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ROOT'S INSTRUCTION-GOTT'S RESOLUTION. 193 received a respectable support in voting for Gag-Rules, and against every Free State, Rhode Island and the establishment by law of Freedom New Jersey excepted. New York, in the Territories. Some of them Massachusetts, and Vermont, each were permanently alienated, though gave a larger popular vote to him the far greater number were but temthan to Gen. Cass; Wisconsin gave porarily estranged, from the councils him nearly as many as Gen. Taylor. of their Southern chiefs. But the The entire popular vote (South Caro- change was made evident, soon after lina not casting any) stood–Taylor the assembling of the XXXth Con. and Fillmore, 1,360,752; Cass and gress for its second session, when, Butler, 1,219,962; Van Buren and (December 13, 1848), on motion of Adams, 291,342. Gen. Taylor had Hon. Joseph M. Root, of Ohio, the a majority of the Electoral and a House plurality of the Popular vote, both “Resolved, That the Committee on Terriin the Free and in the Slave States tories be instructed to report to this House,
with as little delay as practicable, a bill or respectively.
bills providing a territorial government for
each of the Territories of New Mexico and The struggle for the organization
California, and excluding Slavery there
from.” of the territories was resumed in Congress the ensuing Winter; and,
This passed by Yeas 108, includthough there had been very few
ing every Whig, and all but eight of changes of members, there had been
the Democrats from Free States; a very considerable change of feeling
Nays 80—all from the Slave States on the part of a great many Demo
but the eight aforesaid. crats from Free States. They indig- |
A further evidence of the altered nantly felt that, by the vote cast for
feeling of the House was afforded, Gen. Taylor in the South, the ser
when, a few days thereafter, the folvices and sacrifices of their party had
eir party had lowing was, during the morning been ungratefully requited. That
hour, moved by Mr. Daniel Gott, of eight of the fifteen Slave States
New York: should cast their votes for the Whig | “Whereas, the traffic now prosecuted in
. | this metropolis of the Republic in human candidate for President, leaving Vir
beings, as chattels, is contrary to natural ginia, Alabama, and Mississippi to justice, and the fundamental principles of be carried against him by the very
our political system, is notoriously a re
proach to our country throughout Christenleapest majorities, was not the enter
dom, and a serious hindrance to the protainment to which they had been in gress of republican liberty among the navited when they risked their ascend
tions of the earth: Therefore,
“Resolved, That the Committee on the ency at home, and their seats, by District of Columbia be instructed to report
8 The members from Free States (all Demo- Smith-l. Messrs. Clark and H. Williams, of crats), who had voted at the last session to lay Maine, Birdsall and Maclay, of New York, the Wilmot Proviso on the table, and who now Brodhead and Mann, of Pennsylvania; Pettit, voted for the principle as above, were as follow: of Indiana ; Ficklin and McClernand, of Illinois,
MAINE.--Asa W. H. Clapp, James S. Wiley who voted with the South at the former session -2. New YORK. - Frederick W. Lord-. -now failed to vote. Mr. D. S. Jackson, of New OHIO.—Thomas Richey-1. INDIANA.-Charles York, who then voted with the South, had been W. Cathcart, Thomas J. Henley, John L. Robin- succeeded by Mr. H. Greeley, who voted with son, William W. Wick-4. ILLINOIS.-Robert | the North.
a bill, as soon as practicable, prohibiting the States, in the affirmative; while all Slave-Trade in said District."
the members present from the Slave The Previous Question having States but Messrs. Adams and Buckbeen required and ordered, this reso- ner voted in the negative: so that the lution was adopted by Yeas 98 to | House divided very nearly on Mason Nays 88. Hereupon there was a call and Dixon's line. But Mr. Buckner for the Southern members to leave paid for his speech and vote on this the Hall, and various demonstrations occasion with his seat. He had sucof the sort, which resulted in a meet- ceeded in 1847, over his Democratic ing of members from the Slave opponent, by 386 majority; he was States; which resulted in an address thrown out in 1849 by 1140 majority. to their constituents, drafted and Mr. Adams did not stand for re-elecreported by Mr. Calhoun ; which re- tion. And the bill thus passed was sulted in nothing. The House Com- not even considered in the Senatemittee on the District, being Pro- a motion by Mr. Douglas (February Slavery, of course took good care not 28), that it be taken up for reference, to report as instructed above. having been promptly voted down by
The Territorial bill for California, 28 Nays to 25 Yeas. foreshadowed and commended by For the Pro-Slavery majority in Mr. Root's resolve, was reported by that Senate had already resolved on Caleb B. Smith, of Indiana, on the their course, and it did not lie at all 20th, and that for New Mexico fol- in this direction. They believed that lowed on the 3d of January, 1849. their opportunity was at hand; that An effort (January 15), by Mr. Ju- the more especial friends of the inlius Rockwell, of Massachusetts, to coming Administration were anxious make the former a special order, fail to have the Slavery question settled ed, lacking a two-thirds vote, but re- --that is, the opposition to Slavery ceived the vote of nearly every mem- Extension defeated or withdrawn, ber from the Free States—114 to 71. that being the way such questions The bill was finally taken out of Com- were usually settled — in order to mittee of the Whole on the 26th of make matters smooth and pleasant February, and engrossed for a third for the powers soon to be; and they reading next day; when Mr. R. K. knew.that the irritation of the NorthMeade, of Virginia, moved that it do ern Democrats against the South for lie on the table, which was decisive- giving a majority of its votes for Gen. ly negatived; and then the bill pass- Taylor as against Gen. Cass had been ed the House by 126 Yeas to 87 Nays. gradually dying out under the presMr. Aylett Buckner (Whig of Ken- sure of social influences and of party tucky), who had made a forcible and necessities. They believed that, if a thorough-going speech in favor of ex- proper issue were made, the Northcluding Slavery from the Territories, ern repugnance to the organization voted with his Whig colleague, Green of the Territories in profound silence Adams, and all the Whigs and all but as to Slavery, might be overcome. four of the Democrats from the Free They had, therefore, determined to
Mr. Avletts by 126 Yeas to 87 x pass- Taylor
9 Messrs. Samuel A. Bridges of Pennsylvania, | William Sawyer, of Ohio. Messrs. Chas. Brown, and William Kennon, jr., John K. Miller, and Chas. J. Ingersoll, and other such, did not vote.
FAILURE TO ORGANIZE THE TERRITORIES. 195 fasten to the Civil and Diplomatic | Illinois, now moved that the House Appropriation bill, a “rider," organ- recede from its non-concurrence in izing the new Territories with no the Senate's amendment, which prerestriction on or impediment to the vailed-Yeas 111; Nays 106; whereintroduction of Slavery, calculating upon Mr. Richard W. Thompson that a sufficient number of the North- (Whig), of Indiana, moved that the ern friends of the Administration House do concur with the Senate would permit this to pass rather than with an amendment, which was, in see the Government crippled and the fact, a substitute for the Senate's proPresident constrained to call an extra ject, and of which the gist was a prosession of Congress--always a portent vision that “until the 4th of July, of evil to the party in power. Ac- 1850, unless Congress shall sooner cordingly, the great Appropriation provide for the government of said bill having passed the House, and Territories, the existing laws thereof been reported to and several days shall be retained and observed”-in debated in the Senate, Mr. Walker, other words, that the laws of Mexiof Wisconsin, moved to add a section co, whereby Slavery was abolished extending the laws of the United throughout her entire area, should States over “the territory west of continue in force in said Territories the Rio del Norte, acquired from of New Mexico and California. The Mexico by the treaty of February Senate's amendment, as amended, was 22, 1848," and authorizing the Presi- then agreed to: Yeas 110; Nays 103. dent to "prescribe and establish all And thus the bill, late at night of what proper and needful regulations for was necessarily the last day of the the enforcement of the Constitution session, was returned to the Senate. and laws in said Territory; as also The majority of that body were 6 to appoint and commission such fairly caught in their own snare. officers as may be necessary to ad- They had vociferously protested that minister such laws," etc., etc. This Congress should not adjourn without passed the Senate by 29 Yeas 10 to 27 providing for the government and Nays; but, the bill being thus re- quiet of the new territories; and turned to the House, the Senate's had threatened to defeat the General amendment was there (March 2) re- Appropriation bill and leave the Govjected: Yeas 100 (thirteen of them ernment penniless if this were not from Free States) to Nays 114 (all acceded to by the House. And here from Free States). The bill was then was the bill proposing to do just what returned in its original shape to the they had insisted must be done, and Senate. The Senate insisted on its could not with safety be postponed. amendment, and asked a conference, It was only objectionable in that it prowhich was granted, but nothing came vided (as was done in the case of Louof it. The Committee reported to isiana and Florida) that the social coneither House its inability to agree, ditions which had existed prior to our and was discharged.
acquisition should remain unchanged Mr. McClernand (Democrat), of until Congress, or the People more 10 Including only Messrs. Dickinson of New Fitzgerald of Michigan, and Hannegan of IndiYork, A. C. Dodge of Iowa, Douglas of Illinois, I ana (all Democrats), from Free States.
immediately interested, should see fit | silent respecting Slavery; but, while to change them. But this was exactly under discussion in Committee of what the majority determined should the Whole, the following amendnot be, and were working to prevent. ment was added : Yet they did not care to make up an “And neither Slavery nor involuntary issue with the House majority on this servitude shall ever exist in said Territory,
except for crime, whereof the party shall point, and go to the country on the
have been duly convicted.” defeat of the chief Appropriation
In the House, on coming out of bill, and consequent embarrassment
Committee, the Yeas and Nays were of the Government, for no other rea
demanded on this amendment, which son than that the House had refused
was sustained : Yeas 108; Nays 44 to unite in opening the Territories to
-only three or four Northern DemoSlavery. And so, after spending most
crats and five or six Southern Whigs of the night in heated discussion
being found among the Nays, wheremuch of it mere talking against time
of the residue were Southern Demo-the Senate, toward morning, struck
crats. The bill, as thus amended, out of the Appropriation bill its ma
passed the House, but went to the terially amended amendment, and
Senate so near the close of the sespassed the bill as it originally came
sion that, though referred to and from the House—at all events, with
reported by the Committee on Terno provision for the organization or
ritories, no further action was had government of New Mexico and
thereon. California. And thus ended the
On the assembling of this ConAdministration of Mr. Polk, along
gress for its second session, Mr. with the XXXth Congress.
Douglas again reported to the House
a bill to provide a Territorial GovTHE action of the XXIXth and
ernment for Oregon, which was read XXXth Congresses respectively with
twice, and sent to the Committee of regard to the Territory of Oregon,
the Whole; where it was debated though proceeding simultaneously
through the 11th, 12th, and 14th of with the incidents already recorded
January, and ordered to be taken in this chapter, and involving essen
out of Committee on the 15th. On tially identical principles, requires dis
that day, Gen. Armistead Burt, of tinct presentation, that the two diverse
South Carolina, moved (having aland somewhat conflicting threads
ready done so in Committee of the of narrative may not be blended in
Whole) this addition to the clause hopeless entanglement. That action,
inhibiting Slavery, as above given : briefly summed up, was as follows: At the first session of the XXIXth
"Inasmuch as the whole of the said Ter
ritory lies north of thirty-six degrees thirty Congress, Mr. Stephen A. Douglas minutes north latitude, known as the lino reported to the House (August 6, of the Missouri Compromise. 1846) a bill organizing the Territory | The object of this amendment was of Oregon, whereof the northern to obtain from the House a recogniboundary had just been fixed at lati- tion of the parallel 36° 30' as a dividtude 49° by treaty with Great Bri- ing line between Slave and Free tain. The bill, as reported, was territory across the entire continent, ATTEMPT TO EXTEND THE LINE OF 36° 30'.
or so far as our possessions might ex- | with the majority, which was othertend. The House voted down Gen. wise entirely composed of members Burt's proposition : Yeas 82; Nays from Free States; eight"? Democrats 114-every member from the Slave from Free States voted in the minorStates, with four 1 Democrats from ity, otherwise composed of all the Free States, voting in the affirma- members from Slave States present, tive; while every Whig from the Mr. Houston, of Delaware, excepted. Free States, with every Democrat The bill then passed the House by a from those States but the four afore- “sectional” vote-Yeas 128; Nays said, voted in the negative. The | 71. bill thereupon passed the House by In the Senate, Mr. Douglas 18 134 Yeas to 35 Nays—all from Slave promptly (August 5th) reported this States; but, on reaching the Senate, bill with amendments, and a proposiit was referred, reported, sent back tion from Mr. Foote, of Mississippi, again, and finally, on the last day of that it“ do lie on the table,” was dethe session, laid on the table-Yeas feated by 15 (ultra Southern) Yeas to. 26; Nays 18--there to sleep the 36 Nays. Among the amendments sleep of death.
reported by Mr. Douglas was a reproIn the next (XXXth) Congress, duction in substance of Gen. Burt's, Mr. Caleb B. Smith (Whig), of In- defeated the year before in the diana (since Secretary of the Inte- House, which now received but two rior, under President Lincoln), was votes—those of Messrs. Bright and chairman of the Committee on Terri- Douglas. Mr. Douglas thereupon tories; and a bill creating a Territo- moved to amend the bill, by insertrial Government for Oregon, and / ing as follows: prohibiting Slavery therein, was re
“That the line of thirty-six degrees and ported by him on the 9th of Febru- thirty minutes of north latitude, known as ary, 1848. This bill was made a the Missouri Compromise line, as defined in
the eighth section of an act entitled, “An special order five weeks thereafter,
Act to authorize the people of the Missouri but was so pertinaciously resisted by Territory to form a Constitution and State the Slavery Extensionists that it Government, and for the adinission of such
State into the Union, on an equal footing could not be got out of Committee till
with the original States, and to prohibit August 1; when an amendment made Slavery in certain Territories, approved in Committee, striking out that clause
March 6, 1820,' be, and the same is hereby,
declared to extend to the Pacific Ocean; of the original bill whereby the provi
and the said eighth section, together with sions of the Ordinance of '87 were the compromise therein effected, is hereby
revived, and declared to be in full force, and extended to this Territory-in other
binding, for the future organization of the words, Slavery was prohibited there Territories of the United States, in the in—was negatived; Yeas 88; Nays
same sense, and with the same understand114. On this division, Mr. John W.
ing, with which it was generally adopted.” Houston (Whig), of Delaware, voted This was carried by 33 Yeas-in
11 PENNSYLVANIA.-Charles J. Ingersoll-1. NOIS.-Orlando B. Ficklin, John A. McClernand, ILLINOIS. Stephen A. Douglas, Robert Smith William A. Richardson—3. INDIANA.--John L. --2. IOWA.-S. C. Hastings~1. In all, 4. Robinson, William W. Wick-2.
13 Recently transferred from the House; now 12 NEW YORK.-Ausburn Birdsall-1. OHIO.- chairman of the Senate's Committee on Terri. William Kennon, jr., John K. Miller-2. ILLI- | tories.