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acquainted with an African prince, was retaliated by a much stronger captured and sold into slavery by Spanish expedition, which took Fort some neighboring chief, and had re- St. Simon, on the Altamaha, and turned him to his native country, might easily have subdued the whole after imbibing from his acquaintance colony, but it was alarmed and rewith the facts a profound detestation pelled by a stratagem of his concepof the Slave Trade and of Slavery. tion. Oglethorpe soon after returned One of the fundamental laws devised to England; the trustees finally surby Oglethorpe for the government of rendered their charter to the Crown; his colony was a prohibition of slave- and in 1752 Georgia became a royal holding; another was an interdiction colony, whereby its inhabitants were of the sale or use of Rum-neither of enabled to gratify, without restraint, them calculated to be popular with their longing for Slavery and Rum. the jail-birds, idlers, and profligates, The struggle of Oglethorpe in who eagerly sought escape from their Georgia was aided by the presence, debts and their miseries by becoming counsels, and active sympathy, of members of the new colony. The the famous John Wesley, the founder spectacle of men, no wiser nor bet- of Methodism, whose pungent deter than themselves, living idly and scription of Slavery as “the sum of luxuriously, just across the Savannah all villainies," was based on personal river, on the fruits of constrained observation and experience during and unpaid negro labor, doubtless his sojourn in these colonies. But inflamed their discontent and their “ another king arose, who knew not hostility. As if to add to the gov- Joseph;" the magisterial hostility to ernor's troubles, war between Spain bondage was relaxed, if not wholly and England broke out in 1739, and withdrawn; the temptation remained Georgia, as the frontier colony, con and increased, while the resistance tiguous to the far older and stronger faded and disappeared; and soon Spanish settlement of East Florida, Georgia yielded silently, passively, to was peculiarly exposed to its ravages. the contagion of evil example, and Oglethorpe, at the head of the South thus became not only slaveholding, Carolina and Georgia militia, made but, next to South Carolina, the most an attempt on Saint Augustine, infatuated of all the thirteen colonies which miscarried; and this, in 1742, in its devotion to the mighty evil.

12 Oglethorpe lived to be nearly a hundred and is much above ninety years old, the finest years old-dying at Cranham Hall, Essex, Eng figure you ever saw. He perfectly realizes all land, June 30, 1787. It is not recorded nor

my ideas of Nestor. His literature is great, his

knowledge of the world extensive, and his facul, probable that he ever revisited America after

ties as bright as ever. * * He is quite a preux his relinquishment of the governorship of Geor

chevalier; heroic, romantic, and full of the old gia; but he remained a warm, active, well- / gallantry.” informed friend of our country after, as well as Pope—who praised so sparingly had spoken before and during, her struggle for independence. of him, not quite half a century earlier, in terms In 1784, Hannah More thus wrote of him: evincing like admiration; and many other contem

"I have got a new admirer: it is Gen. Ogle- | poraries of literary eminence bore testimony to thorpe, perhaps the most remarkable man of his his signal merits. See Sparks's American Biotime. He was foster-brother to the Pretender, 1 graphy.

SLAVERY IN THE REVOLUTION.

The American Revolution was no convinced of the danger and essential sudden outbreak. It was preceded iniquity of Slavery, and the conservaby eleven years of peaceful remon- tive who argues that few or none strance and animated discussion. perceived and admitted the direct The vital question concerned the application of their logic to the case right of the British Parliament to of men held in perpetual and limitimpose taxes, at its discretion, on less bondage, are alike mistaken. British subjects in any and every There were doubtless some who did part of the empire. This question pre- not perceive, or did not admit, the sented many phases, and prompted inseparable connection between the various acts and propositions. But rights they claimed as British freeits essence was always the same; and men and the rights of all men everyit was impossible that such men as where; but the more discerning and James Otis, John Adams, Thomas logical of the patriots comprehended Jefferson, and Patrick Henry, should and confessed that their assertion of discuss it without laying broad foun- | the rightful inseparability of Repredations for their argument in pre- sentation from Taxation necessarily mises affecting the natural and gene- , affirmed the grander and more essenral Rights of Man to self-government, tial right of each innocent, rational with the control of his own products being to the control and use of his or earnings. The enthusiast who own capacities and faculties, and to imagines that our patriots were all the enjoyment of his own earnings.'

i Witness the Darien (Ga.) resolutions. In the Darien committee, Thursday, June 12, 1775:

“When the most valuable privileges of a people are invaded, not only by open violence, but by every kind of fraud, sophistry, and cunning, it behooves every individual to be upon his guard, and every member of society, like beacons in a country surrounded by enemies, to give the alarm, not only when their liberties in general are invaded, but separately, lest the precedent in one may affect the whole; and to enable the collective wisdom of such a people to judge of its consequences, and how far their respective grievances concern all, or should be opposed to preserve their necessary union. Every laudable attempt of this kind by the good people of this Colony, in a constitutional manner, has been hitherto frustrated by the influence and authority of men in office and their numerous dependents, and in every other natural and

eulogizes "the firm and manly conduct of the people of Boston and Massachusetts,” acquiescing in all the resolutions of the “grand American Congress in Philadelphia last October." The second resolution is denunciatory of England, in shutting up the land office, and in other oppressive acts. The third is opposed to ministerial mandates under the name of constitutions. The fourth is denunciatory of the number of officers appointed over the colonies by the British crown, and their exorbitant salaries. The fifth is as follows:

"5th. To show the world that we are not in. fluenced by any contracted or interested motive, but a general philanthropy for all mankind, of whatever climate, language, or complexion, we hereby declare our disapprobation and abhorrence of the unnatural practice of slavery in America (however the uncultivated state of our country, and other specious arguments, may plead for it), a practice founded in injustice and cruelty, and highly dangerous to our liberties (as well as lives), debasing part of our fellow-creatures below men, and corrupting the virtue and morals of the rest, and as laying the basis of that liberty we contend for (and which we pray the Almighty to continue to the latest posterity) upon a very wrong foundation. We therefore resolve at all times to use our utmost efforts for the manumis

practice. We, therefore, the representatives of the extensive district of Darien, in the colony of Georgia, being now assembled in congress by the authority and free choice of the inhabitants of the said district, now free from their fetters, do Resolve"

There are six resolutions in all. The first

The principles of civil and political | arraignment of British tyranny; but liberty, so patiently evolved and so which were, nevertheless, widely and thoroughly commended during the deeply felt to be an important and long controversy which preceded integral portion of our case. Even the appeal to arms, were reduced divested of this, the Declaration to axioms, and became portions of stands to-day an evidence that our the popular faith. When Jeffer fathers regarded the rule of Great son, in drafting our immortal | Britain as no more destructive to Declaration of Independence, em- their own rights than to the rights of

C

.

emphatic assertion of the inalienable No other document was ever issued Rights of Man, he set forth propo- which so completely reflected and sitions novel and startling to Euro- developed the popular convictions pean ears, but which eloquence and which underlaid and impelled it as patriotic fervor had already engraven that Declaration of Independence. deeply on the American heart. That The cavil that its ideas were not Declaration was not merely, as Mr. original with Jefferson is a striking Choate has termed it, “the passion- testimonial to its worth. Originality ate manifesto of a revolutionary of conception was the very last merit war;" it was the embodiment of our to which he would have chosen to forefathers' deepest and most rooted lay claim, his purpose being to emconvictions; and when, in penning body the general convictions of his that Declaration, he charged the countrymen — their conceptions of British government with upholding human, as well as colonial, rights and and promoting the African slave- British wrongs, in the fewest, strongtrade against the protests of the est, and clearest words. The fact colonists, and in violation of the that some of these words had already dictates of humanity, he asserted been employed-some of them a truths which the jealous devotion of hundred times—to set forth the same South Carolina and Georgia to slave- general truths, in no manner unfitted holding rendered it impolitic to send them for his use. forth as an integral portion of our The claim that his draft was a plaSLAVERY IN THE REVOLUTION.

sion of our slaves in this colony upon the most safe and equitable footing for the masters and themselves.”—American Archives, 4th Series, vol. i., 1774 and 1775.

2 The following is the indictment of George III., as a patron and upholder of the African slavetrade, embodied by Mr. Jefferson in his original draft of the Declaration :

"Determined to keep open a market where MEN

against the LIBERTIES of one people, with crimes which he urges them to commit against the LIVES of another."

3 Mr. Jefferson, in his Autobiography, gives the following reason for the omission of this remarkable passage from the Declaration as adopted, issued, and published:

“The clause, too, reprobating the enslaving the inhabitants of Africa, was struck out in

negative for suppressing every legislative attempt to had never attempted to restrain the importation prohibit or to restrain this execrable commerce. And of slaves, and who, on the contrary, still wished that this assemblage of horrors might want no fact to continue it. Our Northern brethren also, I of distinguished dye, he is now exciting those very | believe, felt a little tender under those censures; people to rise in arms among us, and purchase for, though their people had very few slaves that liberty of which he has deprived them, by themselves, yet they had been pretty consideramurdering the people on whom he also obtruded ble carriers of them to others." Jefferson's them: thus paying of former crimes committed | Works, vol. i., p. 170.

35

giarism from the Mecklenburg (N. | taining happiness and safety.” See C.) Declaration of April 20th, pre- also the Mecklenburg Declaration. ceding, he indignantly repelled; but The original draft of the Declarahe always observed that he employed tion of American Independence wa whatever terms best expressed his first communicated by Mr. Jefferson thought, and would not say how far separately to two of his colleagues, he was indebted for them to his read John Adams and Benjamin Franking, how far to his original reflec-lin, on the committee chosen by Contions. Even the great fundamental gress to prepare it; then to the whole assertion of Human Rights, which he committee, consisting, in addition, of has so memorably set forth as follows: Roger Sherman and Robert R. Liv“We hold these truths to be self- ingston; reported, after twenty days' evident, that all men are created gestation, on the 28th of June; read equal; that they are endowed by in Committee of the Whole on the their Creator with certain inaliena- 1st of July; earnestly debated and ble rights ; that among these, are life, scanned throughout the three followliberty, and the pursuit of happiness; ing days, until finally adopted on the that to secure these rights govern- evening of the 4th. It may safely ments are instituted among men, be said that not an affirmation, not a deriving their just powers from the sentiment, was put forth therein to consent of the governed ; that, when the world, which had not received ever any form of government be- the deliberate approbation of such comes destructive of these ends, it is cautious, conservative minds as those the right of the people to alter or to of Franklin, John Adams, and Roger abolish it, and to institute a new gov- Sherman, and of the American Peoernment, laying its foundations on ple, as well as their representatives such principles," and organizing its in Congress, those of South Carolina powers in such form, as to them shall and Georgia included. seem most likely to effect their safety. The progress of the Revolution and happiness," was no novelty to justified and deepened these convicthose who hailed and responded to tions. Slavery was soon proved our it. Three weeks before, the Virginia chief source of weakness and of peril. Convention had unanimously adopt- Of our three millions of people, half ed a Declaration of Rights, reported a million were the chattels of others; on the 27th of May by George Ma- and though all the colonies tolerated, son, which proclaims that “All men and most of them expressly legalized are by nature equally free, and have slaveholding, the slaves, nearly coninherent rights, of which, when they centrated in the Southern States, enter into a state of society, they paralyzed the energies and enfeebled cannot, by any compact, deprive or the efforts of their patriots. Incited

divest their posterity; namely, the by proclamations of royal governors · enjoyment of life and liberty, with and military commanders, thousands

SE

ing property, and pursuing and ob

camps and garrisons, and were there

4 The grandfather of James M. Mason, late Emissary to England. George Mason was one U.S. Senator from Virginia, since Confederate 1 of Virginia's most illustrious sons.

manumitted and protected; while The documents and correspondence the master race, alarmed for the of the Revolution are full of comsafety of their families, were unable plaints by Southern slaveholders of or unwilling to enlist in the Conti- their helplessness and peril, because nental armies, or even to be called of Slavery, and of the necessity thereinto service as militia.

by created of their more efficient deThe number of slaves in the States fense and protection. The New respectively, at the time of the Revo- England States, with a population lution, is not known. But it may be less numerous than that of Virginia, closely approximated by the aid of the Carolinas, and Georgia, furnished the census of 1790, wherein the more than double the number of slave population is returned as fol- | soldiers to battle for the common lows:

cause. The South was repeatedly

overrun, and regarded as substanNew Hampshire...... 158) Delaware............ 8.887

tially subdued, by armies that would not have ventured to invade New

England, and could not have mainPennsylvania 7....... 3,737 Tennessee.

tained themselves a month on her Total............... 40,370 Total. . . . . . . . . . ... 657,527 soil. Indeed, after Gage's expulsion

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NORTH.

SOUTH,

Vermont.........

17 Maryland........... 103,036 Rhode Island. ..... 952 Virginia............ 293,427 Connecticut.......... 2,759 North Carolina .... 100,572 Massachusetts 6...... none South Carolina...... 107,094 New York........... 21,324 Georgia............. 29,264 New Jersey......... 11,423 Kentucky...... 11,830

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5 The number of troops employed by the Colo- | with Franklin and Jay for negotiating peace nies during the entire Revolutionary war, as with Great Britain, on the 14th of August, 1776, well as the number furnished by each, is shown wrote from Charleston, S. C., to his son, then in by the following, which is compiled from statis- | England, a letter explaining and justifying his tics contained in a work published by Jacob resolution to stand or fall with the cause of Moore, Concord, entitled, “Collections of the American Independence, in which he said: New Hampshire Historical Society for the year “You know, my dear son, I abhor Slavery. I 1824," vol. i., p. 236.

was born in a country where Slavery had been

established by British kings and parliaments, as CONTINENTAL.

MILITIA. New Hampshire ...... 12,496 2,093

by the laws of that country, ages before my exMassachusetts...

68,007 | 15,155

istence. I found the Christian religion and Rhode Island ..

5,878 4,284

Slavery growing under the same authority and Connecticut..

32,039 7,792

cultivation. I nevertheless disliked it. In New York..

18,331 3,304

former days, there was no combating the prejuNew Jersey ...

10,726 6,055

dices of men supported by interest: the day, I Pennsylvania ...

25,608 7,357

hope, is approaching, when from principles of Delaware .......

2,317 376

gratitude, as well as justice, every man shall Maryland .......

13,912 4,127

strive to be foremost in showing his readiness to Virginia ........

26,668 5,620

comply with the golden rule. Not less than North Carolina ...

7,263

twenty thousand pounds sterling would all my South Carolina ....

6,417

negroes produce, if sold at public auction toGeorgia .................. 2,679

morrow. I am not the man who enslaved them;

they are indebted to Englishmen for that favor: Total ................... 232,341 | 56,163

nevertheless, I am devising means for manumit

ting many of them, and for cutting off the entail • Massachusetts adopted a new State Consti of slavery. Great powers oppose me,—the laws tution in 1780, to which a bill of rights was pre and customs of my country, my own and the fixed, which her Supreme Court soon after de

avarice of my countrymen. What will my chilcided was inconsistent with the maintenance of

dren say if I deprive them of so much estate ?

These are difficulties, but not insuperable. I Slavery, which had thus been abolished.

will do as much as I can in my time, and leave 7 Pennsylvania had passed an act of Gradual the rest to a better hand. Emancipation in 1780.

"I am not one of those who arrogate the pe.

culiar care of Providence in each fortunate event; 8 Henry Laurens of South Carolina, two years

nor one of those who dare trust in Providence President of the Continental Congress, appointed

for defense and security of their own liberty, Minister to Holland, and captured on his way while they enslave, and wish to continue in tàither by a British cruiser, finally Commissioner | slavery, thousands who are as well entitled to

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