.” Watermelons and cil, “must I survive the loss of Rhodes for no other end cucumbers, requiring the least nourishment, are first than to be a witness, and that at this period of my raised, and will Aourish the succeeding season—"corn life, of the scattering and perhaps the ulter ruin of an is the usual growth of the third year;" and it is by this, order, whose institution is of so sacred a nature, and and similar processes that by far the greater part of Mal- whose government is confided to me ?" ta and Goso has been brought into a state of cultivation, It singularly happened that this illustrious old man had and the soil been found so rich, that although only of a hardly ceased speaking, when the commander Bosio, a few inches depth, it will produce to the husbandman its brave man, who had been sent by the grandmaster to two and three yearly crops, as a just reward for his Rhodes to discover the strength of the Turkish garritoil and labors. It is a common conversation here son, and what chance there might be of success should with the countrymen, of their "ever-producing soil;" an attack be made, returned, and on his entry, all preand a most happy thing it is for the Maltese, for had sent knew by his fallen countenance, even before he not nature ordained it so, many more instances would spoke, that nothing could be hoped from his statement be noted of the death of the poor from absolute star-lo authorise the attempt. vation,
It appeared that the project which the grand-master
entertained had been too long delayed, and that the with the terms proposed by him it was impossible for same having been made known at Constantinople, the the knights to accept of the islands-giving as their grand seignor had immediately changed the garrison, reasons, “that although they were all born subjects of and put several christians to death, in the city whom he different powers, yet the order in general by its prosuspected of having favored the design. It was with the fession was independent of any one ; that the only utmost difficulty, and when beset with dangers, that the view of the institution was to defend all christians commander Bosio himself, found means to escape the alike against the incursions of the infidels; that for strict search which had been made by order of the go- so many years as the order had existed with some kind vernor. The knights having heard this report, with of glory, it had never yet been known to engage common consent, abandoned all hopes of ever again against any christian prince in favor of anotherrecapturing Rhodes, and turned their attention to the and with regard to Tripoli, they stated that sending other places which had been named, and which by con- knights to defend so weak a place, surrounded as it quest or grant would be suitable for a seat and resi- was by barbarians and infidels, was little better dence of the order.
chan sending them to the slaughter.” The pope also Bosio, who was ever warm and enterprising in those took this occasion to recommend to the emperor, things in which the interests of his order were con- in the strongest terms, the interests of the order of cerned, had been, on his return from Rhodes, to Modon, St. John-stating that "he had been brought up in a city of the Morea, where he found two Greeks by it, and considered it in a manner as his second birth, but Turks by profession, who were filling the family.” highest places in the town—the one, by name Cajolan, Though the emperor was not easily caught with sohad command of the fort, the other was chief director licitations, in which his interest was not concerned, yet of the customs, and also master of the gate of the being reconciled with the pope, he observed it was mole. These renegadoes, on being written to, came at impossible to refuse him any thing and it is affirmed night on board the commander's ship. “Bosio found that the house of Medicis and the order of St. John, them- thoroughly penitent for their fault in having owe their re-establishment to the exertions of Clement, changed their religion, and resolved to atone for it who was at that period at the head of the Romish though at the expense of their lives.” After various church. consultations, during which many plans had been de- On the twenty-sixth of October, 1530, L'Isle Adam, vised, it was at last arranged as follows: On a certain with his council and chief commanders, arrived and day a number of merchant vessels should arrive in the anchored in the great harbor of Malta. On landing, harbor, each containing some three score of the order; they went immediately to the parochial church of St. that during the night they should all be landed, some Lawrence, in which they performed divine service : this being admitted by Cajolan into the tower which pro- ceremony being finished, the grand-master entered the tected the fort, while the others should pass through town situated at the foot of the castle of St. Angelo, the marine gate, kill the guard, and enter the town. which was composed of wretched hovels, and tenanted While this was going on, a cannon shot should serve as by people of the most savage and rustic appearance. a signal for the christian fleet, which should be at an. Not a house could be found suitable as a residence for chor behind the neighboring island of Sapienza, to the grand-master-this, in connection with the barrenapproach, bombard the city, and send reinforcements ness of the soil, the poverty of the inhabitants, the to assist the attacking party. This was a favorite pro- want of bread, which they could only procure from ject with the French knights, who it appeared would Sicily, and no place of defence in case they should be rather fight for Modon than take quiet possession of attacked, grievously afflicted L'Isle Adam, more espethe islands of Malta and Goso. L'Isle Adam, how- cially when he thought of Rhodes, so fruitful in corn, ever, who was a man of sound judgment, preferred so rich by its fleets, and armaments, and moreover the certain settlement, to one which was to be gained by capital of six other islands, the most inconsiderable of conquest, and proposed-which after a long discussion which was better fortified than Malta. Eight years was unanimously agreed to—that Bosio should be sent had expired from the time the order was driven from as ambassador to Rome, to request the pope, who had Rhodes to the period when it was established at Malta, been one of the order, lo exert his influence with the and during this long term the knights had been resiemperor Charles V., he having been named by him, as dents at Candia, Messina, Civita Vecchia, Viterbo, “ arbitrator of the conditions, and terms of the feof. Nice, Villa Franca, and Sicily. ment."
These continued movements were attended with It appears that the emperor did not wish to yield much expense, and had not Charles, the emperor of the islands, “unless the body of the order would take Spain and king of Sicily, granted the islands of Malta an oath of fidelity to him, in quality of its sove and Goro as opportunely as he did, as a habitation of reign-that a new creation should be made of a second the order, the probability is, that with a drained treabailiff of the language of Castile—that in the admi- sury, and their spirits broken, each knight would have ral's absence, none but a knight of the language of returned to his home, and as a body that these men Italy should command the gallies—and, lastly, that the would never have been more celebrated for their deeds city of Tripoli, on the coast of Barbary, should be in arms, and for the services which they afterwards so taken possession of by the order, and be defended by effectually rendered to the christian world, while for them against the attacks of the infidels. Bosio after nearly three hundred years they waged an almost unhaving fulfilled his embassy to Rome, and at the sug- ceasing war with their infidel enemies. gestion of the pope, continued on to Madrid, where on
A. his arrival he called on the emperor, and stated that Malta, May 28th, 1838.