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few instances the face was tatooed; the chest, arms, loins, legs and hands of the men were principally thus ornamented. The women are tatooed on the same parts, but more especially and curiously about the ankles, and over the foot as far as the toes. The rank of the individual might easily be guessed by the quantity and character of these elegant delineations. We cannot learn that tatooing had any immediate relationship to idolatry, or any of its rites; there is little doubt that it was an artifice employed to enhance personal beauty, according to the notions prevalent here, as well as among other barbarous nations, with whom this usage obtains. As soon as christianity was received, the practice was conscientiously abandoned. Vol. I. p. 93.

Having seen something of the wonderful change wrought among these people, and their present improved character and habits, we are gratified to perceive, also, that a profession of christianity among them implies something more than an external observance of its duties. The candidates are strictly examined, before admission to the church, as to their views of christian doctrine and duty, their motives and feelings, and particularly, their evidence of a change of heart. Say the deputation,

In the evening we had an opportunity of witnessing with what circumspection the missionaries admit natives to religious privileges. Two men and two women were examined, previous to their being received as communicants, touching their knowledge of the nature of the Lord's supper, the obligations of church-members one towards another, and the general, social and relative duties of professing christians. The answers of the candidates were highly satisfactory, and the exhortations of their teachers were fervent, faithful, and authoritative, as became ministers of the gospel of truth, which requires purity of heart and holiness of life in all its subjects. We, ourselves put several questions. To one man we said, "What are your reasons for supposing that you have experienced that change which is called 'being born again,' and without which 'a man cannot enter the kingdom of God?" He replied, "I feel a desire after good things, and I hate the bad things in which I once delighted. I wish to be made holy, and free from sin. Therefore I hope my heart has been changed."—Of another, a second candidate, (a female,) we inquired, "Since the scriptures lay it down, as an evidence of true religion, that we love God and his people, what makes you think that you have this two-fold affection?"-Her answer was, I want to serve God; I have pleasure in attending the public and private meetings for religious instruction; and I love to be in the company of good people.' We asked a third, (a man,) “As it is indispensably necessary that you should constantly perform all your christian and common duties, do you expect to be saved by your good deeds?" "No," said he, "though I think it right and necessary to do these duties, I depend for salvation on the merits of Jesus Christ alone."-To the fourth, (another woman,) we remarked, "As great and important duties belong to members of churches, we should be glad if you would name some of these, and tell us how you intend to discharge them?" She answered, "It is my duty to come regularly to the sacrament, to do good to other people, and to pray for them. I hope, therefore, to be found faithful in these, and all things else requir ed of me."-These examinations continued till a late hour.-Vol. I, p. 127.

In a visit to Huahine, one of the leeward islands, the deputation met a most cordial welcome from the missionaries there, Messrs. Ellis and Barff. But the affectionate greeting they received from the king and queen, the chiefs, the deacons of the church, and hundreds of the natives, who had assembled on the shore to await their arrival, no language can adequately describe.

Next morning being sabbath, they attended the customary morning prayer-meeting at the chapel, and found not less than a thousand natives present, by whom all the exercises of the meeting, consisting of prayer, singing, and reading the scriptures, were conducted. At the forenoon and afternoon exercises the audience amounted to twelve hundred. Say the deputation,

After the sermons, on both parts of the day, it was difficult for us to escape from the good folks, who thronged around us to express their gladness at our arrival. But what pleased us most was a notice, given out after service, that to-morrow there would be a public meeting of the islanders to aroha us among them. The word aroha strictly means to compassionate, but it is used also to signify love and delight, as well as earnest desire, towards an object. Here it implied, to give us a fervent welcome-a welcome in which the tenderness of affectionate hearts should be mingled with the joy of grateful minds, on seeing the representatives of those Christian friends, in a far country, who did not neglect to aroha them in their low estate, but sent the messengers of the everlasting gospel to raise them from the dust, and set them among the princes of the Lord's people, yea, to make them sit in heavenly places with Christ Jesus.

Dec. 9. Agreeable to the notice yesterday, the people assembled in the chapel, at three o'clock this afternoon, to aroha us on our arrival. The royal princes, chicfs, raatiras (land-owners) and other persons, of both sexes, all ages, and divers classes were present. A beautiful, heart moving spectacle it was, to look upon a thousand human beings, so changed, as the adults all were, from what they and their fathers had been, through untold generations, and especially to meet the lovely countenances and gazing eyes of four hundred children among them, now training up in the nurture and admonition of the Lord—who, had the gospel not found them on the threshold of life, and rescued them, would (for the most part at least) have been murdered at their birth, by the parents to whom they owed their existence, and from whose hands, perhaps (as idolaters, wallowing in all manner of abominations,) death was the best boon they could have received. After singing and prayer, we each addressed the assembly on what God had done for them, in them, and by them; exhorting these Christian professors, not only to hold fast that whereunto they had attained, but to go on to perfection, following after holiness with entire devotion of heart, soul, mind and strength, to the Lord's service. We also explained to them, the purposes of our visit, as a deputation to these islands from the London Missionary Society. Several speeches were then addressed to us; our good brethren, the Missionaries, acting as interpreters to both parties. Vol. I, pp. 138, 139.

In some such manner the deputation were welcomed to most of the islands which they visited. By people of all classes they were treated with the most generous kindness, and afforded every facility for accomplishing the objects of their visit. When not employed in business relating to the state and future prosperity of the missions, they spent their time in learning the history, former religion, manners and customs, and the present condition of the inhabitants; in examining and describing the various fish, shells, rocks, vegetables, trees, fowls, animals, &c. found among the islands. The geographical and scientific information thus obtained and condensed in their journal, greatly enhances its interest and value. Those islands form now some of the most beautiful and interesting portions of the globe. Resting upon beds of coral, which is seen in all its varied beauty in the surrounding waters,



they present a scenery at once sublime, picturesque, and beautiful; and now that the gospel is exerting a powerful and heavenly influence there, they seem to form almost an earthly paradise. The inhabitants, subject to but few diseases, enjoying a mild and equable climate, and having their bodily wants mostly supplied from the spontaneous productions of nature, can, without any inconvenience, devote most of their time to the various duties and exercises of religion. Though they subsist, in some degree, on fish, fowls, hogs, and dogs; yet the bread-fruit and cocoa-nuts constitute by far the most important articles of living. As so many thousands live upon these, we shall probably be excused for transcribing a short description of each.


Dec. 21. The bread fruit-trees are at this season in full bearing, and grow to the highest perfection in this island. The Linnæan name is artocarpus. The tree being well known to voyagers, and through them, by name, to the public, a popular, rather than a scientific description of it may be acceptable here. grows to the size of an ash in England, and is not unlike that tree in form and the color of its bark. The branches affect an upright position. The leaves are much like those of the fig, but more deeply indented, besides growing to a far greater size, some being a foot and a half long. Its appearance is very stately and luxuriant. The fruit is egg-shaped, and sometimes measures twenty two inches in its shortest, and twenty five in its largest circumference. The rind is smooth, green, and marked with hexagonal specks. Under this skin lies the pulp which is eaten, and within that a fibrous core, containing the seeds. The tree is propagated by scions springing from the root of the old stock. These are either suffered to remain and grow up in a clump, or are transplanted singly. They require to be carefully attended to; the ground must be kept clear from weeds for some time, and also well fenced from the hogs, who devour the plants greedily wherever they can light upon such dainties. They are cultivated almost entirely on the low grounds, rarely thriving on the mountain sides, or very near the sea. The trees retain perennial verdure, and bear four crops of fruit in the year. The manifold bounty of Providence is remarkably manifested in giving this valuable product of a soil (not copious in variety of plants) to the people of these islands. It supplies them with food, raiment and timber-each in its kind abundant and excellent. Their canoes are hollowed out of its trunk, or framed from its planks; the beams, rafters and flooring of their houses are hewn out of its substance; and it also furnishes a good pitch, in the gum which exudes from holes bored into its stem. Of the bark a very useful description of cloth is prepared, and with this, indeed, they would want no other. The fruit is a delicate and wholesome substitute for bread; being very nutritious, and of a sweet and pleasant flavor. This fruit, in fact, is the principal support of the people, who seldom make a meal without a large proportion of it. Vol. I, p. 163.

As the cocoa-nut is often brought to this country, no minute description of it need be given; we will transcribe only what is said in relation to its uses.

The timber (of the tree) is of some value, being used for rafters in sheds and cut into short lengths for fences; spears were formerly made of it. The leaves are turned to better account, being platted into mats, shaped into baskets, and occasionally manufactured into bonnets.-The fibres of the husks are twisted into ropes and lines of various sizes, which are exceedingly strong.-The shell of the nut is converted into drinking-cups, lamps, and other small vessels.-The water is a delicious beverage, always cool and refreshing; those who have only tasted it in England have no idea what a luxury it is between the tropics.-The kernel,

when scraped out of the shell, is either eaten raw, or, being squeezed through the fibres of the husk, yields a pleasant and nutritious milk, which is sometimes mixed with arrow-root, and a kind of pudding is compounded of both. The kernel also produces the oil, now so abundantly made here, by a process formerly described in this journal.—Thus timber, fuel, mats, baskets, ropes, drinking-vessels, a wholesome beverage, good food, liquor strainers, bonnets, oil, and bowls for lamps are produced from this convenient tree; which, with the bread fruit,were there no other sources of supply,—would nearly meet all the necessities of the people. Vol. I, p. 169.

These islands were once studded with heathen temples, the site and ruins of which, our travelers found, often, within a quarter of a mile of each other. Of many of these horrid aceldamas they have given minute descriptions; the following reflections arose after viewing one of them.

In surveying this wreck of Satan's throne, melancholy retrospection carried our spirits through the dark ages which had passed over these lands, while they were full of the habitations of cruelty and wickedness; when one generation went, and another came, without change, or hope, or possibility of deliverance, till the messengers of mercy, with their lives in their hands, and the love of Christ and the souls for whom he died in their hearts, appeared upon their shores to preach liberty to the captives, and the opening of the prison doors to them that were bound. The idols, the temples, the bloody rites, the detestable profligacy, the gross ignorance, the spiritual slavery, and the personal abasement, of the people, have all disappeared; and, however imperfect yet, society is advancing in genuine civilization; and, however deficient, still the church of God is growing in grace, and in the knowledge, practice, and enjoyment of pure and undefiled religion. Those of the natives whose habits were formed under the old atrocious system, in contemplating the transformation, not in themselves only, but in all things around them, scarcely know how to reconcile the former and the present state of things; it is to them as though the one or the other must be a dream; yet, by bitter remembrance and happy experience," the wormwood and the gall" not less certainly were there portion once, than "the milk and honey" are now. their prayers and discourses, they love to contrast the two states. They compare the present to peace, after long and murderous wars-to an abundant fruit-harvest, after famine and drought,-to undisturbed, refreshing sleep, after days and nights of toil, and watching, and distress. Vol. I, p. 178.


Having spent five months in visiting the islands, which are more or less under the influence of christianity as carried thither by missionaries from the London Society, the deputation, taking advantage of a vessel that touched at Huahine, on her way from Port Jackson to the Sandwich Islands, engaged a passage for themselves, Mr. Ellis, and some native teachers, to the Marquesan Islands about a thousand miles distant. The setting apart of these native missionaries, in the midst of a large congregation where many hearts were panting to go on this enterprise of truly christian benevolence, was a transaction of thrilling interest, and of great moral dignity. We regard it as one of the most hearttouching scenes described in the journal, but our limits do not permit us to dwell upon it.

On Feb. 25, 1822, they embarked and set sail for the Marquesas; but he who "rides upon the whirlwind and directs the

storm," did not, for wise reasons, no doubt, permit them to reach their destined place; they were driven from their course and carried to the Sandwich Islands. These islands, twelve or thirteen in number, are distant from Tahiti about 1,000 miles, and contain about 200,000 inhabitants. They are distinguished from the Society group, by their tremendous and active volcanoes, and their greater commercial importance. The people of the two groups, though the Tahitians are superior in person, have radically the same language, the same origin, and nearly the same color.

In being carried thither, though such a visit formed no part of their plan, neither was expected, the deputation were disposed especially to acknowledge the hand of God, and believed it would be productive of good. And so it proved. An intercourse, mutually and greatly advantageous, was immediately opened between the missionaries of these widely distant islands; the plans of instruction, means of success, &c. at the Society Islands, and an authentic and full account of the amazing work of God there, were communicated to the American missionaries, and important facilities afforded for prosecuting their work. Mr. Ellis and the teachers from Huahine, being able to converse, preach and pray, in the language of Hawaii, entered at once into the work as assistant missionaries; and arrangements were soon made for the removal of Mr. Ellis and his family, to be stationed permanently there. Besides all this, the visit was most opportune.

Many false and injurious reports had been propagated here by some foreigners, respecting the state of religion in the Society Islands, in order to prejudice the minds of the king, and chiefs, and people of these islands, against the gospel and

the missionaries.

The missionaries had projected, a short time previous to our arrival, a voyage to the South Sea islands, accompanied by some of the chiefs, to ascertain the real state of things there; but the foreigners, by their influence, had prevented the vessel from sailing. At the time of our arrival, the people were laboring under the influence of the prejudices which the foreigners had produced among them. But our testimony to the wonderful work of God in the South Sea islands, together with that of the people who accompanied us, appears to have confounded the opposers, and confirmed the king, and chiefs, and people, in the confidence that the prejudices which had been excited were false and unfounded. We had no idea that this important object was to be answered by our voyage. Truly God is wonderful in counsel, and mighty in executing. Vol. II, p. 37.

During their visit to these islands, the deputation wrote a letter to the American Board, in which they bore the most honorable testimony to the character, labors, wisdom, and devotedness of the American missionaries. As the public have had an opportunity of becoming so well acquainted with these islands through Stewart's "Residence at the Sandwich Islands," and his "Visit to the South Seas," we shall make no extracts from the interesting journal kept by Messrs. Tyerman and Bennet, during their residence

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