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display of readiness to repel an ima- | pension. His body was conveyed to ginary foe were enacted. . The time Harper's Ferry, and delivered to his seemed an hour to the impatient widow, by whom it was borne to her spectators; even the soldiers began far northern home, among the mounto murmur-“Shame!” At last, the tains he so loved, and where he was order was given, the rope cut with a so beloved. . hatchet, and the trap fell; but so There let it rest forever, while the short a distance that the victim con- path to it is worn deeper and deeper tinued to struggle and to suffer for by the pilgrim feet of the race he a considerable time. Being at length so bravely though rashly endeavored duly pronounced dead, he was cut to rescue from a hideous and debasdown after thirty-eight minutes' sus ing thraldom!



The vote polled for Fremont and sentatives Keitt, of South Carolina, Dayton in 1856 considerably exceed and Edmundson, of Virginia, doubted the solid strength, at that time, of less contributed also to swell the Rethe Republican party. It was swelled publican vote of the following Auin part by the personal popularity of tumn. Mr. Sumner had made an Col. Fremont, whose previous career elaborate speech in the Senate on the of adventure and of daring—his ex Kansas question—a speech not withplorations, discoveries, privations, and out grave faults of conception and of perils--appealed, in view of his com- style, but nowise obnoxious to the parative youth for a Presidential can-charge of violating the decencies of didate, with resistless fascination, to debate by unjustifiable personalities. the noble young men of our country; Yet, on the assumption that its auwhile his silence and patience through- thor had therein unwarrantably asout the canvass, under a perfect tent- sailed and ridiculed Judge Butlerpest of preposterous yet annoying one of South Carolina’s Senators, calumnies, had contributed to widen and a relative of Mr. Brooks--he the circle of his admirers and friends. was assaulted by surprise while sitA most wanton and brutal personal ting in his place (though a few minassault' on Senator Sumner, of Mas utes after the Senate had adjourned sachusetts, by Representative Brooks for the day), knocked to the floor of South Carolina, abetted by Repre- senseless, and beaten, while helpless

6 Cook, Coppoc, Copeland, and Green (a black), succeeded in making their escape, were Owen were hanged at Charlestown a fortnight after Brown, Barclay Coppoc, Charles P. Tidd, Brown—December 16th; Stevens and Hazlitt Francis Jackson Merriam, and Osborne P. Alwere likewise hanged on the 16th of March derson, a colored man. following. The confederates of Brown, who / May 22, 1856.

and unconscious, till the rage of his ized, however, but New York; where immediate assailant was thoroughly —owing, in part, to local questions satiated. Mr. Sumner was so much and influences — Fremont's magnifiinjured as to be compelled to aban- cent plurality of 80,000 was changed don his seat and take a voyage to to a Democratic plurality of 18,000. Europe, where, under the best medi- It appeared in this, as in most other cal treatment, his health was slowly Free States, that the decline or dissorestored. The infliction on Brooks, lution of the “American” or Fillby a Washington court, of a paltry more party inured mainly to the fine® for this outrage, tended to deep benefit of the triumphant Democraen and diffuse popular indignation at cy; though Pennsylvania, and possithe North, which the unopposed re- bly Rhode Island, were exceptions. ëlection of Brooks—he having re- To swell the resistless tide, Minnesigned, because of a vote of censure sota ånd Oregon—both in the exfrom a majority of the House - did treme North-each framed a State not tend to allay. Of Fremont's ag- Constitution this year, and took pogregate vote-1,341,812—it is proba- sition in line with the dominant ble that all above 1,200,000 was giv- party-Minnesota by a small, Oreen him on grounds personal to him- gon by an overwhelming, majority self, or from impulses growing out of —the two swelling by four Senathe Sumner outrage.

tors and four : Representatives the Accordingly, the elections of 1857 already invincible strength of the exhibited a diminution of Republic can strength—the eleven States which The Opposition was utterly powerhad voted for Fremont, giving him an less against this surge ; but what aggregate popular majority of over they dare hardly undertake, Mr. Bu250,000, now giving but little over chanan was able to effect. By his 50,000 for the Republican tickets. utterly iridefensible attempt to enAll the New England States were force the Lecompton Constitution still carried by the Republicans, but upon Kansas, in glaring contradicby majorities diminished, in the aver- tion to his smooth and voluble proage, more than half, while that of fessions regarding “Popular SoverConnecticut was reduced from 7,715 eignty," " the will of the majority,” to 546. So, in Ohio, Gov. Chase was etc., etc., he enabled the Repubthis year reëlected by 1,481, though licans, in 1858, to hold, by majorities Fremont had 16,623; while Gov. almost uniformly increased, all the Lowe, in Iowa, had but 2,151, where States they had carried the preceding Fremont had received 7,784; and year, and reverse the last year's maGov. Randall was chosen in Wis- jority against them in New York; consin by barely 118, where Fremont carry Pennsylvania for the first time had received 13,247. No Republi- by over 26,000 majority; triumph can State was actually revolution- even in New Jersey under an equiv2 Of $300.

number-or, at least, soon would be. She has 3 Minnesota chose three Members to the since chosen but two, being entitled to no more House, on the assumption that her population -in fact, hardly to so many-under the Census was sufficient to warrant her in claiming that / of 1860.



ocal organization; bring over Min- | Union cannot permanently endure nesota by a close vote; and swell half Slave and half Free. Said Mr. their majority in Ohio to fully 20,000. | Lincoln: They were beaten in Indiana on the "If we could first know where we are, and State ticket by a very slender major | whither we are tending, we could better ity, but carried seven of the eleven

judge what to do, and how to do it. We

are now far into the fifth year since a policy Representatives in Congress, beside was initiated with the avowed object and helping elect an anti-Lecompton

confident promise of putting an end to Sla

very agitation. Under the operation of that Democrat in another district; while

policy, that agitation has not only not Michigan, Iowa, and Wisconsin, chose ceased, but has constantly augmented. In Republican tickets—as of late had

my opinion, it will not cease until a crisis

shall have been reached and passed. “A been usual with them-by respect house divided against itself cannot stand.' able majorities, and the last named I believe this Government cannot perma

nently endure half slave and half free. I do by one increased to nearly 6,000.

not expect the Union to be dissolved—I do California and Oregon still adhered not expect the house to fall-but I do expect to Democracy of the most pro-Slavery

that it will cease to be divided. It will be

come all one thing or all the other. Either type, by decisive majorities.

the opponents of Slavery will arrest the furIllinois was this year the arena of ther spread of it, and place it where the pub

lic mind shall rest in the belief that it is in a peculiar contest. Senator Douglas

the course of ultimate extinction; or its adhad taken so prominent and so efi- | vocates will push it forward till it shall becient a part in the defeat of the Le- come alike lawful in all the States, old as

well as new-North as well as South.” compton abomination, that a number of the leading Republicans of other

This almost prophetic statement, States were desirous that their Illinois from one born in Kentucky, and who brethren should unite in choosing a

had been known, prior to the appearLegislature pledged to return him,

ed to return him. / ance of the Dred Scott decision, as a by a vote substantially unanimous, to rather conservative Whig, was put the seat he had so ably filled. But forth, more than four months before it was hardly in human nature that Gov. Seward, as if under a like prethose thus appealed to should, be monition of coming events, said: cause of one good act, recognize and “These antagonistic systems are continutreat as a friend one whom they had ally coming into closer contact, and collision

results. known for nearly twenty years as the “Shall I tell you what this collision ablest, most indefatigable, and by no means? They who think that it is accimeans the most scrupulous, of their

| dental, unnecessary, the work of interested

or fanatical agitators, and therefore ephemeadversaries. They held a sort of ral, mistake the case altogether. It is an irState Convention, therefore, and pre repressible conflict between opposing and

enduring forces; and it means that the sented ABRAHAM LINCOLN as a Re

United States must and will, sooner or later, publican competitor for Mr. Doug become either entirely a slave-holding nalas's seat; and he opened the canvass

tion, or entirely a free-labor nation. Either

the cotton and rice-fields of South Carolina at once,“ in a terse, forcible, and tho

and the sugar plantations of Louisiana will roughly “radical” speech, wherein he ultimately be tilled by free labor, and Charlesenunciated the then startling, if not

ton and New Orleans become marts for le

gitimate merchandise alone, or else the ryeabsolutely novel, doctrine that the fields and wheat-fields of Massachusetts

4 At Springfield, Ti., June 17, 1858.

5 At Rochester, N. Y., Oct. 25, 1858.

and New York must again be surrendered | State ticket of their own men, adoptby their farmers to slave culture and to the production of slaves, and Boston and New

ed the expedient of selecting their York become once more markets for trade candidates alternately from the tickets in the bodies and souls of men. It is the l of the two creat na

of the two great parties—of course, failure to apprehend this great truth that induces so many unsuccessful attempts at

powerfully aiding that which must final compromise between the Slave and otherwise have been beaten throughFree States; and it is the existence of

out. The 25,000 'votes thus cast this great fact that renders all such pretended compromises, when made, vain and elected three of the Democratic canephemeral.”

didates by majorities of 328 to 1,450; Mr. Lincoln, in his brief Spring- while the Republicans placed on the field speech, furnished the shortest “ American ticket” had majorities and sharpest exposition ever yet ranging from 45,104 to 49,447; and given of the doctrine vaunted as one Republican candidate was chosen ‘Popular Sovereignty,' viz. : over the joint vote of both the adverse

“ This necessity [for a popular indorse parties. In this “balance-of-power" ment of the policy embodied in the Nebraska movement of the Americans was foreKansas bills had not been overlooked; but

shadowed the “ Fusion” electoral had been provided for, as well as might be, in the notable argument of 'Squatter Sover tickets of 1860. eignty,' otherwise called sacred right of self-government ;' which latter phrase, though expressive of the only rightful basis

The indignant, scornful rhetoric of any government, was so perverted, in wherewith Mr. Webster had scouted this attempted use of it, as to amount to just this: That, if any one man choose to enslave |

the suggestion, that Slavery might another, no third man shall be allowed to possibly be established in New Mexiobject.

co, and spurned the idea of “reënactMr. Douglas promptly joined issue; ing the laws of God” by prohibiting and an oral canvass of unequaled it there, had scarcely died out of the interest, considering the smallness of public ear, when the Legislature of the stake, was prosecuted by these that vast Territory proceeded, at its capable and practiced popular de session in 1859, to do the very thing baters, before immense audiences of which he had deemed so inconceivatheir fellow-citizens, up to the eve of ble. Assuming the legal existence the State Election. In the event, of Slavery in that Territory, in acMr. Douglas was successful, securing cordance with the Dred Scott deci54 to 46 of the members of the Leg- sion, the Legislature proceeded to islature, and being promptly reëlect- pass “ An act to provide for the proed by them; but the candidates fa- tection of property in slaves," wherevorable to Mr. Lincoln had a plurality by severe penalties were provided of the popular vote.

for “ stealing,” or “enticing away”

said property, or “inciting” said proThe Elections of 1859 were not es-perty to “discontent” or “insubordipecially significant, save that, in New nation.” The spirit of this notable act York, what remained of the “ Ame- is fairly exhibited in the following rican" party, instead of nominating a provisions :

6 For Lincoln, 124,698; for Douglas, 121,130; dience to directions from Washington-Mr. Lincoln's plurality, 3,568. But over 4,000 Dem- | Douglas's apprehended return being exceedingly ocratic votes were scattered and lost, in obe- | distasteful to President Buchanan.



"SEO. 10. Any person may lawfully take committed to the jail, or custody of a proper up or apprehend any slave who shall have officer, to be released the next day, on derun away, or be absenting himself from the mand and payment of costs by the owner custody or service of his master or owner, 1 or master." and may lawfully use or employ such force as may be necessary to take up or appre

Another act passed by the same hend such siave; and such person, upon Legislature, “Amendatory of the the delivery of such slave to his master or

law relative to contracts between owner, or at such place as his master or owner may designate, shall be entitled to masters and servants? (peons), has demand or recover by suit any reward this unique provision, which might which may have been offered for the appre- i hain

F have afforded a hint to South Carohension or delivery of such slave. And, if no reward have been offered, then such per lina in her worst estate: son so apprehending such slave shall, upon I "SEO. 4.- No Court of this Territory the delivery of such slave to his master or

shall have jurisdiction, nor shall take cogniowner, or to the sheriff of the county in

zance, of any cause for the correction that which such slave was apprehended, be en

masters may give their servants for neglect titled to demand and recover from such

of their duties as servants; for they are conowner or master the sum of twenty dollars,

sidered as domestic servants to their masbesides ten cents for each mile of travel to

ters, and they should correct their neglect and from the place where such apprehen

and faults; for, as soldiers are punished by sion was made.

their chiefs, without the intervention of “Sec. 11. If any sheriff of any county

the civil authority, by reason of the salary within this Territory shall fail or refuse to

they enjoy, an equal right should be grantreceive with proper care any runaway slave

ed those persons who pay their money to be so offered to him for safe-keeping, by such

served in the protection of their property; person apprehending the same, or his agent; Provided. That such correction shall not be such sheriff shall, upon conviction thereof,

inflicted in a cruel manner, with clubs or be fined in a sum not less than five hundred

stripes.” dollars to the use of the Territory, shall further be liable to the owner of such slave These acts were directly inspired for his value, recoverable by civil suit, and shall be ineligible for reëlection to the said

from Washington, and were enacted office.

under the supervision and tutelage “SEC. 20. Any slave who shall conduct of the Federal officers stationed in himself disorderly in a public place, or shall give insolent language or signs to any free

the Territory. Some of these were white person, may be arrested and taken by personally slaveholders; others were such person before a justice of the peace, who, upon trial and conviction, in a sum

only anxious to commend themselves mary manner, shall cause his constable to to the notice and favor of their supegive such slave any number of stripes upon riors : and it was easy for them to his or her bare back, not exceeding thirty- 1. nine.

persuade the ignorant Mexicans, who "Sec. 21. When any slave shall be con- mainly composed the Legislature, victed of any crime or misdemeanor, for

that such acts would cause the heawhich the penalty assigned by law is, in whole or in part, the fine of a sum of mo- venly dews of Federal patronage to ney, the court passing sentence on him may, fall in boundless profusion on the in its discretion, substitute for such fine cor- | poral punishment, or branding, or stripes.

F arid, thirsty hills of their Territory. "SEC. 26. No slave shall be permitted to And, while the number of slaves held go from the premises of his owner or mas- in New Mexico might never be great, ter after sunset and before sunrise, without a written pass, specifying the particular its salubrity, and the ease wherewith place or places to which such slave is per- a mere subsistence is maintained mitted to go; and any white person is authorized to take any slave who, upon de

there, might well have commended mand, shall not exhibit such pass, before it to favor as a breeding-ground of any justice of the peace, who, upon sum- black chattels for the unhealthy mary investigation, shall cause such slave to be whipped with not more than thirty-nine | swamps and lowlands of Arkansas stripes upon his or her bare back, and to be and Louisiana. In any case its sub

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