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Gen. T. W. Sherman commanded the (vember 3d and 4th; and, after proper land forces, consisting of thirteen vol- soundings and reconnoissances, which unteer regiments, forming three brig- developed the existence of a new fort ades, and numbering not less than on either side of the entrance, the 10,000 men; while the fleet-com- Commodore brought his most effecmanded by Com. Samuel F. Du Pont tive vessels into action at 9 A. M., on ---embraced the steam-frigate Wa- Thursday, November 7th, taking the bash, 14 gunboats, 22 first-class and 12 lead in his flag-ship, the Wabashsmaller steamers, with 26 sailing ves- the gunboats to follow at intervals sels. After a stormy passage, in which in due order. Thus the fighting porseveral transports were disabled, and tion of the feet steamed slowly up four absolutely lost, Com. Du Pont, the bay by the sts, receiving and in his flag-ship, came to off Port returning the fire of the batteries Royal, S. C., during the night of No-l on Bay Point as they passed up, and

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PORT ROYAL AND HILTON HEAD. EXPLANATION.-Nos. 10, 11, 12, 13, and 14, in the back-ground, are the positions of the smaller Federal gunboats.

exchanging like compliments with was lovely; the spectacle magnifithe stronger fort on Hilton Head as cent; the fight spirited, but most unthey came down. Thus no vessel equal. Despite the general presumpremained stationary under fire; so tion that batteries, well manned and

that the enemy were at no time ena- served, are superior to ships when not * bled to gain, by experiment and ob- iron-clad, the terrible rain of shot and servation, a perfect aim. The day shell upon the gunners in the Rebel CAPTURE OF HILTON HEAD-THE SLAVES. 605 forts soon proved beyond human en- / at all hazards from their life-long, durance. The smaller gunboats at bitter bondage. length took positions whence their Had this blow been followed up fire was most annoying, yet could not as it might have been, Charleston, or be effectively returned; while the Savannah, or both, could have been Bienville, on her second promenade, easily and promptly captured. The steamed close in to the main Rebel Confederate defeat was so unexpectfort, and fired her great guns with ed, so crushing, and the terror insuch effect as almost to silence the spired by our gunboats so general enemy. The Wabash, on her third and profound, that nothing could round, came within six hundred have withstood the progress of our yards of the fort, firing as calmly arms. But Gen. Sherman had not and heavily as at the outset. The been instructed to press his advantabattle had thus raged nearly five ges, nor had he been provided with hours, with fearful carnage and de- the light-draft steamers, row-boats, vastation on the part of the Rebels and other facilities, really needed for and very little loss on ours, when | the improvement of his signal victothe overmatched Confederates, find- ry. He did not even occupy Beaufort ing themselves slaughtered to no pur | until December 6th, nor Tybee Islpose, suddenly and unanimously took and, commanding the approach to to flight; their commander, Gen. T. Savannah, until December 20th; on F. Drayton, making as good time as which day, a number of old hulks of the best of them. The Rebel forts vessels were sunk in the main ship were fully manned by 1,700 South channel leading up to Charleston beCarolinians, with a field battery of tween Morris and Sullivan's islands 500 more stationed not far distant. -as others were, a few days afterThe negroes, save those who had ward, in the passage known as Mafbeen driven off by their masters, or fit's channel with intent to impede shot while attempting to evade them, the midnight flitting of blockadehad stubbornly remained on the isles; runners. These obstructions were and there was genuine pathos in the denounced in Europe as barbarov prompt appearance of scores of them, but proved simply inefficient. rushing down to the water-side, with Meantime, the slaveholders of all their scanty stock of valuables tied up the remaining Sea Islands stripped in a handkerchief, and begging to be them of slaves and domestic animals, taken on board our ships. The idea burned their cotton, and other crops that our occupation might be perma- which they were unable to remove, nent seems not to have occurred to and fled to Charleston and the intethem; they only thought of escaping rior. Not a slaveholder on all that

? He was brother to Commander E. Drayton, | boat for Savannah, and where any one of our idle of the U.S. gunboat Pocahontas, who was in the armed vessels might easily have intercepted and thickest of the fight on the side of his whole captured them all. All their works on Hilton country. Capt. Steadman, of the Bienville, was | Head and the adjacent islands, with about 40 likewise a South Carolinian.

guns, most of them new and large, were utterly * This flight, however hurried and reckless, abandoned; and, when our forces took posseswas fully justifiable. They had to run six miles sion, soon after, of Beaufort, they found but ono across the island to Seabrook, where they took / white person remaining, and he drunk.

coast remained himself, or left his quest of the Embassadors; when family to live once more, under the Messrs. Mason and Slidell, with their flag of the Union. Gen. Sherman is- Secretaries, Eustis and Macfarland, sued a pleading, beseeching proclama- were compelled to change their vestion to induce them to do so; but sel and their destination. Their none who could read would receive a families were left undisturbed, and copy of it, and it fell a dead letter. no effort made to obtain their papers. Soon, the negroes who remained on But the Embassadors and their Secrethe islands under our control were taries were brought to the United set to work at preparing the cotton States, and confined, by order of the for market; and, though assured by Government, in Fort Warren, near the master caste that, if they fell into Boston. the hands of the Yankees, they would Secretary Welles, in his Annual certainly be sent to Cuba and sold, Report of naval proceedings for the they could not be made to believe year ending Dec. 2d, 1861, thus fully that any worse fortune than they had and frankly adopted and justified the hitherto experienced was in store for capture:

| “The prompt and decisive action of Capt. augmented by emigrants from the Wilkes on this occasion merited and received mainland; especially after schools

the emphatic approval of the Department;

and, if a too generous forbearance was exbegan to be established among them. hibited by him in not capturing the vessels

which had these Rebel enemies on board,

it may, in view of the special circumstances, The steamship. Theodora ran out and of its patriotic motives, be excused; but of Charleston harbor during the night it must by no means be permitted to constiof Oct. 12th, conveying James M.

| tute a precedent hereafter for the treatment

of any case of similar infraction of neutral Mason, of Va., Confederate Envoy to obligations by foreign vessels engaged in Great Britain, and John Slidell, of commerce or the carrying-trade.” La., likewise accredited to France. By a decided majority of the pubThe Theodora duly reached Cardenas, licists of the United States, as well Cuba; whence her official passengers as by the great mass of our people, repaired to Havana, and, on the 7th this seizure was deemed abundantly of November, left that port, in the justified by the doctrines and pracBritish mail steamer Trent, for St. | tices of Great Britain, but especially Thomas, on their way to England. by her long continued and never disThe U. S. steamship San Jacinto, avowed habit of impressing seamen Capt. Wilkes, had left Havana on the from our merchant vessels, on the as2d, and was watching for them in the sumption that they were natives of Bahama Channel, 240 miles from Great Britain, and therefore liable at Havana, when, at 11:40 A. M., of the all times and indefeasibly to be re8th, he sighted the Trent; and, after manded into her service, wherever a civil request to heave to had been found. In the able and carefully declined by her, a shell was fired prepared manifesto' whereby George across her bow, which brought her to IV., then Prince Regent, explained reason. Lieut. Fairfax, with a boat's and justified the conduct of his Govcrew, immediately boarded her in ernment touching the matters in con

'Dated Westminster, Jan. 9th, 1813.

THE TRENT CASE-BRITISH DOCTRINE.

607

troversy between it and our own, this of the said contending parties as commisdoctrine is set forth as follows:

sioned or non-commissioned officers or sol

diers; or by serving as officers, sailors, or "The Order in Council of the 23d of June | marines, on board any ship, or vessel of war, being officially communicated in America, | or transport of or in the service of either of the Government of the United States saw | the said contending parties; or by serving nothing in the repeal of the Orders which | as officers, sailors, or marines, on board any should, of itself, restore peace, unless Great | privateer bearing letters of marque of or Britain were prepared, in the first instance,

from either of the said contending parties; substantially to relinquish the right of im- or by engaging to go, or going, to any place pressing her own seamen, when found on beyond the seas with intent to enlist or enboard American merchant ships. *** gage in any suclr service; or by procuring,

“If America, by demanding this prelimi or attempting to procure, within Her Manary concession, intends to deny the Validity jesty's dominions, at home or abroad, others of that right, in that denial Great Britain | to do so; or by fitting out, arming, or equipcannot acquiesce; nor will she give counte | ping, any ship or vessel, to be employed as nance to such a pretension, by acceding to | a ship of war, or privateer, or transport, by its suspension, much less to its abandon

either of the said contending parties; or by ment, as a basis on which to treat. * * * breaking, or endeavoring to break, any The British Government has never asserted

blockade lawfully and actually established any exclusive right, as to the impressinent

by or on behalf of either of the said conof British seamen from American vessels, tending parties; or by carrying officers, solwhich it was not prepared to acknowledge diers, dispatches, .arms, military stores or as pertaining equally to the Government of materials, or any article or articles considthe United States, with respect to American ered and deemed to be contraband of war, seamen when found on board British mer- | according to the law or modern usage of chant ships. * * *

nations, for the use or service of either of “His Royal Highness can never admit the said contending parties, all persons so that, in the exercise of the undoubted, and, offending will incur and be liable to the hitherto, undisputed, right of searching neu several penalties and penal consequences by tral vessels, in time of war, the impressment

the said statute, or by the law of nations, in of British seamen, when found therein, can

that behalf imposed or denounced. be deemed any violation of a neutral flag. And we do hereby declare that all our Neither can he adınit that the taking such | subjects and persons entitled to our protecseamen from on board such vessels can be tion, who may misconduct themselves in the considered, by any neutral State, as a hostile premises, will do so at their peril and of measure, or a justifiable cause of war. their own wrong, and that they will in no

“ There is no right more clearly established wise obtain any protection from us against than the right which a sovereign has to the any liability or penal consequences; but will, allegiance of his subjects, more especially in / on the contrary, incur our high displeasure time of war. · Their allegiance is no optional | by such misconduct." duty, which they can decline at pleasure. It is a call which they are bound to obey. Now, there was no shadow of doubt It began with their birth, and can only terminate with their existence.”

that the Trent was consciously, will

ingly, employed in carrying very imIn the Queen's Proclamation of

portant officers and dispatches for the Neutrality between the United States

Confederates; rendering them the and the Confederates, dated May 13th,

greatest possible service, and one 1861, there occurs this express and

which could not safely be effected in proper inhibition :

vessels bearing their own flag. It “And we do hereby further warn all our was not at all the case of dispatches loving subjects, and all persons whatsoever entitled to our protection, that, if any of

carried unconsciously, innocently, in them shall presume, in contempt of this the public mails of mail steamers; Royal Proclamation, and of our high dis

but just such an interference to the pleasure, to do any acts in derogation of their duty as subjects of a neutral sovereign, | prejudice of the one and the advanin the said contest, or in violation or con- | tage of the other belligerent as Brittravention of the law of nations in that be- || half-as, for example and more especially,

ish Courts of Admiralty had been by entering into the military service of either | accustomed to condemn; forfeiting the vessel and cargo of the offender. the United States and England must Great Britain, however, would not see speedily and certainly ensue-was it in this light. Com. Wilkes's act complied with by our Government was an outrage—an insult—which Gov. Seward, in an able dispatch, must be promptly atoned for at the basing that compliance more immeperil of war. Such was the purport of diately on the failure of Capt. Wilkes the language held by a large majority to bring the Trent into port for adof her publicists and journals; and judication on the legality of his act, a peremptory demand' was promptly whereby her voyage had been temmade, through her Embassador, Lord porarily arrested and two of her Lyons, for the unconditional surren- passengers forcibly abstracted. der of Messrs. Mason and Slidell and And thus, at the close of the year their secretaries. France seconded 1861, the imminent peril of war with and supported the requirement of that European Power most able to Great Britain, in a considerate and injure us, because of her immense courteous dispatch, wherein she justly naval strength, as well as of the proxclaimed to have hitherto uniformly imity of her American possessions, accorded with the United States in was wisely averted; though it was a liberal interpretation and generous bitterly felt that her demand would assertion of the rights of neutrals in at least have been more courteously war. This demand of Great Bri- and considerately made but for the tain--to the great disappointment gigantic war in which we were aland chagrin of the Confederates, who ready inextricably involved by the confidently expected that war between Slaveholders' Rebellion.

IL

XXXVII.

KENTUCKY. .

We have seen that Kentucky em- | Disunion conspiracy, and were more phatically, persistently, repeatedly, by or less intimate and confidential with overwhelming popular majorities, re- its master-spirits. But they looked fused-alike before and after the for- to very different ends. The Southmal inauguration of war by the Con rons proper, of the school of Calhoun, federate attack on Fort Sumter-to Rhett, Yancey, and Ruffin, regardally herself with the Rebellion, or to ing Disunion as a chief good under stand committed to any scheme look any and all circumstances, made its ing to Disunion in whatever contin achievement the great object of their gency. Her Democratic Governor life-long endeavor, and regarded Slaand Legislature of 1860–61, with very in the territories, fugitive slaves most of her leading Democratic, and and their recovery,compromises, John many of her Whig, politicians, were, Brown raids, etc., only as conducive to indeed, more or less cognizant of the or impeding its consummation; while

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