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'UNION' AND 'REPUBLICAN PLATFORMS.

319

The Convention now proceeded to the United States to maintain a more perballot for a candidate for President,

fect union, establish justice, insure domestic

tranquillity, provide for the common defense, when John C. BRECKINRIDGE, of Ken promote the general welfare, and secure the tucky, received the unanimous vote blessings of liberty to ourselves and oui -105--of the delegates present; and

posterity." Gen. JOSEPH LANE, of Oregon, was nominated for Vice-President by a

The “Republican” National Consimilar vote. And then, after a

vention met at Chicago, Ill., on Wedspeech from Mr. Yancey, the Con

nesday, May 16th. All the Free vention finally adjourned.

States were strongly represented, with Delaware, Maryland, Virginia,

Kentucky, Missouri, the District of The “ Constitutional Union” (late

Columbia, and the Territories of “ American') party held a Conven

Kansas and Nebraska. There was a tion at Baltimore on the 19th of

delegation present claiming to repreMay; and, on the second ballot, nom

sent Texas, but it was afterward inated John BELL, of Tennessee, for

found to be fraudulent. David WilPresident; he receiving 138 votes to

mot, of Pennsylvania, was chosen 114 for all others. Sam Houston,

temporary Chairman, and George of Texas, had 57 votes on the first,

Ashmun, of Massachusetts, Presiand 69 on the second ballot. Ed

dent. A Platform Committee of one WARD EVERETT, of Massachusetts, was

from each State and Territory was then unanimously nominated for

appointed on the first day, from which Vice-President. The Convention,

Committee a report was submitted on without a dissenting voice, united on

the evening of the second, when it was the following

immediately and unanimously adoptPLATFORM:

ed. That report or Platform is as "Whereas, Experience has demonstrated I follows. that Platforms adopted by the partisan Conventions of the country have had the effect "Resolved, That we, the delegated repreto mislead and deceive the people, and at sentatives of the Republican electors of the same time to widen the political divisions the United States, in Convention assembled, of the country, by the creation and encour- in discharge of the duty we owe to our agement of geographical and sectional par- | constituents and our country, unite in the ties; therefore,

following declarations: "Resolved, That it is both the part of pa "1. That the history of the nation, during triotism and of duty to recognize no politi- | the last four years, has fully established the

OF THE COUNTRY, THE UNION OF THE STATES, | and perpetuation of the Republican party; AND THE ENFORCEMENT OF THE Laws, and and that the causes which called it into exthat, as representatives of the Constitutional | istence are permanent in their nature, and Union men of the country in National Con now, more than ever before, demand its vention assembled, we hereby pledge our peaceful and constitutional triumph. selves to maintain, protect, and defend, sep “2. That the maintenance of the principle arately and unitedly, these great principles promulgated in the Declaration of Independof public liberty and national safety, against ence and embodied in the Federal Constiall enemies, at home and abroad; believing tution, "That all men are created equal; that thereby peace may once more be re- that they are endowed by their Creator with stored to the country, the rights of the Peo certain inalienable rights; that among these ple and of the States reëstablished, and the are life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness ; Government again placed in that condition that, to secure these rights, governments are of justice, fraternity, and equality, which, instituted among men, deriving their just under the example and Constitution of our powers from the consent of the governed,' fathers, has solemnly bound every citizen of is essential to the preservation of our Re.

publican institutions; and that the Federal | any or all of the Territories of the United Constitution, the Rights of the States, and States, is a dangerous political heresy, at the Union of the States, must and shall be variance with the explicit provisions of that preserved.

instrument itself, with contemporaneous ex"3. That to the Union of the States this position, and with legislative and judicial nation owes its unprecedented increase in precedent; is revolutionary in its tendency, population, its surprising development of and subversive of the peace and harmony of material resources, its rapid augmentation of the country. wealth, its happiness at home and its honor 68. That the normal condition of all the abroad; and we hold in abhorrence all territory of the United States is that of Freeschemes for Disunion, come from whatever dom: That, as our Republican fathers, when source they may: And we congratulate the they had abolished Slavery in all our nationcountry that no Republican member of Con- | al territory, ordained that no person should gress has uttered or countenanced the be deprived of life, liberty, or property, withthreats of Disunion so often made by Dem- | out due process of law,' it becomes our duocratic members, without rebuke and with ty, by legislation, whenever such legislation applause from their political associates ; and is necessary, to maintain this provision of we denounce those threats of Disunion, in the Constitution against all attempts to case of a popular overthrow of their ascend- violate it; and we deny the authority of ency, as denying the vital principles of a free Congress, of a territorial legislature, or of government, and as an arowal of contem- any individuals, to give legal existence to plated treason, which it is the imperative Slavery in any Territory of the United duty of an indignant People sternly to re States. buke and forever silence.

“9. That we brand the recent reöpening of “4. That the maintenance inviolate of the the African slave-trade, under the cover of rights of the States, and especially the right our national flag, aided by perversions of of each State to order and control its own judicial power, as a crime against humanity domestic institutions according to its own and a burning shame to our country and judgment exclusively, is essential to that bal- age; and we call upon Congress to take ance of powers on which the perfection and prompt and efficient measures for the total endurance of our political fabric depend; and final suppression of that execrable traffic. and we denounce the lawless invasion by "10. That in the recent vetoes, by their armed force of the soil of any State or Terri Federal Governors, of the acts of the Legistory, no matter under what pretext, as latures of Kansas and Nebraska, prohibiting among the gravest of crimes.

Slavery in those Territories, we find a prac“5. That the present Democratic Adminis tical illustration of the boasted Dernocratic tration has far exceeded our worst apprehen principle of Non-Intervention and Popular sions, in its measureless subserviency to the Sovereignty embodied in the Kansas-Neexactions of a sectional interest, as especially braska bill, and a demonstration of the deevinced in its desperate exertions to force ception and fraud involved therein. the infamous Lecompton Constitution upon "11. That Kansas should, of right, be imthe protesting people of Kansas; in constru mediately admitted as a State, under the ing the personal relation between master Constitution recently formed and adopted and servant to involve an unqualified prop by the House of Representatives. erty in persons; in its attempted enforce “12. That, while providing revenue for the ment, everywhere, on land and sea, through support of the General Government by duthe intervention of Congress and of the Fed ties upon imports, sound policy requires eral Courts, of the extreme pretensions of a such an adjustment of these imposts as to purely local interest; and in its general and encourage the development of the industrial unvarying abuse of the power intrusted to it interests of the whole country: and we comby a confiding people.

mend that policy of national exchanges “6. That the people justly view with alarm which secures to the working men liberal the reckless extravagance which pervades wages, to agriculture remunerating prices, every department of the Federal Govern- to mechanics and manufacturers an adequate ment; that a return to rigid economy and reward for their skill, labor, and enterprise, accountability is indispensable to arrest the and to the nation commercial prosperity systematic plunder of the public treasury by and independence. favored partisans; while the recent startling “13. That we protest against any sale or developments of frauds and corruptions at alienation to others of the Public Lands the Federal metropolis, show that an entire held by actual settlers, and against any change of administration is imperatively de- view of the Homestead policy which regards manded.

the settlers as paupers or suppliants for pub"17. That the new dogma that the Consti- lic bounty; and we demand the passage by tution, of its own force, carries Slavery into | Congress of the complete and satisfactory

NOMINATION OF LINCOLN AND HAMLIN. 321 Homestead measure which has already pass- | Mr. Andrew, of Massachusetts, also ed the House. “ 14. That the Republican Party is opposed

changed a part of the vote of that

Chang to any change in our Naturalization Laws, State from Seward to Lincoln; and or any State legislation by which the rights | Mr. B. Gratz Brown, of Missouri, of citizenship hitherto accorded to immigrants from foreign lands shall be abridged changed the eighteen votes of that or impaired; and in favor of giving a full State from Bates to Lincoln. Others and efficient protection to the rights of all

followed, until Mr. Lincoln had 354 classes of citizens, whether native or naturalized, both at home and abroad.

out of 466 votes, and was declared “15. That appropriations by Congress for duly nominated. On motion of River and Harbor improvements of a National character, required for the accommo

Mr. Wm. M. Evarts, of New York, dation and security of an existing commerce, seconded by Mr. John A. Andrew, are authorized by the Constitution, and jus- of Massachusetts, the nomination tified by the obligations of Government to protect the lives and property of its citizens. was made unanimous.

was made unanimous. “ 16. That a Railroad to the Pacific Ocean In the evening the Convention

proceeded to ballot for Vice-Presithe whole country; that the Federal Government ought to render immediate and dent, when HANNIBAL HAMLIN, of efficient aid in its construction; and that, Maine, received, on the first ballot, as preliminary thereto, a daily Overland Mail should be promptly established.

194 votes; Cassius M. Clay, of Ken“17. Finally, having thus set forth our dis- tucky, 1011; and there were 1651 tinctive principles and views, we invite the

cast for other candidates. On the coöperation of all citizens, however differing on other questions, who substantially agree second ballot, Mr. Hamlin received with us in their affirmance and support.” 367 votes to 99 for all others, and

The Convention, having already was declared duly nominated. On decided, by a vote of 331 to 130, that a majority vote only of the delegates

Kentucky, the nomination was made should be required to nominate, pro unanimous. ceeded, on the morning of the third

On motion of Mr. Joshua R. Gidday of its session, to ballot for a can dings, of Ohio, it was didate for President of the United "Resolved, That we deeply sympathize with States, with the following result: those men who have been driven, some from

their native States and others from the States of their adoption, and are now exiled

from their homes on account of their opinSimon Cameron, of Pennsylvania. 501 Withdrawn

ions; and we hold the Democratic party re

22 sponsible for the gross violations of that William L. Dayton, of New Jersey 14..... 10 Withdr'n clause of the Constitution which declares John McLean, of Ohio........... 12 .... 8...... 5

that citizens of each State shall be entitled 6..... 4...... 2 to all the privileges and immunities of citi

zens of the several States." ABRAHAM LINCOLN having, on the third ballot, within two and a half And then, after a brief speech by votes of the number necessary to the President, the Convention adnominate him, Mr. David K. Cartter, journed, with nine hearty cheers for of Ohio, before the result was an- the ticket. nounced, rose to change four votes from Chase to Lincoln, giving the The canvass for the Presidency, latter a clear majority. Mr. Mc- thus opened, was distinguished from Crillis, of Maine, followed, changing all that had preceded it, not more by ten votes from Seward to Lincoln; the number of formidable contest

1st Ballot. 2d. William H. Seward, of New York 1731...,1841. ...,180 Abraham Lincoln, of Illinois.....102 ....181 .....231

Salmon P. Chase, of Ohio........ 49..... 424..... 241
Edward Bates, of Missouri...... 48..... 35,..... 22

Withdrawn

Jacob Collamer, of Vermont.... 10
Scattering .......................

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ants, than by the sharpness with account of our fidelity to our constitutional which the issues were defined by obligations, we are told, in effect, that we

must put our hands on our mouths, and three of the contending parties. It our mouths in the dust. Gentlemen,” said Mr. was, in effect, proclaimed by three of Pugh, “you mistake us we will not do it.the leading Southern delegates in the The Southern leaders gave repeated Charleston Convention: “ The last and earnest warnings to this effect: Presidential election was won by am- “Gentlemen from the North! look biguity, double dealing, deception- well to your doings! If you insist by devising a platform that meant on your 'Squatter Sovereignty' platone thing at the North, and another form, in full view of its condemnąat the South. But, we are resolved tion by the Supreme Court in the to have no more of this. We shall Dred Scott case, you break up the now succeed on a clear exhibition of Democratic party-nay, more: you our principles, or not at all.” And break up the Union! The unity.of the champions of Popular Sovereign- the Democratic party is the last bond ty, who controlled most of the dele- that holds the Union together: that gations from Free States, were nearly snapped, there is no other that can as frank, and quite as firm. Said a be trusted for a year.” Discarding leading supporter of Senator Doug that of the “Constitutional Union” las--Mr. George E. Pugh, of Ohiols party as meaning anything in gen-in the Charleston Convention : eral and nothing in particular, the

“ Thank God that a bold and honest Lincoln, Douglas, and Breckinridge man (Mr. Yancey] has at last spoken, and parties had deliberately planted themtold the whole truth with regard to the demands of the South. It is now plainly be

selves, respectively, on the following fore the Convention and the country that positions : the South does demand an advanced step

1. Lincoln.-Slavery can only exist by from the Democratic party.” [Mr. Pugh here read the resolves of the Alabama De

virtue of municipal law; and there is no law mocratic State Convention of 1856, to prove

for it in the Territories, and no power to enthat the South was then satisfied with what act one. Congress can establish or legalize it now rejects. He proceeded to show that Slavery nowhere, but is bound to prohibit it the Northern Dennocrats had sacrificed in or exclude it from any and every Federal themselves in battling for the rights of the

Territory, whenever and wherever there shall South, and instanced one and another of the delegates there present, who had been de

| be necessity for such exclusion or prohibition. feated and thrown out of public life thereby.

2. Douglas. Slavery or No Slavery in He concluded :] “And now, the very weak any Territory is entirely the affair of the ness thus produced is urged as a reason why | white inhabitants of such Territory. If they the North should have no weight in forming

choose to have it, it is their right; if they the platform! The Democracy of the North are willing to stand by the old landmarks

choose not to have it, they have a right to to reaffirm the old faith. They will deeply

exclude or prohibit it. Neither Congress regret to part with their Southern brethren. nor the people of the Union, or of any part But, if the gentlemen from the South can of it, outside of said Territory, have any only abide with us on the terms they now right to meddle with or trouble themselves propound, they must go. The North-West

about the matter. must and will be heard and felt. The Northern Democrats are not children, to be

3. Breckinridge.The citizen of any State told to stand here-to stand there to be

has a right to migrate to any Territory, takmoved at the beck and bidding of the ing with him anything which is property by South. Because we are in a minority on the law of his own State, and hold, enjoy,

16 Recently, U. S. Senator from that State; elected over Gov. Chase in 1853–4; succeeded by

him in turn in 1859–60; since, a candidate for Lieut. Governor, under Vallandigham, in 1863.

THE DOUGLAS PLATFORM AND CANVASS.

323

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and be protected in, the use of such property | Scott decision as binding law, and its in said Territory. And Congress is bound authors as entitled to make further to render such protection wherever neces

and kindred decrees controlling his sary, whether with or without the coöpera

vote and action with regard to the tion of the Territorial Legislature.

extension of Slavery, maintains posiWe have seen how thoroughly this tions so inconsistent and contradiclast doctrine is refuted by Col. Ben- tory as to divest him of all moral ton in his strictures on the Dred power in the premises--all freedom Scott decision. If it were sound, of effective action, any blackleg might, with impunity, defy the laws of any Territory for The canvass was opened with great bidding the sale of lottery tickets or spirit and vigor by Mr. Douglas in other implements of gambling. 'Or person; he speaking in nearly every the Indian trader might say to the Free, and in many if not most of the United States Agent: “Sir, I know Slave States, in the course of the you have a law authorizing and di- Summer and Autumn. A ready and recting you to destroy every drop of able debater, he necessarily attracted liquor you find offered or kept for large crowds to his meetings, and insale on an Indian reservation; but fused something of his own fiery immy liquor is property, according to petuosity and tireless energy into the the laws of my State, and you cannot breasts of his supporters. touch it. I have a Constitutional But the odds were soon seen to be right to take my property into any too great; since the partisans of Territory, and there do with it as Breckinridge, not content with their I please-s0, Hands off!” He who manifest preponderance in all the does not know that this is not law, Slave States, insisted on organizing nor compatible with the most vital in and dividing the Democratic functions of government, can hardly strength of the Free States as well. have considered the matter patiently Nay, more: in several of those States or thoughtfully.

-Pennsylvania, New Jersey, ConThe Douglas platform was practi- necticut, California, and Oregoncally eviscerated by the ready accept the leaders of the Democracy in previance at Baltimore of Gov. Wickliffe's ous contests were mainly found ranged resolve making the dicta of the Su- on the side of Breckinridge; while, preme Court absolute and unques- in nearly or quite every Free State, zionable with regard to Slavery in enough adherents of the Southern the Territories. The Dred Scott de platform were found to organize a cision was aimed directly at 'Squat party and nominate a Breckinridge ter Sovereignty: the case, after be ticket, rendering the choice of the ing once disposed of on an entirely Douglas Electors in most Free States different point, was restored to life hardly possible. expressly to cover this ground. . Am- The Democrats, as we have seen, biguous as was the Cincinnati plat- had divided on a question of princiform, the upholder of Popular Sove- ple—one deemed, on either side, of reignty' in the Territories, who, at overwhelming consequence. Pathetic the same time, regards the Dred | entreaties and fervid appeals had been

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