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us in believing that they were by no live stock, and nearly two hundred means intolerable. It is not too and fifty millions' worth of implemuch to assume that the men by ments and machinery. The value of whose valor and virtue American in- animals annually slaughtered was redependence was achieved, and who turned at over two hundred millions lived to enjoy, for half a century of dollars. The annual product of thereafter, the gratitude of their Wheat was more than one hundred country, and the honest pride of their and seventy millions of bushels, with children, saw wealth as fairly dis- an equal quantity of Oats, and more tributed, and the labor of freemen than eight hundred millions of bushas adequately rewarded, as those of els of Indian Corn. Of Tobacco, our almost any other country or of any annual product was more than four previous generation.

hundred millions of pounds; and of Eighty years had not passed since Rice, nearly two millions. Of Wool, the acknowledgment of our inde- our annual clip was over sixty milpendence, when the returns of the lions of pounds, and our consumption Eighth Decennial Census afforded us probably double that amount. Of the means of measuring our coun- ginned Cotton, ready for market, our try's growth and physical progress product was about one million of during nearly its whole national his- tuns, or more than Five Millions of tory. The retrospect and the pros- bales of four hundred pounds each. pect might well minister to the pride Four hundred and sixty millions of (though that were needless) of a pa- pounds of Butter, and one hundred triotic apostle of manifest destiny' and five millions of pounds of Cheese,

the memory of many still living, the gate product for the year 1859. We area of our country had been ex- made in that year three hundred and panded, by successive and, in good forty millions of pounds of Sugar, part, peaceful acquisitions, from and more than twenty-five millions Eight Hundred Thousand to about of gallons of Molasses. And, beside Three Millions of square miles. Its consuming all this, with twenty-five population, excluding the Aboriginal millions of pounds of home-made savages, had increased from Three to Honey, we imported from abroad to more than Thirty Millions. Of its the value of over thirty-six millions two thousand millions of acres of dry of dollars. We dragged from our land, about five hundred millions had forests, not including fuel, Timber been divided into farms; leaving valued at more than Ninety-three three-fourths of its surface as yet un- Millions of dollars. We made Flour improved, though but in part unap- to the value of Two Hundred Milpropriated. Its farms were officially lions. We manufactured over fiftyestimated as worth six thousand six five millions' worth of Cotton into hundred and fifty millions of dollars, fabrics, worth one hundred and and were doubtless actually worth fifteen millions of dollars, beside imnot less than Ten Thousand Millions porting largely from abroad. We of dollars. On these farms were over fabricated over eighty millions of eleven hundred millions' worth of pounds of Wool, costing forty mil

OUR COUNTRY IN 1859-60.

23

lions of dollars, into sixty-eight mil- / with twelve thousand two hundred lions' worth of goods, though import- and sixty teachers and two hundred ing nearly all our finer woolen and sixty-three thousand and ninetyfabrics. We produced sixty-three six pupils; eighty thousand nine millions' worth of Leather; eight hundred and seventy-eight Common hundred and seventy-five thousand Schools, with three millions three tuns of Pig Iron, worth twenty mil- hundred and fifty-four thousand and lions of dollars; four hundred thou- eleven pupils; three hundred and sand tuns of Wrought Iron, worth eighty-six Daily Newspapers, circulattwenty-one millions; and Agricul- ing in the aggregate one million four tural Implements to the value of hundred and seventy-eight thousand seventeen millions. The grand four hundred and thirty-five copies; total of Manufactures, returned by one hundred and forty-six Trithis Census, amounted in value to Weekly and Semi-Weekly, and three One Thousand Nine Hundred Mil- thousand one hundred and fifty-three lions—an increase of forty-five per Weekly journals, circulating seven cent. within ten years. Our Exports, millions five hundred and sixty-four for the year ending in 1860, amounted thousand three hundred and four

Millions of dollars, whereof all but lies, five hundred and twenty-one Twenty-seven Millions were of do- Literary, and two hundred and seven

were a little over Three Hundred issued weekly, sufficiently attest that and Sixty Millions. Of Gold and our progress had not been purely Silver, we exported, in that year, physical, but intellectual and moral nearly fifty-seven millions of dollars, as well. and imported about eight millions The temptation to increase these

become one of the great gold-pro- to resist. Yet any multiplication of ducing countries on earth, if not the details would tend rather to confuse very greatest. The number of ocean than to deepen their impression on voyages terminating in our ports the mind of the general reader. Let during the year ending June 30, it suffice, then, in conclusion, that the 1861, was Twenty-two Thousand, less Real and Personal Estate of our forty; their aggregate tunnage a people, which in 1850 was returned little more than seven millions two as of the aggregate value of a little hundred and forty thousand more over Seven Thousand Millions of than two-thirds of it American. dollars, was, in 1860, returned as About fifty thousand churches, with worth over Sixteen Thousand Milforty thousand clergymen; two hun- lions—an increase in ten years of dred and thirty-nine Colleges, having more than one hundred and twentyone thousand six hundred and seven- five per cent. It is quite probable ty-eight teachers and twenty-seven that both these aggregates are largely thousand eight hundred and twenty- under the truth; but, conceding one pupils; six thousand and eighty- their accuracy, it is perfectly safe five Academies and Private Schools, to assume that Fifteen of the Six

teen Thousand Millions of property world by the industry, enterprise, returned in 1860 had been created and thrift of our people during the and added to the wealth of the I eighty preceding years.

II.

SLAVERY BEFORE THE REVOLUTION.

VICE, whether individual or gene- harvests; yet armies and their deral, is ever conceived in darkness and pendents must be fed. Rapacity, as cradled in obscurity. It challenges well as destruction, seems almost inobservation only in its hardy matu separable from war. The soldier, rity and conscious strength. Slavery impelled to destroy for his chief's or is older than Civilization-older than his country's sake, soon learns to save History. Its origin is commonly re- and appropriate for his own. The ferred to war--to the captivity of the natural and necessary distinction bevanquished, and to the thrift and tween 'mine' and thine' becomes clemency of the victor, who learns in his mind confused, if not obliterby experience that the gratification ated. The right of every one to the of killing his prisoner is transient, product of his own labor is one which while the profit of sparing him for his vocation incites, and even comservitude is enduring; and thus, in pels, him to disregard. To enslave rude ages, not merely the vanquished those whom, whether combatants or warriors, but their wives and chil otherwise, he might justifiably kill, dren, their dependents and subjects, appears to him rather an act of huwere accounted legitimate “spoils manity than of injustice and wrong. of victory,” along with the lands, Hence, the warlike, conquering, houses, flocks and herds, the goods dominating races of antiquity almost and chattels of the conquered people. universally rejoiced, when at their “Woe to the conquered!" is the pri | acme of power and greatness, in the mary rule of savage and of barbarian possession of innumerable slaves. warfare; and the captivity of the Slavery of a mild and gentle Jews in Babylon, the destruction by type may very well have grown up Rome of Capua, of Carthage, and of insensibly, even in the absence of other cities and peoples which had war. The patriarch has shelter and provoked her special enmity, prove food, with employment for various that nations which regarded them- capacities; and his stronghold, if he selves as far advanced in civilization, be stationary, or his tents, if he be were hardly more merciful than say- nomadic, become the refuge of the ages, when maddened by fear and unfortunate and the destitute from hate. War wastes and devastates. | the region around him. The abanThe earth, plowed however deeply doned wife, the unwedded mother, with cannon-wheels, yields uncertain the crippled or infirm of either sex,

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1

SLAVERY AMONG THE ANCIENTS.

25 the tender orphan, and the out-worn, hend that it was cheaper to buy the seedy prodigal, betake themselves to beef he required in the grass-market his lodge, and humbly solicit his per- at Glasgow than to obtain it withmission to earn bread and shelter by out price, by harrying the lowland tending his flocks and herds, or by farms. So the first man who ever any other service to which their ca- imbibed or conceived the fatal delupacities are adequate. Some are ac- sion that it was more advantageous cepted from motives of thrift; others to him, or to any human being, to under the impulse of charity; and procure whatever his necessities or the greater portion of either class, his appetites required by address and exulting in their escape from hunger, scheming than by honest work—by cold, and nakedness, gladly remain the unrequited rather than the fairly through life. Marriages are formed and faithfully recompensed toil of his among them and children are born, fellow-creatures—was, in essence and who grow up adepts in the labor the in heart, a slaveholder, and only patriarch requires of them, contented awaited opportunity to become one with their station, and ignorant of in deed and practice. And this sinthe world outside of his posses-gle truth, operating upon the infinite sions. If his circumstances require varieties of human capacity and cula military force, he organizes it of ture, suffices to account for the uni

servants born in his household.' versality of slaveholding in the anteHis possessions steadily increase, and Christian ages, for its tenacity of life, he becomes in time a feudal chieftain, and for the extreme difficulty of ruling over vassals proud of his emi- even its partial eradication. The annence and docile to his will. Thus cients, while they apprehended, perit has been justly remarked that the haps adequately, the bitterness of condition of Slavery has ever preceded bondage, which many of them had the laws by which it is ultimately experienced, do not seem to have regulated; and it is not without perceived so vividly the correspondplausibility that its champions have ing evils of slaveholding. They saw contended for it as a natural form of that end of the chain which encircled society—a normal development of the ankle of the bondman; they do the necessary association of Capital not seem to have so clearly perceived with Labor in Man's progress from that the other lay Ķeavily across the rude ignorance and want to abund- throat of even his sleeping master. ance, refinement, and luxury. Homer-if we may take Pope's word

But Slavery, primarily considered, for it-observed that has still another aspect—that of a natural relation of simplicity to cun- | Makes man a slave, takes half his worth away;"

"Jove fired it certain, that whatever day ning, of ignorance to knowledge, of weakness to power. Thomas Car- but that the slaveholding relation eflyle,' before his melancholy decline fected an equal discount on the value and fall into devil-worship, truly ob- of the master appears to have escaped served, that the capital mistake of him. It is none the less true, howRob Roy was his failure to compre- ever, that ancient civilization, in its

1 In a letter on Copyright.

various national developments, was courtly Felix tremble. The prelates habitually corrupted, debauched, of the lately persecuted Church were and ultimately ruined, by Slavery, the favored companions and counwhich rendered labor dishonorable, selors—too often, alas! the courtiers and divided society horizontally into alsoấof Emperors and Cæsars; but a small caste of the wealthy, edu- they seldom improved or risked their cated, refined, and independent, and great opportunity to demand obea vast hungry, sensual, thriftless, and dience, in all cases, to the dictates of worthless populace; rendered impos the Golden Rule. The Church had sible the preservation of republican become an estate above the people; liberty and of legalized equality, even and their just complaints of the opamong the nominally free. Dioge- pressions and inhumanities of the nes, with his lantern, might have powerful were not often breathed vainly looked, through many a long into its reluctant ears. White Sla

or Catiline, or Cæsar, for a speci- out; but it was not grappled men of the poor but virtuous and with and crushed as it should have self-respecting Roman citizen of been. The Dark Ages, justly so the days of Cincinnatus, or even of called, are still quite dark enough; Regulus.

The Slavery of antiquity survived upon them to assure us that the the religions, the ideas, the polities, accord of priest and noble was comand even the empires, in which it had plete, and that serf and peasant its origin. It should have been abol- groaned and suffered beneath their ished, with gladiatorial combats and iron sway. other moral abominations, on the The invention of Printing, the disaccession of Christianity to recog-covery of America, the Protestant nized supremacy over the Roman Reformation, the decline and fall of world; but the simple and sublime Feudalism, gradually changed the doctrine of Jesus and his disciples, of condition and brightened the prosPaul and the Apostles, had ere this pect of the masses. Ancient Slavery been grievously corrupted and per- was dead; modern Serfdom was subverted. The subtleties of Greek spec- stantially confined to cold and barulation, the pomp and pride of impe- barous Russia; but African Slavery rial Rome, had already commenced —the slavery of heathen negroes drawing the Church insensibly fur- | had been revived, or röintroduced, on ther and further away from its divine the northern coast of the Mediterrasource. A robed and mitered eccle- nean, by Moorish traders, about the siasticism, treacherous to humanity Tenth Century, and began to make and truckling to power, had usurped its way among Spanish and Portuthe place of that austere, intrepid guese Christians somewhere near the spirit which openly rebuked the guilt middle of the Fifteenth. of regal, voluptuous Herod, and made The great name of Columbus is

2"In the year 990, Moorish merchants from the gold and slaves of Central Africa."--Banthe Barbary coast first reached the cities of Ni | croft's History of the United States, vol. i., p. gritia, and established an uninterrupted ex- | 165. change of Saracen and European luxuries for ' “The Portuguese are next in the market. An

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