tion on earth, such gold and silver to be full legal tender for all debts, public and private.

Resolutions were offered condemning the financial policy of President Cleveland and Secretary Caroisie, but there were such fiery speeches made that the resolutions were withdrawn.

August 22, 1896.-The platform affirmed allegiance to that adopted by the National Convention of 1896.


August 22, 1896.-The platform favored

woman suffrage.

ILLINOIS. REPUBLICAN. April 30, 1896.-The platform declared

that the Administration of President Cleveland had demonstrated that the Democratic party is constitutionally in

capable of managing the affairs of the Nation. On morey and tariff, it said: “Resolved, That we, the Republicans of Illinois, are emphatic in our demands for honest money. We are opposed, as we ever have been, to any and every scheme that will give to this country a currency in any way depreciated or debased, or in any respect inferior to the money of the most advanced and intelligent nations of the earth. We favor the use of silver as currency, but to the extent only, and under such restrictions, that parity with gold can be maintained. The Republican party, from the days of Lincoln, has been de—

voted irrevocably to the doctrine of pro

tection to home industry, and we hereby renew and reaffirm our faith in this fundamental principle. We believe in a tariff that will produce revenue sufficient to meet the wants of government honestly and economically administered, and high enough to insure to home labor regular and remunerative employment. We advocate the unrestricted exchange of noncompetitve articles. We believe in reciprocity—the reciprocity of James G. Blaino—reinforced by experience and an earnest wish to extend our foreign com— merce to the fullest extent consistent with the control of our own market in the sale of articles that can be profitably produced at home.” Other planks declared that the Monroe Doctrine should be upheld, and that there should be a firm, vigorous and dignified policy toward all nations, with a strengthening of the coast defences and an enlargement of the Navy to command the respect of other Governments; expressed sympathy for the Cubans in their struggle for independence, and condemned Governor Altgeld for failing to enforce the laws in perilous times, and for not keeping his promise to prevent competition of convict labor with free labor, and for the

extravagant, insufficient and partisan management of the State institutions. DEMOCRATIC.

June 23, 1896.-The financial plank declared: “We favor the soundest and safest money known to men, and, as experience has shown that this consists of both gold and silver, with equal rights of coinage and full legal—tender power, we demand the repeal of that Republican and plutocratic legislation which demonetized

silver and reduced it to the basis of token money, destroying by one-half the stock of real money, and by doubbling the work to be done by gold doubled its purchasing power, so that the farmers and producers had to give twice as much work to get a dollar as they formerly had, and found it hard to meet the debts, interest. taxes and fixed charges, which were not lowered. In this way the market for those things which the mechanic and laborer made was destroyed and the factories had to shut down. . . . We believe that the benefits of the independence which we gained a hundred years ago— the war for which was inititated upon a matter of tribute—should not be lost by vielding vassalage to a monetary system preferred by other Governments. . . . We demand the immediate restoration of the free and unlimited coinage of both gold and silver as standard money at the ratio of 16 ounces of silver to 1 of gold of equal fineness, with full legal—tender power to each metal. without waiting for or depending on any other nation on earth. We are also opposed to the contraction of the currency by the retirement of any part of the present outstanding Treasury notes." The platform also declared for a tariff for revenue only, demanded “the abolition of Government injunction.” denounced “the arbitrary interference on the part of the Federal Government in local affairs by ignoring lawful authorities,” and favored a Constitutional amendment authorizing an income tax.


August 25, 1896.-The platform declared that the Democratic party is primarily and solemnly pledged to liberty regulated by law: to equal justice to all men of whatsoever condition or persuasion, religious or political: to economy, to peace and honest friendship with all nations, and entangling alliances with none: to the payment of debts in honest money, and to the maintenance of the public faith, and is opposed to class legislation, and indorses “every act, Executive, legislative and judicial of the present Democratic National Administration." The second section declares that the gold dollar is now and for more than sixty years has been the American standard of value fixed by Democratic statesmen, who were opposed to a debased and fluctuating currency, and that it is the measure upon which private and public faith has rested and now rests: and declares unreservedly in favor of maintaining that standard. Section 3 favors the use of silver as currency and the coinage and circulation of such quantities thereof as can be kent at parity with gold coin, but opposes “the free and unlimited coinage of silver by the Jnited States Government as a measure certain to impair contracts, disturb business, diminish the purchasing power of the wages of labor, inflict irreparable injury upon commerce and industry, and fasten an ineffacable stigma upon the financial honor of the American people.” Succeeding sections demand the retirement of the United States from the banking business, and the gradual redemption and cancellation of all tonited states and Treasury notes: charge to the McKinley



tariff and the McKinley-Sherman Silver Purchase Act the panic and depression of 1893 and succeeding years; denounce Republican protection as a fraud and robbery of the many for the few: declare for tarif for revenue only: rebuke the Republi– tan National Convention as dominated by the intriguing attorneys of favored interests, and the Democratic National Convention as controlled by agents of the silver—mining interests, agi– tators and demagogues; commend the “honesty, economy, courage and fidelity” of the present National Administration, and declare “uncompromisingly in favor of the constitutional independence of the United States Supreme Court as one of the three co-ordinate powers in this Gov|ernment.”


| June 10, 1896.-The platform declared for free coinage of silver at 16 to 1.


May 7, 1896.-TARIFF.—“The Republi– oans of Indiana are in favor of protection. We demand a tariff that will not only se— ture the necessary amount of revenue, but will also afford adequate and certain protecon to the wage-workers and producers of this country. We demand that American sellers shall have the first chance in American markets. From Lincoon to Harrison, under a wise policy of Protection and . Reciprocity, we steadily decreased our bonded debt, resumed specie payment, maintained the public credit, kept unimPaired the gold reserve, increased the *alth of the whole country and added to the comfort and happiness of the people to a degree unparalleled in the history of *ations. The reversal of this beneficent and patriotic policy by the Democratic Party has brought to the American people othing but distrust, deficit and disaster. We therefore demand a return to the ound Republican policy of Protection and Reciprocity.” MONEY.-"We are firm and emphatic * our demand for honest money. We bel. ove that our money should not be in*rior to the money of the most enlightoned nations of the earth. We are unalterably opposed to every scheme that threatens to debase or depreciate our curoney. We favor the use of silver as cur*noy. but to the extent only and under such regulations that its parity with gold on be rnaintained, and in consequence * opposed to the free, unlimited and in#on; coinage of silver at a ratio of tr. .” IMMIGRATION.—“We demand a rigid inforcement of all existing immigration laws by the National Government and the onactment of such further legislation as *ill better protect our people against the oflux of the criminal and vicious classes of foreign countries.” PENSIONS.—“We believe in a liberal onstruction of our pension laws, and con– demn the unjust and unfair policy of the present Administration in depriving exsoldiers of their pensions without notice

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June 24, 1896.-The principal planks of the platform were these: “We reaffirm our adherence to and faith in the Democratic doctrine, bimetallism, and therefore demand the immediate restoration of bi— metallism by the free and unlimited coinage of both silver and gold as primary money at the ratio of 16 to 1, without waiting the co-operation of Great Britain or any other foreign Power, all such coinage to be...full legal tender in the payment of all debts, public and private. “Resolved, That we believe the existing tariff laws will be fully equal to all demands for needed revenue for the expenses of the Government, economically administered, under the conditions which will arise from the restoration of bimetallism. “We are opposed to the redemption and final cancellation of the United States notes (greenbacks), or any other notes or certificates issued by the United States to circulate as money, such redemption and concellation necessarily involving an increase of the public debt by the issue of bonds and a reduction of the currency. “We demand a sufficient stable vořume of money, gold, silver and paper, to meet the requirements of our growing population and the constant increase of our productive industries.” Other planks protested against the “increase of the public debt by the issue of interest-bearing bonds, or otherwise in time of peace'; demanded that "obligations of the Government in every form be paid and redeemed in conformity with the laws under which they were issued in goin, gold and silver, at the option of the Government of the United states, and not at, the option of the creditor”; sym: pathized with the Cubans, and believed that they ought to be accorded all the rights of belligerents, and indorsed Governor. Matthews as a candidate for the

Presidency. POPULIST.

July 28, 1896.-The platform reaffirmed those of the National conventions of 1892 and 1896, and declared that the Indiana

party is in favor of maintaining the party organization.



March 12, 1896.-The platform or reso

lutions were in a form at variance with the ordinary declaration of State conventions, and in the nature of an address on the reasons why Senator William B. Allison should receive the nomination for President. It recounted his conspicuous and beneficent work in and out of Congress for the country.

July 15, 1896.-The financial planks say: “We recognize the revolutionary character of the platform adopted at Chicago. We appreciate the dangers of its startling doctrines and the immeasurable disasters that would follow their adoption by the Government. We are opposed to the change to a single silver standard because it will decrease and not increase the supply of money in the country; because, instead of restoring confidence, it will destroy credit; instead of inspiring enterprise it will spread alarm; instead of aiding the debtor, it will involve him in bankruptcy; instead of furnishing employ– ment to labor, it will make more uncertain and unrenumerative that which it has; instead of benefiting the producers it will injure them, and, finally, because it would do infinite injustice and involve our country in repudiation and dishonor.”


- May 20, 1896.-The platform, in part, was: “The Democracy of Iowa hereby reaffirms it allegiance to the time-honored Democratic doctrine of bimetallism, the use of both gold and silver as primary money, and the coinage of both at a ratio without charge or limit. It is the opinion of this convention that this doctrine of the National Democratic party requires the constant effort of every loyal Democrat to accomplish the repeal of all laws heretofore enacted through the instru– mentality of the Republican party, which do in letter and spirit alike discriminate against silver and in favor of gold; and the substitution therefor of affirmative legislation which shall restore silver to equal rights with good in the mints and coinage of the country. We favor the immediate repeal of all laws by which silver was demonetized, and demand its unqualified restoration to the right of free and unlimited coinage in the mints of the Nation as money of full legal tender and final redemption at the ratio of 16 to 1. We recognize the fact that upon thin question the country has reached a crisis that can no longer be evaded or postponed. We know that the result of this conflict must be a return to the money of the Constitution, or the substitution for all time to come of a standard value, born of British aristocratic greed, which doubles the purchasing power of mone and reduces by one-half the price of ail great staples of industry. In behalf of the tolling millions of this Republic we welcome the conflict, and psedge the Democratic party of Iowa to stand by the Constitution, to defend the right to beat back with all its strength every wrongful aggression of the money power of the Old and New World alike, and to aid to the utmost limit of its ability in restoring to ourselves and our posterity the sacred heritage of the financial system bequeathed to the American people by the fathers of the Republic, and which was equally fair and just to all citizens; and in this effort we cordially invite the co-operation of all good citizens without reference to political affiliations in the

past.” Other lanks protested against all schemes for the retirement of the non

interest—bearing National paper currency and the substitution therefor of $500,000,

000 of interest-bearing bonds to become an additional burden upon the producing classes, that National banks may be supplied with interest—bearing capital on which to transact their individual business; against the further issuance and sale of . Government bonds to acquire gold with which to redeem such currency. and demand of the Government that it shall hereafter redeem the same with the coin of either metal it may possess in strict accord with the letter of the law; denounced as a transparent fallacy the claim that labor can be benefited by the maintenance of a single gold standard as the basis of our financial system.

A sound-money minority report was defeated by a vote of 617 to 216.

August 12, 1896.-The platform “indorses and reaffirms the platform adopted by the National Democratic Convention in Chicago in 1896 as a true and correct statement of Democratic principles. We recognize in the candidates named by said. National Convention noble and partriotic champions of said principles, and we Please to them our most earnest sup— port.”


August 26, 1896.-The platform reiter– ates the principles recognized as those of the Democracy; says that the Chicago Convention surrendered these and declared for a new sectionalism of the west and South, against the East and North: declares that the Chicago platform is mischievous in its tendencies and a me— nace to free government. It denounces the Chicago attitude toward President Cleveland, whom it eulogizes. The attack on the Judiciary is denounced, and the attitude of the Chicago gathering on money is discussed at some length. The declaration on this subject is substantially as follows:

“That platform threatens to debase the coinage through ultimate coinage of sil– ver at an arbitrary and fictitious ratio. It virtually pledges, if placed in power. to repeal the act for the resumption of specie payment. These are not Democratic principles, and cannot receive our support. The election of a President pledged to these principles will precipitate a financial crisis whose consequences cannot be predicted. We favor the use of gold and silver, maintained at parity: we adhere to the gold standard tiil true bimetallism can be achieved. We demand a reorganization of present financial laws. especially those which compel the issue of Government bonds to maintain National credit. We reaffirm the past declarations of the party on the tariff and on State issues.”

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tection against the pauper and criminal labor of foreign nations. It has failed to provide the means of meeting the expenses of the Government with its current income, and has changed the Republican licy of reducing the public debt to the footo practice of increasing it, and this, too, in a time of profound peace. It has once more given convincing evidence that the Democratic party has neither the patriotism nor the ability to manage the affairs of our Government with safety to the Constitution or solvency to its finances. “We recognize a conviction and purpose among the body of the people as universal as intelligent to rid the country of Democratic misrule by placing it once more in the hands of its friends, the same Republican party which has before saved it from Democratic misrule and governmental im.becility.” August 11, 1896.-The platform indorsed the nominations of McKinley and Hobart, declared for protection, reciprocity and sound money as the three cardinal principles of Republicanism: opposed the free coinage of silver at the ratio of 16 to 1 by this country alone, although favoring the fullest possible use of gold, silver and paper money consistent with maintaining thern at a parity; condemned the pension Fo of the present Administration, and declared for more liberal interFo of present pension laws; favored etter roads; favored State and National aid for irrigation; urged amendments which will make the Interstate Commerce law more effective, and heartily indorsed the administration of Governor Morrill and his associates. DEMOCRATIC. June 3, 1896.-This was the most important plank: “Resolved, That we demand the free and unlimited coinage of both gold and silver at a ratio of 16 to 1 without any effort toward international agreement, believing this great country capable of taking care of itself.” The resolution further provided that the delegates to the National Convention be instructed to vote for no man for the Presidential nomination not holding wellknown views favoring silver. The resolutions as reported were adopted. the platform adopted commended the Administration in so far as regards toleveland’s vigorous foreign policy, his efforts for tariff reform, his firm stand toward Spain and the Americans held in Cuban prisons.


August 6, 1896.-The platform indorsed the National Populist code of principles: severely arraigned the Republican State administration, and demanded the enactment of a maximum freight rate bill by the next Legislature.

KENTUCKY. REPUBLICAN. April 15, 1896.-The currency plank in the platform read: “We are opposed to the free and unlimited coinage of silver, believing that it would involve the country in financial

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June 4, 1896.-‘‘We are in favor of an honest dollar, a dollar worth neither more nor less than 100 cents. We favor bimetallism, and to that end we demand the free and unlimited coinage of both gohl and silver at the ratio of 16 to 1 as standard money with euqal legal—tender power, independent of the action of any other nation. We hold that the Secretary of the Treasury should exercise his legal right to redeem all the coin obligations in gold or silver, as may be more convenient, and are opposed to the issue of bonds in time of peace for the maintenance of the gold reserve or for any other to: We are opposed to the National anking system and to any enlargement of its powers. “We are opposed to any contraction of the currency by the retirement of ‘greenbacks or otherwise. “we declare it to be a fundamental principle of Democracy that the Federal Government has no constitutional power to impose and collect tariff duties except for the purpose of revenue only, and the collection of such taxes should be limited to the necessities of the Government honestly and economically administered.”


August 20, 1896.-The platform disclaimed, as undemocratic, the platform and candidates of the Democratic National Convention held at Chicago, and demanded “the best, the most stable and the most honest of money, for the people of this greatest of nations; which money, by the wisdom, experience and usage of this and other enlightened countries, must, under existing circumstances, be bimetallic, but must be measured by the existing standard of gold; and should consist of gold, with a bank currency well secured and redeemable in gold, and with the use of silver and other metals within the reasonable limit prescribed by convenience and safety, and to be kept at a par with gold. We believe it is undemocratic and unwise for the Government to debase our money, or to issue paper currency, or, by adopting the silver standard, to set this Nation back from its financial place among enlightened peoples, to a monetary fellowship with the silver monometallists of Asia. We deem it rashness and folly on the part of this country to discard the long existing gold standard of the United States, of England, of Germany, of Austria, of Denmark, of Norway, of Sweden, of Greece, of Holland, of Portugal, of Spain, of Italy, of Brazil, of Chili, of Belgium, of France and the other enlightened nations of the world: and to adopt the outgrown and discredited silver standard of Mexico. of Peru. of China and of the other halfcivilized and pauper nations.

owe believe the unlimited free coin

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age of silver at the ratio of 16 to 1, when in the markets of the world its ratio is only 32 to 1, would bring, disaster, upon our people, and threaten the stability of our institutions.

“we adhere to the Democratic doctrines or tarift reform, and of a tariff for revenue only; under which, the taxes exacted, and the burdens imposed, shall not be noreased to give special emoluments to the privileged few, but shall be limited to the necessities of the Government, economically administered.

“We adhere to the Democratic principles of low taxation, of economical expenditures: of civil service, reform; of strict construction; of freedom of oonscience and religion; of local self-government, and individual liberty; of the right of men to own property and have it protected by law; of the right to make con– tracts and have them remain unimpaired and unrepudiated; of the duty of the Government to protect the citizen and his property from lawlessness; of the independence of the judiciary: of a Government of law and order; and an abhorrence of special privileges, of sumptuary legislation, governmental favoritism, bounties, and other forms of paternalism and Populism. And especially do we protest against the rest of the people being taxed 47 cents upon each dollar of silver coined, for the benefit of the owners of silver mines.”


July 20, 1896.-The platform declared that “the People's party of Kentucky is unalterably opposed to the indorsement by the National Convention of the People's party at St. Louis of the Democratic platform and ticket nominated at Chicago. . . . We favor a union of all reform forces on an honorable basis if one preserving intact the organization and principles of the People's party can be devised. This may be done by an equitable division of electors, and not by surrender or fusion.”


June 15, 1896.-The money plank adopted was as follows: Resolved, That we are in favor of the soundest and best money the ingenuity of man can invent. And that as experience has demonstrated that this money consists of both gold and silver, with equal rights of coinage and full equal legal—tender power on the basis of sixteen ounces of silver to one of gold, the delegates from this convention to the Chicago Convention are hereby instructed to support a plank in the National platform declaring for the free and unlimited coinage of silver at said ratio, with full legal—tender power, and without refer— ence to the action of other nations, and to support the candidacy before said Convention of such men only as are in full and pronounced sympathy with said plan; and in order that our views may more effectually enforced, the said otes are hereby instructed to vote as a unit. Other planks declared for tariff for revenue only, and urged that “sugar,


rice and lumber, a part of Louisiana's industry, be included in any tariff schedule that may be adopted by the general Government;" denounced the American Protective Association, and advocated the improvement of the Mississippi River. A minority report in favor of the use of both gold and silver as the standard money of the country, and to the coinage of both metals without discriminating against either, was voted down.


August 27, 1896.-The platform reaffirmed the declarations and principles of the Democratic Convention at Chicago in 1892 as the true expressions of sound Democratic doctrine; denounced the action of the Chicago Convention of 1896 as an attempted betrayal of the party to the Anarchists, Socialists, and Populists, and affirmed that its declaration of principles is not binding upon any true Democrat. They favored the organization of some financial plan whereby the Government will redeem all its outstanding circulating notes in gold coin and retire from the banking business and oppose the free coinage of silver except by international agreement that will maintain its parity

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he is opposed to the free and unlimited

coinage of silver, except by international agreement, until which he believes that the present gold standard should be maintained: he favors measures for the restriction of immigration, also a just administration of all pension legislation, and is an earnest friend of American shipping and its returning to its former rank in the world; he also stands for the reservation of the National honor at ome and abroad.” June 2, 1896.-‘‘We are opposed to the free and unlimited coinage of silver, except by international agreement, and until such agreement can be obtained we believe that the present gold standard should be maintained. “We believe in the maintenance of the highest National credit by the utmost faith toward the public creditor—not for the creditor's sake, but for the Nation's sake, for the sound reason that the most valuable possession of any nation in time of war or distress, next to the courage of its reople, is an honorable reputation. Whoever pays with honor borrows with case. Sound finance and certainty at the Treasury and protection for the producers will mean prosperity and peace,

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