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for a full year more, will test to the utmost my power of condensation to conclude the work
in another volume of the generous amplitude of this.

My subject naturally divides itself into two parts: I. How we got into the War for the
Union ; and II. How we get out of it. I have respected this division in my cast of the
present work, and submit this volume as a clear elucidation of the former of these
problems, hoping to be at least equally satisfactory in my treatment of the latter.

It is the task of the historian to eliminate froin the million facts that seemed important
in their day and sphere respectively, the two or three thousand that have an abiding and
general interest, presenting these in their due proportions, and with their proper relative
emphasis. Any success in this task must, of course, be comparative and approximate; and no
historical work ever was or will be written whereof a well-informed and competent critic
might not forcibly say, 'Why was this fact stated and that omitted? Why give a page to
this occurrence, and ignore that, which was of at least equal consequence? Why praise the
achievement of A, yet pass over that of B, which was equally meritorious and importants'
But, especially in dealing with events so fresh and recent as those of our great convulsion,
must the historian expose himself to such strictures. Time, with its unerring perspec-
tive, reduces every incident to its true proportions; so that we are no longer liable to mis-
conceptions and apprehensions which were once natural and all but universal. We know,
beyond question, that Braddock's defeat and death before Fort Du Quesne had not the im-
portance which they seemed to wear in the eyes of those who heard of them within the
month after their occurrence ; that Bunker Hill, though tactically a defeat, was practically a
triumph to the arms of our Revolutionary fathers; that the return of Bonaparte from Elba
exerted but little influence over the destinies of Europe, and that little of questionable be-
neficence; and that 'fillibusterism,' so called, since its first brilliant achievement in wrest-
ing Texas from Mexico and annexing her to this country, though attempting much, has
accomplished very little, toward the diffusion either of Freedom or Slavery. And so, much
that now seems of momentous consequence will doubtless have shrunk, a century hence, to
very moderate dimensions, or perhaps been forgotten altogether.

The volume which is to conclude this work cannot, of course, appear till some time after
the close of the contest; and I hope to be able to bestow upon it at least double the time
that I was at liberty to devote to this. I shall labor constantly to guard against Mr. Pol-
lard's chief error-that of supposing that all the heroism, devotedness, humanity, chivalry,
evinced in the contest, were displayed on one side; all the cowardice, ferocity, cruelty,
rapacity, and general depravity, on the other. I believe it to be the truth, and as such I
shall endeavor to show, that, while this war has been signalized by some deeds disgraceful
to human nature, the general behavior of the combatants on either side has been calculated
to do honor even to the men who, though fearfully misguided, are still our countrymen,
and to exalt the prestige of the American name.

That the issue of this terrible contest may be such as God, in His inscrutable wis-
dom, shall deem most directly conducive to the progress of our race in knowledge, virtue,
liberty, and consequent happiness, is not more the fervent aspiration, than it is the conso-
ling and steadfast faith, of

· H. G.
NEW YORK, April 10, 1864.

INDEX BY CHAPTERS.

PAG.
XVII. The Nebraska-Kansas Struggle. ....224

1854-61-Pierce-Atchison-A, C. Dodge-Douglas
--Archibald Dixon-Salmon P. Chase-Badger of
N. C.-English of Ind.-A. H. Stephens--Gov. Reed-
er-William Phillips-John W. Whitfield-Civil
War in Kansas-Wm. Dow_Sheriff Jones--Nomi-
nation of Fremont-President Fillmore at Albany
Election of Buchanan-Lecompton--Wyandot,Ad-
mission of Kansas as a Free State.

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I. Our Country in 1782 and in 1860.... 17

Increase of Population and Wealth.

II. Slavery in America, prior to 17.76.... 24

III. Do. in the American Revolution... 33

IV. Do. under the Confederation....... 37

Jefferson's Proposal of Restriction-Nathan Dane's do.

V. The Convention of 1787 and the Fed-

eral Constitution.....

VI. Slavery after 1787...

Persistent Hostility of Congress to Slavery Extension
-Purchase of Louisiana--Eli Whitney and his Coto

ton-Gin--Colonization.
VII. Missouri—the Struggle for Restriction. 74

Scott-Clay-Pinkney-P. P. Barbour-Webster

John W. Taylor-Thomas-the Comproinise.

VIII. State Rights--Resolutions of '98..... 81

Nullification-Hayne-Webster-Jackson--Calhoun

-Georgia and the Indians.

IX. Abolition-Its Rise and Progress....107

Early efforts for Emancipation-Slave-holders con-

demn Slavery-Virginia, Benjamin Lundy-Wm,

Lloyd Garrison.

X. The Churches on Slav'y and Abolition. 117

XI. The Pro-Slavery Reaction-Riots.....122

Rifling the Mails--Persecution and Murder of Rev.

E. P. Lovejoy—The Struggle in Congress for the

Right of Petition.

XII. Texas and her Annexation to the U.S.147

Sam. Houston--M. Hunt-Webster-T. W. Gilmer-

Jackson-J. Q. Adams—Van Buren-Clay-Benton

-Polk-Tyler--Calhoun,

XIII. The Mission of Samuel Hoar to S. C.. 178

XIV. War with Mexico-Wilmot Proviso...185

Gen. Cass---Letter to Nicholson—Gen. Taylor chosen

President-Attempts by Gen, Burt, of S. C., and by

Senator Douglas, to extend the Compromise Line of

36° 30° to the Pacific.

XV. The Struggle for Compromise in 1850..198

-Gov. Seward James Brooks: -Gen. Taylor-Hen-

ry Clay Jefferson Davis-Webster's 7th of March

Speech-The Texas Job.

XVI. The Era of Slave-Hunting—1850-60.210

Fugitive Slave Law John Van Buren-Judge Grier

-R. R. Sloane-Margaret Garner-Anthony Burns

- The Flaunting Lie'-National Party Platforms
of 1852-Gen. Scott-Election of Pierce and King.

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XXIII. The Press and People of the North XXXII. West Virginia clings to the Union 516
deprecate Civil War. ..........351

Convention called-State organization effected

McClellan advances-Fight at Rich Moun-
The Tribune's overture-The Albany Evening

tain--Rebel rout at Carrick's Ford-Union Re-
Journal's--The Philadelphia Meeting--Mayor

pulse at Scarytown-Surprise at Cross Lanes-
Henry--Judge Woodward--George W. Curtis

Carnifex Ferry-Guyandotte-Romney--Alle-
suppressed.

ghany Summit-Huntersville.
XXIV. Attempts at 'Conciliation' in Cong. 367 1 XXXIII. The War in Old Virginia, .......528
Buchanan and Black condemn 'coercion'-

Ft. Monroe-Great Bethel-Alexandria occu-
Mr. Crittenden and his Compromise-Mr. Cor-

pied-Vienna-Patterson's advance-His flank
win's Committee of Thirty-one--Senator Antho-

inovement to Charlestown-Johnston rushes to
ny's proffer-C. L, Vallandigham's project-The

Manassas-Gen. Sanford's testimony--McDow-
Corwin Constitutional Amendment adopted by

ell advances to Centerville-Blackburn's Ford
either House.

-Bull Run-Union defeat and fight--Causes

thereof-Gen. Scott's plan--Criticised by Hon.
XXV. Peace Democracy at the North, and

F. P. Blair-Consequences of our failure.
the Peace Conference at Wash XXXIV. First session of the 37th Congress 555
ington...................
......388

Organization of the House-Mr. Lincoln's first
The Tweddle Hall Convention at Albany, 1861

Message-Various propositions--Henry May's

visit to Richmond-Conservative Republicans
---Seymour, Thayer, etc.--Peace Conference or

on Slavery and the Union-Mr. Crittenden's
Congress at Washington--Modified Crittenden

resolve-Proposals to Compromise--Confisca-
Compromise adopted thereby-Congress non-

tion of Slaves used to promote the Rebellion-
concurs-Failure to compromise-Why.

The President's acts approved-Adjournment.
XXVI. The Union versus the Confederacy. .407 XXXV. Rebellion and War in Missouri.572
Organization of the Confederacy-Jefferson Da-

State preparations to aid the Rebellion-Flight
vis chosen President, and Alex, H. Stephens

of Jackson from Jefferson City-Fight at
Vice-President-Davis's Inaugural-Stephens's

Booneville--Camp Cole-State Convention-
'corner-stone' speech--Mr. Lincoln's journey to

Jackson's Proclamation of War-Dug Springs
Washington-Speeches-Inaugural.

---Battle of Wilson's Creek-Death of Lyon

Fremont in command-Letter to the President
XXVII. The Pause before the Shock......428

-Proclaims Martial Law“Mulligan besieged

at Lexington-Surrenders - Price retreats-
The two Cabinets-Attempts to Negotiate by

Fremont pursces—Zagonyi's Charge at Spring-
Forsyth and Crawford-Repelled by Gov. Sew-

field-Fremont superseded-Halleck in com-
ard-Judge · Campbell's Statement-Northern

mand-Battle of Belmont.
proposals to join the Confederacy-Society for
the promotion of National Unity.

XXXVI. War on the Seaboard and Ocean.598
XXVIII. Siege and Reduction of Ft. Sumter 440

The Privateer Savannah- The Petrel-Fort

Hatteras-Pensacola and Pickens-The Sum-
Hesitation--Futile Negotiations--Attempt to

ter-Hollins's Ram exploit-Dupont and Sher-
provision--Order to open fire-Bombardment

man's Expedition ---Capture of Port Royal-
commenced--Fire returned-Interior of the fort

The Trent Case-Surrender of Mason and Sli-
in flames-Wigfall's volunteer embassy-Ander-

dell,
son surrenders-Garrison leaves for New York-
Dixie jubilanto

XXXVII. Kentucky adheres to the Union.608

Politicians-Elections--Overwhelming Union
XXIX. The Nation called to arms-and

majorities-- Magoffin's neutrality-The Presi-
responds......

dent's response-Rebel Invasion Legislature
...........449

protests-Gen. Grant occupies Paducah--Zol-
Virginia sends Envoys to Washington-The

licoffer at Wild Cat--Nelson at Piketon
President's response to them-He calls for

Schoepf's Retreat-Rebel Government organ-
75,000 Militia-Comments of the Press-Re-

ized at Russellville--Geo. W. Johnson made
sponse of the Border -State Governors-Balti-

Governor-Kentucky gravely admitted into
more in a ferment-Attack on the 6th Massachu-

the Southern Confederacy-Full delegation
setts-Do. on Pennsylvanians—The Rebels up-

sent to the Congress at Richmond--Richard
permost-Railroads and telegraphs broken up-

Hawes finally declared Governor.
Mayor Brown and the Young Christians visit
Washington to demand that no more Northern XXXVIII. The Potomac-Ball's Bluff......618
troops enter Baltimore-Their success-General
Butler lands at Annapolis and recovers Mary-

Scott a failure-Gen. McClellan called to
land-Her traitorous Legislature.

Washington-Brings Order out of Chaos
Great increase of our Army-No advance

Ball's Bluff-Dranesville All Quiet The
XXX, Secession resumes its march......473

Hutchinsons expelled-Whittier's Lyric.
Shameful surrender of the Norfolk Navy Yard
Secession of Virginia-Tennessee North Caro-

Appended Notes................631
lipa— Arkansas-Missouri-Blair and Lyon rally

I. The Synod of Kentucky and Slavery. II.
a Union force at St. Louis-Kentucky.

New SchoolPresbyterians condemn the insti-

tution, III. The Albany Evening Journal on
XXXI. The Opposing Forces in conflict...497

Gov. Seward and Judge Campbell. IV, Jere.

Clemens on Alabama secession--the Rebels
Davis's first Message-Relative strength of the

feared delay. V. The confidence of the Rebels
North and the South-European opinion,

-Russell on the capture of Washington. VI.
Slavery --Cotton -- Military training - Army

The North Carolina Conventionan error
Officers-Northern sympathy with the South'

corrected.
-The heart of the People for the old flag and
their whole country.

ANALYTICAL INDEX............633

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ILLUSTRATIONS.

PRESIDENT AND CABINET. 1. ABRAHAM LINCOLN, President ........... FRONTISPIECE. 2. HANNIBAL HAMlin, Vice-President . ......... 3. WILLIAM H. SEWARD, Secretary of State . . . . . . . 4. Salmon P. CHASE, Secretary of the Treasury .. ... 5. EDWIN M. STANTON, Secretary of War. . . . . . . 6. GIDEON WELLES, Secretary of the Navy .... 7. John P. USHER, Secretary of the Interior 8. MONTGOMERY BLAIR, Postmaster-General . . . 9. EDWARD BATES, Attorney-General ...... 10. SIMON CAMERON, ex-Secretary of War . . . . . . . . . 11. CALEB B. Smith, ex-Secretary of the Interior. . . . . .

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EMINENT OPPONENTS OF THE SLAVE POWER.

· PAGE 12. John QUINCY ADAMS. ... 112 18. Cassius M. CLAY ..... 112 13. BENJAMIN LUNDY ....

19. Joshua R. GIDDINGS . .. 14. HENRY WARD BEECHER .

20. WILLIAM LLOYD GARRISON 15. WENDELL PHILLIPS . . . . ..

21. GERRIT Smith .. . . 16. WILLIAM CULLEN BRYANT . . " | 22. Owen LOVEJOY. .... 17. John GREENLEAF WHITTIER . “ | 23. CHARLES SUMNER ..... “

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CONFEDERATE CHIEFTAINS. 24. JEFFERSON Davis..... 336 | 29. John B. FLOYD. .... 336 25. ALEXANDER H. STEPHENS . . “ 30. R. BARNWELL RHETT. ... 26. JUDAH P. BENJAMIN ...

31. JAMES M. Mason ... 27. ROBERT Toombs . . . . . . 6 | 32. JOHN SLIDELL . . . . . . " 28. William L. YANCEY.. ....“ 33. Isham G. HARRIS. ....

34. HENRY A. WISE . . . . . 336

UNION GENERALS. 35. Lieut.-Gen. WINFIELD Scott · 448 41. Maj.-Gen. Don CARLOS BUELL . 448 36. Maj.-Gen. John E. Wool.. " 42. «' « JOSEPH HOOKER.. "

6 « HENRY W. HALLECK “ " " AMBROSE E. BURNSIDE 6 38. “ “ Geo. B. MCCLELLAN 66 44. 6 " BENJAMIN F. BUTLER 66

" " IRWIN MCDOWELL. . " 45. “ “ DAVID HUNTER. ...
" " John C. FREMONT . " | 46. Brig.-Gen. ROBERT ANDERSON . "

CONFEDERATE GENERALS.

PAGE

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47. General ROBERT E. LEE . . . 528 53. Lt.-Gen. John C. PEMBERTON . 528 48. 6 JOSEPH E. JOHNSTON . " 54. “ “ LEONIDAS Polk ... “ 49. 6. BRAXTON BRAGG... " 55. Maj. Gen. Jno. C. BRECKINRIDGE “ 50. Lt.-Gen. P. G. T. BEAUREGARD“ 56. 6 " Simon B. BUCKNER. “ 51. " " Thomas J. JACKSON . “

66 ALBERT Syd. JOHNSTON 52. “ “ JAMES LONGSTREET. .“ 58. « « STERLING PRICE ..“

UNION NAVAL OFFICERS. 59. Rear-Adm'l ANDREW H. FOOTE 608 | 65. Commodore CHARLES WILKES . 608 60. “ “ DAVID G. FARRAGUT“ 66. " CHARLES H. Davis “ 61. " “ L. M. GOLDSBOROUGH “ 67. « HENRY W. MORRIS“

SAM'l F. Du Pont. " Captain JAMES H. WARD ..
DAVID D. PORTER , "

John L. WORDEN ... 64. “ “ JOHN A. DAHLGREN “ 70. “ CHARLES S. Boggs. . "

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ILLUSTRATIONS_CONTINUED. TEXAS AS SHE WAS, AND AS SHE CLAIMED TO BE VIEW OF HARPER'S FERRY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 288 VIEW IN THE SHENANDOAH VALLEY. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 294 FORT SUMTER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 440 THE APPROACHES TO CHARLESTON . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . 445 NORFOLK, PORTSMOUTH, AND THE NAVY YARD..

.... 474 WEST VIRGINIA . . . . . . . . . . TEN MILES AROUND FORTRESS MONROE . . . . . . . . . .

. . . 530 WASHINGTON CITY AND VICINITY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 532 BULL RUN BATTLE-FIELD AND CENTERVILLE, . .... . . . MISSOURI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

573 BATTLE-FIELD OF Wilson's CREEK, NEAR SPRINGFIELD, Mo. . . . . . . LEXINGTON (MISSOURI) DEFENDED BY MULLIGAN ...586 BATTLE-FIELD OF BELMONT, MISSOURI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 595 HATTERAS INLET-FORTS HATTERAS AND CLÅRK . . . . . . . . . . 599 SINKING OF THE PETREL BY THE ST. LAWRENCE . . . . . . . . . . 600 FORT PICKENS–SANTA ROSA ISLAND-PENSACOLA . . . . . . . . . . 601 Hilton HEAD-REDUCTION OF FORT BEAUREGARD ......... 604 BATTLE-FIELD OF BALL'S BLUFF-HARRISON ISLAND, ETC. . . . . . . . 622 BATTLE-FIELD OF DRANESVILLE, VIRGINIA . . . . . . . . . . . . 625

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