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“Then," said the former, “it will poured in on the British a destructive fire; but be another Gates defeat.” “I hope to God it will continuing to advance with the bayonet on our be another''Tarleton's defeat,” replied the gallant militia, the latter retired and gained the second son of Middletown Valley. “I am Col. Tarleton, line. Here, with part of the corps, Pickens took sir.” “And I am Sergeant Everheart, sir.” It post on Howard's right, and the rest Aled to their was a reply worthy of Roman or Spartan courage. horses. Tarleton pushed forward, and was receirSuffering intensely from his wounds, they were ed by Morgan with unshaken firmness. Each speedily dressed by the British surgeon, and he party struggled hard for victory; the enemy was treated with distinguished kindness. Now a ordered up his reserve. McArthur's regiment prisoner of war, he was taken with the enemy's animated the whole British line, which, outstretcharmy to the scene of action. At eight o'clock in ing our front, endangered Howard. That officer the morning, Morgan halting near the Broad river, defended his tank by directing his right company awaited the approach of his adversary. The to change its front; but by mistake it fell hack; ground about the Cowpens was covered with open the line began to retire, and they were ordered to wood, allowing the cavalry to operate with ease, retreat to the cavalry. This manæuvre being in which the British trebled our forces. The de- quickly performed, the new position was immetachment of Tarleton numbered one thousand;— diately resumed. The British line now rushed on that of Morgan, eight hundred. Although the with impetuosity, but as it drew near, Howard plan of tattle on the part of the American briga- faced about, and delivered a close and serere fire. dier, was, in the estimation of some military men, The enemy recoiled;—the advantage was followed rather injudicious, yet it was impossible that the up with the bayonet, and the day was ours. At issue could have been more fortunate. The first this instant, Washington charged, as Major Siline was composed of militia under Major Mc- mons has stated, on the enemy's cavalry, who had Duwel, of North Carolina, and Major Cunning- gained our rear, and were “cutting down" our ham, of Georgia, who were ordered to feel the militia. He proved himself the “ thunderbolt of enemy as he approached, then to fall back on the war.” What language can paint the emotions front line, and renew the conflict. The main which then filled the bosom of his friend, a captive body of militia composed this line, under Gen. in the hands of that enemy whom the colonel was Pickens. In the rear of the first line was station- destroying; himself liable at every moment to ed a second, composed of the continental infantry, fall by the hands of his countrymen? His beloved and Virginia militia, under Captains Triplett and chief was then in the prime of life, six feet in Taite, commanded by Howard. Washington's height, broad, strong, and corpulent, courting cavalry, reinforced by a company of mounted mi- danger, impetuous and irresistible. In proof of litia, was held in reserve, convenient to support the this, Marshall, in his 4th vol. page 347, says: “la infantry, and to protect the horses of the rifle the eagerness of pursuit, Washington advanced corps, which, agreeably to usage, were tied in the near thirty yards in front of his regiment. Ob
“The gloomy host” now advanced, sure of serving this, three British officers wheeled about conquest. At this solemn period, Morgan, who and made a charge upon him? The officer on his had fought at Quebec under Montgomery, and right was aiming to cut him down, when a sergeant fully established his fame at Saratoga, addressed came up and intercepted the blow, by disabling his troops in a style worthy of a Hannibal or his sword arm. At the same instant, the officer Scipio Africanus. Uneducated as he was, his elo- on his left was about to make a stroke at him, quence was from the heart, and thrilled through when a waiter, too small to wield a sword, sared every bosom. He exhorted the militia to the ex- him by wounding the officer with a ball discharged ercise of firmness and zeal, and declared his entire from a pistol. At this moment, the officer in the confidence in their valor and patriotism. He point- centre, who was beliered to be Tarleton, made a ed them to the fields of his exploits ; to his fortune thrust at him, which he parried, upon which the and experience; to the destructive fire of his un- officer retreated a few paces, and then discharged erring riflemen ; to the mortification he had expe- a pistol at him, which wounded his knee." The rienced at being hitherto forced to retire before sergeant here spoken of was Everheart. Under the enemy; and that now was the time to strike for Providence, he was his shield and buckler. How their country. To the continentals he said little, great the benefit conferred on his country! Had except to remind them that they needed no exhor- Washington fallen, we should not only have lost tation to do their duty. He took his station. The his all-important services on that day, when vicsituation of Everheart, when the first line fell tory settled on our banner, but also bis valor and back, and the shout of the enemy was heard in all skill at the subsequent actions of Guilford and directions, must have been truly appalling, be- Eutaw, at which last place he was, to the great cause he knew not that this movement formed grief of the whole army, thrown from his horse part of the plan of battle. But rushing on the while charging the enemy, and carried away a front line, which held its station, they instantly prisoner to Charleston. Morgan now pressed bis
success; the pursuit became general. The Bri- armies. He was, during the whole time, within tish cavalry were covering the retreat; but, ac- range of the enemy's shot. I cannot forbear recording to the evidence of Major Simons, nothing lating a singular event detailed to me by Charles could restrain the ardor of the colonel. He pur- Magill, Esq., late of Winchester, Virginia, who sued them twenty-two miles, within a short dis- was aid-de-camp to Greene during this engagetance of Cornwallis' camp, at Fisher's creek, ment. A captain was under arrest for cowardice, where the British under Tarleton retreated. Some- As the enemy displayed their columns, and formtime after this affair, the British colonel observed ed their line, the unfortunate man, after protesting in company, that he should be pleased to see Mr. his innocence of the charge, desired the major to Washington, of whom he had heard so much; to gallop to the general, and ask a suspension only which a lady very significantly replied, that he during the action, that he might retrieve his chamight have been gratified had he only looked be- racter. It was soon done, and he was placed at the hind him at the Cowpens !
head of his company. On the first fire he fled from In this action, of the enemy there were one his station, and sheltered himself behind an apple hundred, including ten officers, killed; twenty- tree. Magill invoked him in the strongest terms three officers and five hundred privates were taken. to reflect on his conduct and situation, and urged Their artillery, 800 muskels, two standards, thir- bim to resume his command. At the first step he ty-five baggage wagons, and one hundred horses fell took from behind the tree, a ball from the enemy into our hands; while our loss was only seventy, laid him dead at the feet of his friend. It was bis of whom twelve were killed. Everheart informs opinion that the captain was born a coward; but me, that while the dragoons were making the that he would have been in less danger at his comcharges described by Major Simons, he could mand, than in the situation he bad assumed. As hear them distinctly cry out as their watchword, Everheart did not participate in the battle of Guil" Buford's play," referring to the odious massacre ford, I shall notice only a few of its particulars, perpetrated on the detachment commanded by that connected with the part which his colonel performofficer, as before detailed. Yet for all this, al- ed on that occasion. At the most important crithough the innocent blood of their companions, sis, Washington charged the British guards with shed contrary to the laws of civilized warfare, yet tremendous fury, and perceiving an officer at remained unavenged; and the very persons who some distance surrounded by aids-de-camp, whom did the foul deed, were now in the open field of he supposed to be Cornwallis, he rushed on with honorable combat, or held as prisoners fairly van- the hope of making him prisoner, but was prequished; no instance occurred on the part of our vented by accident. His cap fell on the ground, troops in which the dreadful precedent was follow- and, as he dismounted to recover it, the officer ed. Washington now returning from the chase, leading the column was shot through the body, with joy embraced his wounded friend, and sent and rendered incapable of managing his horse. him, under the care of two dragoons, three miles The animal wheeled round with his rider and galdistant from the Cow pens, where his wounds were loped off the field. The cavalry followed, supposdressed by Dr. Pindall, formerly of Hagerstown, ing that this movement had been ordered. But Maryland, then surgeon of the regiment. He re- for this circumstance, it is highly probable that mained at this position until the last of February, the amiable and accomplished Cornwallis would and then set out for Catawba river. Passing have been spared the pain of surrendering his through Salem, he arrived at Guilford Court whole army shortly afterwards at York, in VirHouse immediately before the battle fought there, ginia. Greene, it is true, retreated--but only after March 15, 1781. Here it is expedient to explain such an obstinate contest as induced Charles Fox, a part of the affidavit of Major Simons, where it is in the House of Commons, to tell the ministry, said that the subject of this memoir had retired with bis usual sarcasm, that such another victory from the army. That officer, not being at Guil- would destroy the British army. The official acford, did not of course see Everheart there; and counts estimate our loss in killed, wounded and no doubt thinking that his wounds were so very missing, at fourteen commissioned officers, and severe as to compel him to retire from service, and three hundred and twelve non-commissioned offinot hearing any thing to the contrary, he took for cers and privates of the continental line. In the granted that it was the fact. At this place, the militia, there were four captains and seventeen interview between the colonel and sergeant was privates killed ; and besides General Stephens, truly joyous. He apprised Washington that his there were one major, three captains, eight subaldebility would prevent bis participating in the terns, and sixty privates wounded. The loss of coming conflict, and he was requested by that offi - the British was five hundred and thirty-two men; cer merely to take charge of the baggage wagons. among them several officers of distinguished taYet such was his love of battle, that he took his lents. Cornwallis retired to Ramsay's mills, and station on a hill where he could distinctly see Greene set out in pursuit of him. The sergeant every movement, and hear every shock of both remained for several weeks in the vicinity of the court house, that he might have the benefit of the light of the neighborhood in which he resides, professional skill of Dr. Wallis, in the healing of Not far from the place of his birth he passes the his wounds. During the summer, being once evening of his days in peace and tranquillity, awaitmore ready for service, he was, by the order of ing with christian humility the awful summons Greene, employed in collecting horses in North of that Almighty Being, who was his tower of deCarolina, for the use of the army; and on the 18th fence in the day of battle. of October, 1781, was present at the capitulation of the British army at Yorktown. Here his acquaintance with Lafayette commenced, which to the satisfaction of both parties, was renewed at Baltimore in 1825, when the patriot revisited our
RAKINGS OF THE STUDY. shores. He now returned to his county; but in
NO.I. November following, at the request of Col. Baylor, who had been exchanged, and restored to the MARTIN LUTHER-HIS CHARACTER AND TIMES. coinmand of his regiment, he repaired to Peters
Genius illius temporis, velut incantatione quadam, à mortais burg. With him he remained through the suc- revocetur. Bacon: De augm. Scienl. L. II. Cap. 4. ceeding summer, and, in the fall of 1782, was
The present disposition of minds, logether with genehonorably discharged, and once more returned to
ral circumstances, is not the most favorable to a full his lovely valley. With him, " the sword was converted into the plough-share.” Embarking in is but little, if any community of feelings and doc
appreciation of Luther's character and times. There agricultural pursuits, the sternness of the warrior trines between the nineteenth and the sixteenth centuwas now subdued. Having married, and become ries. Questions of a purely dogmatic nature are no the father of several children, his time was chiefly longer invested with the sovereign importance which employed in providing for their wants by honest they once possessed. Proverbially fierce as the spirit industry and toil. After some years, he became a of religious controversy may be; we seldom admit, in preacher in the respectable denomination of chris- our theological wrangles, the fanatical acerbity, which tians called Methodists. Even here, as I am in- quailed not before the imminent danger of the Turk, formed, “the ruling passion” would at times encamped at the gates of Vienna, and which stood follow him; and when in the pulpit was a soldier undaunted by the cruel extravagances of the followers still. He would sometimes introduce his discour.
of John of Leyden, and the awakened passions of the ses by informing his hearers, that, in his youth, he peasants of Muntzer, ravaging the plains of Germany. drew his sword in behalf of his country, but now the temporal aggressions of the church ;-to reduce the
To curb the ambitious cupidity of popes, and check in behalf of his Saviour! Washington frequently excessive number of its ministers and the exorbitan! wrote to Everheart, offering to make bim wealthy increase of its wealth ;-to shake off the yoke of spiif he would emigrate to Carolina, but he declined ritual despotism, and conquer the rights of conscience, his solicitations. When the troops of the United in behalf of man; are no longer exclusive objects of States were stationed at Harper's ferry, in 1799, attainment with the apostles of reform in our day. his colonel, then holding a distinguished rank in The various revolutions through which Europe has that corps, passed through Middletown, and inquir-passed within the last three hundred years, have ased for his old and faithlul friend, desiring that he sumed the task of mainly redressing the grievances would pass the next day with him in Frederick. which induced the reformation. Its pretensions, inasA large collection of citizens assembled to witness much as our country is concerned, are realized. As an the interview. On approaching, they rushed into
instrument of revolution, it has no provisional mission
to perform :-it can exercise no salutary influence on a each other's arms, kissed and gave vent to their
period, the tendency of which is to throw off the rubfeelings in tears of joy. This was the last time bish of worn-out principles, collected by ages of fraud, they ever met. Everheart tells me, that on this on the natural and political rights of mankind ; and the occasion they walked together orer those fields, crowning development of which must be the sure, where, in 1780, the regiment was disciplined for though gradual, reconstruction of the social fabric out service; and that the feelings and scenes of those of new elements of sociability, days were again revived; that he was urged by This reference, therefore, to the great schism of the his chief to remove to Carolina, where wealth, ease sixteenth century, is intended to show Luther rather and happiness awaited him. It was in vain. as an individual than as a reformer ;-rather as the The colonel wrung the hand which had saved his living representative of new ideas, than the assailer of life at Cowpens, and disappeared forever.
mere church corruptions. Indeed we do not think that Admired and beloved by all, this venerable man of abuses. It were a strange, though an habitual
Luther appears to the best advantage as the reformer yet retains uncommon vigor and elasticity of body illusion, to imagine him bound to an unwavering faith and unbroken health. Florid in countenance, in his work, or sustained by an enlightened conscience erect in gait, with every mark of military deport- in his principles and aim. His memoirs exhibit him ment; possessing great decision of character, and reforming himself at each step which he took. Hun a name unsullied by a single stain; he is the do- ble and subdued, at first
, in the presence of Rome's au
thority-then kindling into a spirit of disputatious merry evening-an evening of poetry and song-with pride-insolent even to brutality and vulgar beyond several of his friends ; he entered, in the dead of night, measure-ignorant of the definite bearing of the dis- the cloisters of the Augustine monks at Erfurth. Plaucussion which he had started—alarmed at the very tus and Virgil,* were the only companions that he enthusiasm with which his first theses were received-brought along. With his life of seclusion began a life shrinking before the consequences of the principles of sadness, of anguish and of doubts:—then arose that that he had laid down in his polemics, and driven, by fearful conflict between daring thoughts and checked some irresistible fatality, from negation to negation ;- propensities, which assailed him throughout his existwe find him denying the pope the power of indulgen- ence. There is a wide difference between the spices, denying the merits of good works, denying the ritual trials of the German reformer and those of the institution of the pa pacy, denying the church as a visi- eremites, saints and doctors of the primitive church. ble body, denying the prayers for the dead, denying Temptation never reached the faith of the latter; it the freedom of will and the indissolubility of the mar- assailed the flesh merely, which neither fastings nor riage bond. He successively revolutionized not only the macerations, vigils nor prayers
, could entirely subdue : discipline of the church, and its religious and dogmatic while, in Luther, we find, at once, the temptings of the authority, but also the received opinions of mankind spirit and the flesh-the rebellion of the intellect and the concerning morals, the family state, and political society war of the senses-hot passions and racking doubtsitself
. Breathing in turn the most sublime eloquence, Satan rushing on his soul, and, according to his own and in turn sinking into the most abject foolery ; de quaint expression, “ beating it with his fists.” Many nouncing the temporal powers, and then bending in and bitter were the nights, as he relates himself, which ignominious subserviency to their views; Luther could he spent in monastic solitude ; wrestling with the spirit at times command the language of protection and of evil, and clinging in prayerful watches to the foot of mercy in behalf of the wretched peasantry, who had the cross. reared the standard of rebellion in the name of his The mind-sick and restless monk resolved to carry his reformation ; at others, mark them out for the cruel doubts to the very centre of faith ; and, in the hope of butcheries of the inexorable barons, and solicit their certainty and peace, to lay down his agony before St. arm to the work of carnage and torture. “The pea- Peter's chair. He left, therefore, his cell at Erfurth to santry,” he writes, “ deserve no mercy-no toleration ; visit the Vatican; but, like one of the greatest living but the indignation of the vilest of men. They are geniuses of the age, he returned, from the capital of the under the ban of God and of the empire. It is lawful christian world, to curse the vanity of his pilgrimage to kill them like mad dogs!" He was truly of that and the obstinacy of the pope.f stern race of Saxons, whom Karl the Great could not In the year 1517, after his return from Italy, Luther bring under the christian law, until converted by fire began his attacks against the church of Rome; and and sword.
published and maintained his propositions against the A dark and fatal predestination of trials and con- doctrine of indulgences. The records of the revoludieta harbingered Luther's birth. He was born in blood. tions of the mind do not furnish a more striking inJahn Luther, his father, having accidentally killed a stance of total disproportion between effect and cause, man, who tended his flock, was compelled to fly. His than do the annals of the great reformation of the sixwife, who had followed him in spite of her critical teenth century in its origin and its development. Sinsituation, gave birth to Martin on reaching the town of gular indeed as it may appear, we may, without strainEisleben. His father's cognizance-for the mechanics ing probabilities, trace up the most important schism in and even the serfs of those days, in imitation of the the church of Christ, since the heresies of Arianism, nobility, bore armorial devices-has a miner's sledge. to motives of personal interest and baffled lucre. I With this sledge the son was destined to dint the pa- No event in history has proven, more forcibly than pal tiara and shiver the pastoral staff of the catholic the reformation, how the tendencies of a period may hierarchy:-the same instrument, which, in the course overmaster the spirit of man, even when that man is of time, passing through the hands of Cromwell, Robe. spierre and Napoleon, hammered regal crowns and
*The choice of these two authors is measurably characteristic regal baubles into fragments.
of Luther's disposition. Virgil's melancholy tenderness har.
monises with Luther's keen sensibilities—ever an adjunct of Early indications of talent, given by Luther, induced crue genius ; while the somewhat coarse and vulgar style of in bis mother, who though grossly illiterate, seems to Plaulus' comedies assimilates with the unaccountable tendenhave been a woman of high energies, a desire to see cy to ribaldry, which marks many of the compositions of the rebim trained up as a scholar. How far her laudable, maternal ambition was realized, the after life of the
+ Lamennais, the democratic priest, and powerful editor of reformer abundantly proves. The courses of his youth, the Avenir. Admonished by Gregory the XVI, of the “libertine however, were wild and unruly :-it required the tendencies” of his editorial labors, he repaired to Rome to ex. voice of thunder to call young Luther away from the plain his views of political and religious freedom; and they proverbial excesses of a German student's life. Like were answered by the memorable encyclic letter of the month St. Paul, on the road to Damascus, he was solemnly and bishops to stem the torrent of innovations sweeping over
of August, 1932, urging all patriarchs, primates, archbishops warned by the voice of God. In the year 1505, Lu- christendom. ther, whilst walking with a bosom friend, saw him struck into a heap of cinders by the lightning of hea
It is not intended, neither is this the place, to renew the ven. He shrieked a vow to Si Anne; and that vow interminable disputes of Staupitz and Tetzel; but those who
are acquainted with the history of the sixteenth century, will was to take orders, if spared. On the seventeenth of find a clue to the allusion, in the contest of the Augustinians July of the same year, therefore, after having spent a land Dominicans in the monopoly of the indulgences.
one of confessed and commanding genius. We have bread and wine are not transubstantiated into the body mentioned Luther's alarm at the enthusiasm which and blood of Christ. After Urban the VI, no pope hailed the appearance of his propositions through Ger- should be acknowledged; but we should live according many; and adverted to his controversial propensities, to our own conscience, and after the manner of the his waverings, his contradictions and his doubts. The Greeks. It is repugnant to the gospel that churchren latter are so peculiarly characteristic of his course, that should hold personal property. All mendicant monks he may be said to have rather followed than directed are heretics. The people have a right to correct their the onward march of intellectual freedom. Of the re- rulers when they fall into error. Whoever enters a form of abuses, as far as it went, Luther cannot fairly convent is less fitted for the observance of God's com. claim the exclusive merit:-it had, for three centuries mandments. Those who establish monasteries are at least, been a question of internal church discipline- sinners; and those who live in them are devils. The the object of the meditations and censures of the most election of the pope by the cardinals is a device of illustrious and venerated of its members of St. Bernard, Satan. Belief in the sovereignty of the church of Gerson, Pietro, Alliaco, among other champions of the Rome, is not necessary to the salvation of souls. hierarchy. Three famous councils—those of Pisa, Con. Besides these theological propositions, closely assimi. stance and Basil-had begun the reform, which was lating with Luther's, it may not be irrelevant to quote repelled by the church as soon as attempted to be en- a few philosophic dicta, which will more fully charac. forced by violence. Inasmuch as dogmas were con- cerise Wycleff's theories. He maintained that the idea cerned, the different heresies of the sectarians, Peter of all things is in God from all eternity; and, therefore, de Bruys, Berengarius, Abeilard, Roscelyn, Arnoldo that all things occurring in the course of time are eter. di Brescia, Savonarola, * Wycleff
, John Huss and Je nal. According to his doctrines, everything in God is rome of Praga-had amply smoothed the way for God. Hence this, for the fourteenth century, bold propoLuther, and stripped his task of much of its arduous-sition, which is not far removed from the pantheism of ness. In 1546, the very year of his death, he witnessed Spinosa and Schelling :-every creature is God. He the achievement of the great revolution, attempted by also laid down the thesis, that God can annihilate nothose whom we have mentioned, and brought to a suc-thing; and that all things happen through an invincible cessful close by his agency. All who had preceded necessity; a broad confession of fatalism, which may him in this perilous career, had either been satisfied be put in juxtaposition with Luther's tenets on the with the fame of the schoolmen, or had perished by freedom of man, which the reformer completely suborfire and steel. In matters depending on opinion merely, dinated to divine grace. opinion is all powerful :- John Huss and Jerome of Wycleff's heresies had barely gone beyond the thresPraga, were burned, at the council of Constance, for hold of the schools; and it was not until the year 1415, the defence of a majority of the propositions, which a sometime after his death, that they passed the precincts hundred years afterwards convulsed Europe through of the university and were summoned before the council Luther's lips, and cut off one half of its dominions held at Constance. His works were amerced, instead from the spiritual authority of the pope. The Henri- of his body; his books and bones were publicly burned, cians, the Waldenses, the Petrobrusians and the Hus- and his memory ritually damned. John Huss, though sites form one unbroken chain of innovators, whose not half as daring as Wycleff, was certainly more unexertions and life-blood prepared the triumph of the fortunate. The despotism of the popes and the derereformation under political influences.
lictions of the clergy--the protracted schism of the It cannot be proven from the scriptures, says Wy church and total depravation of the ecclesiastic body, cleff, who wrote in the course of the fourteenth century, loudly called for the reform of so many and scandalous that Christ has instituted the rites of the mass. The abuses. The very council, before which Huss appeared,
deposed three popes, who had mutually excommuni* After the mercantile aristocracy of Florence had opened cated each other; and one of whom, John XXIII
, if their career of oppression, and the conflict begun between the not belied by history, was steeped in execrable crimes
, corrupt ambition of immoderate wealth and the laborious pride Huss was condemned, and burnt alive, in violation of ot' the democracy; there suddenly rose a champion, who was at once a priest-a tribune--and a martyr. While Machia. the safe conduct granted him by king Sigismund, velli was reducing the doctrines of despotism into systematic who was present at the council. This breach of and ingenious forms ; Savonarola, the poor Dominican Monk, plighted faith, is one of the most remarkable in the terrorised the soul of the Medici ; and, from the pulpits, and in annals of the world ; because committed after mature the streets and thoroughfares of Florence, preached, not only the reform of abuses and fear of God; but also the love of reflection and by a pious senate of prelates, doctors and freedom and the equality of human rights. With a boldly priests. Universal christendom was made a particidemocratic hand he inscribed, over the judgment seat of the pant, through its representatives, in this felon deed; great council, the following republican stanza, in direct oppo- and never did a more solemn conclave taint their souls sition to a contemplated treaty with the banished Medici. Carlo with an act of more solemn perfidy. Swayed by Coechi, for a mere attempt to induce a departure from the poetical monitions of this religious tribune, was doomed to the a perversion of principle and a lust of cruelty which block :
have no parallel in the blood-written pages of fana“Se questo popolar consiglio, e certo
ticism, they remorsely gave to a borrid death, one Governo, popol, della tua cittale
who had been entrapped by the lying promises of Conservi, che da Dio t'é stalo offerto,
their safe conduct. A few independent minds and In pace starai sempre e'n libertate;
honest hearts did blame the execution of Huss; but Tien Dunque l'occhio della meute aperto, Che molte insidie ognor ti fien parate ;
the council issued an ordinance to allay the seruE sappi, che chi vuol far parlamento
ples of the weaklings and muzzle the officiousness of Vuol torti delle maui il reggimento."
I the censors. The text of the rescript, by which the