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teracting, and ultimately suppressing, on it early in the following year. the Slave-Trade, through a system- About one thousand emigrants were atic colonization of the western coast dispatched thither in the course of of Africa with emancipated blacks the following seven years, including from America, was matured and sug- a small church of colored persons gested by him to others, even before which migrated from Boston in 1826. the outbreak of the Revolutionary The additional number dispatched war; and its realization, interrupted during the succeeding thirty years by that struggle, was resumed by him was not far from eight thousand. directly after it had been closed. The city founded by the original This was anterior to the British set- emigrants received the name of Montlement of Sierra Leone, and preceded rovia, and in 1847 the colony declared the appearance of Clarkson's prize itself an independent republic under essay, commanding public attention the name of Liberia. That republic to the horrors of the Slave-Trade. still exists, enjoying a moderate and Among Dr. Hopkins's European cor- equable prosperity, in spite of its unrespondents were Granville Sharp healthiness for whites, and for all but and Zachary Macaulay, who were duly acclimated blacks, on account among the earliest and least com- of its tropical and humid location. promising of British abolitionists. But the Colonization movement, Through his influence and efforts, though bountifully lauded and glorithree colored youth were educated fied by the eminent in Church and in New England, toward the close of State, and though the Society numthe last century, with express refer- bered among its Presidents Bushrod ence to missionary labor in Africa in Washington, Charles Carroll, James. connection with the Colonization Madison, and Henry Clay, has not movement. Two of these ultimately, achieved a decided success, and for though at a mature age, migrated to the last twenty years has steadily Liberia, where they died soon after. I and stubbornly declined in importThirty-eight American blacks emi-ance and consideration. It has grated to Sierra Leone in 1815, ceased to command or deserve the under the auspices and in the vessel sympathy of abolitionists, without of one of their own number. The achieving the hearty confidence, initial organization of the American though it has been blessed or cursed Colonization Society took place at with the abundant verbal commendPrinceton, N. J., in the autumn of ations, of their antagonists. It was 1816; and that Society was formally soon discovered that, while it was constituted at Washington, by the presented to the former class as a safe choice of officers, on the 1st of Janu- and unobjectionable device for mitiary, 1817. Its first attempt at prac- gating the evils, while gradually untical colonization was made in 1820 dermining the existence, of human on Sherbro Island, which proved an bondage in our country, it was, at unfortunate location; its present po the same time, commended to the sition on the main land, at Cape favor and patronage of slaveholders Mesurado, was purchased December as a means of relieving the South of 15, 1821, and some colonists landed | its dangerous free-negro element, and
ed at Wociety was fomn of at
thus augmenting the security and a follower of Garrison and Wendell insuring the perpetuity of their be- Phillips. The constantly and widely loved institution. Moreover, as the diverging currents of American opinenhanced and constantly increasing ion soon left the Colonization movemarket value of slaves obstructed and ment hopelessly stranded. The diminished manumissions with a view teachings of the new Southern school to colonization, the class of subjects tended palpably toward the extirpafor deportation to Africa steadily tion from the South of the free-negro fell off in numbers, and in the quality anomaly, through reënslavement of those composing it. When, at rather than exile. Legislative efforts last, the South, under the lead of Mr. to decree a general sale of free Calhoun, quite generally adopted the negroes into absolute slavery were novel and extraordinary doctrine of made in several States, barely defeatthe essential righteousness and signal ed in two or three, and fully successbeneficenceof Slavery—when the re- ful in one. Arkansas, in 1858–9, lation of life-long servitude and utter enacted the enslavement of all free subjugation to the will of a master colored persons within her limits, was declared the true, natural, and who should not remove beyond them most enviable condition of the la- before the ensuing 4th of July, and boring class anywhere—the condition this atrocious edict was actually enmost conducive to their happiness, 10 forced by her authorities. The nemoral culture, and social well-being- groes generally escaped; but, if any the idea of liberating individuals or remained, they did so in view of the families from this subjugation, and fact that the first sheriff who could sending them from peaceful, plenti- lay hands on them would hurry them ful, and prosperous America to be to the auction-block, and sell them nighted, barbarous, and inhospitable to the highest bidder. And this was Africa, became, in this view, a trans- but a foretaste of the fate to which parent absurdity. No disciple of the new Southern dogma was morally Calhoun could be a logical, con- certain, in a few years, to consign the sistent colonizationist, any more than whole free colored population of the
10 “ What disposition God, in His providence, | argument. * * * In the general march of human will eventually make of these blacks, cannot be progress, there is no one interest of humanity foretold; but it is our duty to provide for our which has advanced more rapidly than the instiown happiness and theirs as long as we can. In tution of African Slavery as it is in the Southern dealing with this question, it will not do to be States. It has stood the test of every trial. Its guided by abstract notions of liberty and slavery. mission is to subdue the unbroken regions of the We can only judge the future by the past; and, warm and fertile South, and its end is the hapas experience proves that the negro is better off piness and civilization of the human race, includha in slavery at the South than in freedom else- ing the race of the slave, in all respects.' where, it is the part of philanthropy to keep him
Said Mr. Jas. M. Mason, of Va., in the debate here, as we keep our children in subjection for their own good.”—De Bow's Review, vol. ii., p.
of the following day: 310.
“As to the slave population, I agree with the Mr. Chestnut of S. C., in a long pro-slavery Senator from South Carolina. if a problem, it speech in the U. S. Senate, April 9, 1860, pre
has worked itself out; the thing is settled here, sented his views of the inherent excellence of
so far as the South is concerned, or the opinions
and purposes of the South, or their ability to human bondage, as regards the slaves them
make their opinions and purposes good. It will selves, as follows:
become, as it has already begun to be, the estaba "But you say, 'I leave out of the considera lished policy of the South to have no more emantion the happiness of the race enslaved.' By no cipation. Let them continue in bondage as they means. It is an important element of the moral now exist, as the best condition of both races."
Slave States, had not those States . resisted and protested, but only to been precipitated into their great be overborne by inexorable logic, and Rebellion. Individuals would have leven more inexorable majorities.
THE MISSOURI STRUGGLE.
WHEN the State of Louisiana, pre-l "And provided, That the introduction of viously known as the Territory of
of Slavery, or involuntary servitude, be prohib
ited, except for the punishment of crimes, Orleans, was admitted into the Un- whereof the party has been duly convicted; ion,' the remainder of the Louisiana and that all children born within the said
State, after the admission thereof into the purchase, which had formerly borne
Union, shall be declared free at the age of the designation of Louisiana Terri- twenty-five years." tory, was renamed the Territory of On the rising of the Committee, Missouri. The people of a portion the Yeas and Nays were demanded of this Territory, stretching west- in the House on the question of ward from the Mississippi on both agreeing to this amendment; when sides of the river Missouri, peti- a division was called, and so much tioned Congress for admission into of it as precedes and includes the the Union as the State of Missouri; word “convicted” was adopted by and their memorials” were referred 87 Yeas--all from the substantially by the House to a Select Committee, Free States except one of the two whereof Mr. Scott, their delegate, members from Delaware — to 76 was chairman. This Committee re- Nays, whereof ten were from Free ported a bill in accordance with their States—Massachusetts (then includprayer, which was read twice and ing Maine) supplying three of them, committed; but no further action was New York three, with one each from taken thereon during that session. New Jersey, New Hampshire, Ohio,
The same Congress reconvened for and Illinois. The residue of the its second session on the 16th of the amendment was likewise sustained, following November, and the House by the close vote of 82 Yeas to 78 resolved itself into a Committee of Nays. The bill thus amended was the whole,4 and in due time took up ordered to a third reading by 98 the Missouri bill aforesaid, which was Yeas to 56 Nays, and the next day considered throughout that sitting was passed and sent to the Senate, and that of the next day but one, where the restriction aforesaid was during which several amendments stricken out by a vote of 22 to 16, were adopted, the most important and the bill thus amended passed of which, moved by General James without a division, on the last day Tallmadge, of Dutchess County, New but one of the session. Being now York, was as follows:
returned to the House, General Tall
1 April 8, 1812.
5 New York and New Jersey still held a few slaves, but the former had decreed their man. umission.
THE MISSOURI STRUGGLE.
madge moved its indefinite post- | Committee three members from Slave ponement, which was defeated — States, beside Mr. Scott, who was Yeas 69, Nays 74. But the question chairman, with but one from a Free next presented, of concurrence in the State. In the Senate, the legislative Senate's amendment aforesaid, was memorial aforesaid was referred to decided in the negative-Yeas 76, the Judiciary Committee, consisting Nays 78; and the bill returned to of three members from Slave States the Senate accordingly. The Sen- with but two from Free States. ate insisted on its amendment with Upon the conflict which ensued, out a division; and, on the return of the Slave Power entered with very the bill to the House, Mr. John W. great incidental advantages. The Taylor, of New York, moved that President, Mr. Monroe, though he the House adhere to its disagree- took no conspicuous part in the ment; which prevailed—Yeas 78, strife, was well known to favor that Nays 66. And so the bill failed for side, as did a majority of his Cabithat session.
net, so that the patronage of the A bill, organizing so much of the Government and the hopes of aspirTerritory of Missouri as was not in- ants to its favor were powerful makecluded within the borders of the pro weights against the policy of Restricposed State of that name, to be tion. The two ex-Presidents of the known as the Territory of Arkansas, dominant party, Messrs. Jefferson was considered at this session, and and Madison, still survived, and gave Mr. Taylor, of New York, moved their powerful influence openly in the application thereto of the restric- accordance with their Southern symtion aforesaid. So much of it as pathies rather than their Anti-Slavery required that all slaves born within convictions. Mr. Clay, the popular the Territory after the passage of and potent Speaker of the House, this act should be free at twenty-five though likewise Anti-Slavery in prinyears of age, was carried," by 75 Yeas ciple, was a zealous and most effito 72 Nays, and the residue defeated cient adversary of Restriction. The by 70 Yeas to 71 Nays. Next day, natural fears of a destruction, or at however, the adopted clause was re- least a temporary prostration, of the considered and stricken out, and the Republican ascendency, through the bill ultimately passed without any rëformation of parties on what were reference to Slavery. Arkansas be called geographical lines, also tended came in consequence a Slave Terri- strongly to defeat the proposed inhitory, and ultimately a Slave State. bition of Slavery. The North, it had
A new Congress convened Decem- by this time come to be understood, ber 6, 1819; and Mr. Scott' moved if beaten in such a struggle, would a reference to a Select Committee quietly submit; while the South, it of the memorials from Missouri, in was very clearly intimated and gencluding that of her Territorial Legis- erally believed, would shiver all party lature, asking admission into the bands, and perhaps even the Union Union. This motion prevailed, and itself, rather than submit to a defeat Mr. Speaker Clay appointed as such on this issue.
Some years afterward, Speaker of the House. ? February 17th. 8 December 8th.
Moreover, the shape and manner potent voice can say to it, Thus far shalt in which the question was presented
thou go and no farther. Slavery engenders
pride and indolence in him who commands, were exceedingly favorable to the and inflicts intellectual and moral degradaSouthern side. Its advocates, in ac tion on him who serves. Slavery, in fine, is
unchristian and abominable. Sir, I shall cordance with their general policy of
not stop to deny that Slavery is all this and defending and promoting Slavery in more; but I shall not think myself the less
authorized to deny that it is for you to stay the abused name of Liberty, fought
the course of this dark torrent, by opposing their battle under the flag of State to it a mound raised up by the labors of this Sovereignty, State Equality, etc. The portentous discretion on the domain of oth
ers; a mound which you cannot erect but Right of the People to form and
through the instrumentality of a trespass of modify their institutions in accord- no ordinary kind—not the comparatively inance with their own judgment, in
nocent trespass that beats down a few blades
of grass, which the first kind sun or the next terest, feelings, or convictions, was refreshing shower may cause to spring again the burden of their strain. Said Mr. - but that which levels with the ground the
lordliest trees of the forest, and claims imWilliam Pinkney,' of Maryland,
mortality for the destruction which it intheir most pretentious and ornate, if flicts." not their ablest champion:
Throughout the discussion, the ar“Slavery, we are told in many a pamphlet, gument that Missouri, by the adopmemorial, and speech, with which the press has lately groaned, is a foul blot on our oth
tion of this amendment, would be erwise iinmaculate reputation. Let this be subject to unprecedented, invidious, conceded—yet you are no nearer than be
and degrading exactions—that she fore to the conclusion that you possess power which may deal with other objects as effectu
would be brought into the Union ally as with this. Slavery, we are further not as the equal, but as the subject told, with some pomp of metaphor, is a canker at the root of all that is excellent in this
of her elder sisters—that the power republican empire, a pestilent disease that thus exercised involved the assertion is snatching the youthful bloom from its
of unlimited and utterly irresponsicheek, prostrating its honor and withering its strength. Bě it so—yet, if you have ble authority to shape and mold the power to medicine to it in the way pro- | institutions of every new State-was posed, and in virtue of the diploma which you claim, you also have the power, in the
pressed with eminent subtlety, pertidistribution of your political alexipharmics, nacity, and vigor. The right to proto present the deadliest drugs to every Ter-hibit Slavery in any or all of the ritory that would become a State, and bid it drink or remain a colony forever. Slavery, |
Territories, denied by none, was exwe are also told, is now rolling onward pressly admitted by Mr. Philip P. with a rapid tide toward the boundless re
Barbour, 10 of Virginia. But this gions of the West,' threatening to doom them to sterility and sorrow, unless some admission, however generally made,
9 Speech in the U. S. Senate, February 15, tution, which is in these words: "New States 1820.
may be admitted by the Congress into this Union.'
Now, Sir, although by the next succeeding clause 10 In the debate of Monday, Feb. 15, 1819,
of the same section, Congress has the power Mr. P. P. Barbour, of Va., said:
to make all needful rules and regulations respect“The effect of the proposed amendment is to ing the Territory of the United States; and prohibit the further introduction of slaves into although, therefore, whilst the proposed State the new State of Missouri, and to emancipate, at continued a part of our Territory, upon the the age of twenty-five years, the children of all footing of a Territorial government, it would those slaves who are now within its limits. The have been competent for us, under the power first objection, said he, which meets us at the expressly given to make needful rules and reg. very threshold of the discussion, is this: that we ulations to have established the principle now have no constitutional right to enact the pro- proposed; yet the question assumes a totally difposed provision. Our power, in relation to this ferent aspect when that principle is intended to subject, is derived from the first clause of the apply to a STATE.”—Benton's Abridgment. N. Y., third section of the fourth article of the Consti- | 1858., vol. vi., p. 341.