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considerations of justice and honor, we think the act of Congress making appropriations for the payment of such claims was valid without reference to the question of the validity or invalidity of the original act providing for the payment of bounties to manufacturers of sugar, as contained in the Tariff act of 1890. The judgments in these cases are right, irrespective of how that question might be decided. or of any conclusion that might be reached upon other questions suggested at the bar." The effect of the decision made immediately available for the payment of the

cane, beet and sorghum sugar claims, un

der the $5,000,000 appropriation, the following:

Bounty District. Claims. claimed. 473 $5,591,617 . 13 123,812 9. 5,655 3. ,208 1 45,087 2 6,259 1 45,862 Totals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 502 $6,111,500

when the bounty was repealed certain sugar producers had completed their production, and presented claims for bounty, and these claims, amounting to $238,286, remained unpaid. Of this class of claims 4,540 were for maple sugar, distributed as follows, cents onitted:

District. Claims. Amount. New-Hampshire .......... 2,859 $81,282 Third Massachusetts. . . . . . 37 834 Fourteenth New-York. 76 1,796 Twenty-first New-York... 876 23,145 Twenty-eighth, New-York 136 2,130 Twelfth Pennsylvania..... 1 268 Twenty-third Pennsylvania 237 5,284 Maryland . 78 2,721 west Virgi 219 Tenth Ohio. 740 Eighteenth Ohio.. 2,875 Fourth Michigan 826 Minnesota 159

Totals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4,540 $121,779

In this same class were thirty-three claims for bounty on sugars other than manle, as follows, cents onitted:

District. Claims. Amount. First California............ $71,904 ... 22 25,029

2 14,876

1 1.234

1 8,022

1 436

... 33 $116,501 OLEOMARGARINE.-The production

in the United States, as reported to the Internal Revenue Bureau since 1888, has h-en as follows: 1888, 32,667,755 pounds; 1889, 33.865,120 pounds; 1890, 30.960,

pounds: 1891, 43,574,422 pounds; 1892, 47.

283,750 pounds; 1893, 65,061,775 pounds: 1894, 66,472,900 pounds; 1895, 53,264,475 pounds.

CoA.L.-The production since 1890 has been as follows: 1890, anthracite, 36,617.42 tons; bituminous, 78,011,224 tons; 1891, anthracite, 41,392,499 tons; bituminous, 82.692,623 tons; 1892, anthracite, 42,941,

744 tons; bituminous, 88,790,744 tons; 1893, anthracite, 44,168,597 tons, bituminous, 93,460,461 tons; 1895, anthracite, 42,425,980 tons; bituminous, 86,138,549 tons. TELEPHONES.—The aggregate length of wire operated by the Bell Company on January 1, 1896, was 577,200 miles; the number of instruments under rental and in the hands of licensees was 582,506. The company received in rentals of telephones in 1894 $3,502,992; it paid its stockholders in dividends in that year $3,000,000 LEUM.—One may form some idea of the value of the oil wells to the United States from the fact that there was produced in 1895 a total of 2,072,469,672 gallons of crude petroleum. The distillation of 100 gallons of crude petroleum will yield 76 gallons of illuminating oil; 11 gallons of gasoline, benzine or naphtha; 3 gallons of lubricating oil and 10 gallons of residum and loss. The exports in 1895 amounted to 14,801,224 gallons of naphtha, 714,859,144 gallons of illuminating of , 43,418,942 gallons of lubricating oil and 137.508 gallons of residuum (tar, pitch and all other bodies from which the light bodies have been distilled), of a total value of $46,660,082.

SEA WATER’s SATURATION.

German scientists, who claim to have made most careful computations, declare

that if all the salt in the sea waters of

the globe was extracted, the amount would be greater than the land, so far as the latter appears above the surface. The statement is that the seas cover 73 per cent of the earth's surface, estimated at 9,260,000 (German) square miles. The percentage of chlornatrium in the sea is the same at all depths. Assuming that the average depth of the sea is a half (German) mile, there are then 3,400,000 cubic miles of sea water. A cubic mile of sea water contains, on the average, about fifty-five pounds of salt. The 3,400,000 cubic miles of sea water would therefore contain 85,000 cubic miles of distilled pure salt.

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Both in area and total product the corn crop of 1895 was the largest in the his— tory of the country, and the average price was the lowest in the whole quarter century. The yield in 1894 was: Wheat, 460,267,416 bushels; corn, 1,212,770,052 bushels; oats, 662,086,928 bushels; rye, 26,727,615 bushels: barley, 61,400,465 bushels; buckwheat, 12,668,200 bushels: potatoes, 170,787,338 bushels: hay, 54,874,408 tons. The average farm prices of 1895 compared with those of 1894 were: Wheat 50.9 cents, against 49.1; corn, 25.3 cents, against 45.7; oats, 19.9 cents, against 32.4: rye, 44 cents, against 50.1; barlev, 33.7 cents, against 44.2; buckwheat, 45.2 cents against 55.6; potatoes, 26.6 cents, against 53.6; hay, $835, against $854; cotton, 7.6 cents, against 4.6; tobacco, 6.9 cents, against 6.8.

The wheat crop of the world for 1894 and 1895 was, in bushels, as follows:

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THE TRIBUNE ALMANAC FOR 1897.

On June 1, 1890, the 4,564,641 farms in the United States contained 1,117,494 working oxen, 16,511,950 milch cows, and 33,734,128 other cattle. These figures showed an increase of 124,153 of working oxen over the figures of 1880; of 4,068,830 milch cows, and of 11,245,578 other cattle. There were also 5,851,640 neat cattle on ranges, of which 1,959,888 were cows and calves. Taking the country as a whole. 0.99 per cent of neat cattle on farms were pure bred, 16.08 per cent where grades (one-half blood or higher), and 82.93 per cent were common or native. The following additional statistics are taken from the report on the census of

1890:
Total population............ 62,622,250
Engaged in agriculture.... 8,466,251
No. of farms. ............ -- 4,564,641
No. cultivated by owner... 3,269,728
No. rented for money ..... 45.655
Total No. of acres........ - 623,218,619
Value of land, buildings,

etc. . . . . . . . . . . ... . . . . . . . .313,279,252,649 Value of implements....... 494,247.467 Value of live stock........ 2,208,767,573 Value farm products (an

nual) .................... 2,460,107,454 Total milk produced (gals.) 5,209,125,567 Butter made on farms (Ib)... 1,024,223,468 Butter made at creameries

(th) - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 181,284,916 Cheese made on farms (th). 18,726,818 Cheese made at factories

(Ib) --------- ---------- --- 238,035,065 Condensed milk (no)........ 37,926,821

The statistics of foreign countries are not as complete as desirable, and in some cases do not show the condition of the dairy industry. In some countries, where the number of cattle is very small in proportion to the population, there are large numbers of buffalo, reindeer, goats, llamas. or other animals for the supply

of milk and meat. The statistics of Japan show that cows are used in that Country for transportation and tillage.

THE EARTH.

The area of the , earth_ is 197,500,425 square miles, of which 145,000,000 are of water and 52,500,425 of land; its circumference at the equator is 24,896.8214 statute miles. The diameter of the earth at the poles is 7,898.8809 statute miles, and at the equator 7,924.9111 statute miles. Of the principal land divisions, North America ... comprises 8,155.438 square miles; South America, 7,410,042 square miles: Europe, 3,807,115 square miles; Asia, 16. 428,854 square _miles; Africa, 11,500,000 square miles; Oceanica, 5,198,451 square miles. Among the highest mountains are Mount Everest, India, 29,002 feet; Mount Dapsang. Thibet, 28,278 feet; Aconcagua, Chili. 22,422 feet: Chimborazo, Ecuador, 21,420 feet: Arequipa, Peru, 20,320 feet: Kilima-Njaro, East Africa. 19,600 feet; Logan, Canada, 19,500 feet, Elbouz, Rus: sia. 18,526 feet; Popocatepetl, Mexico, 17,784 feet; Mt. Blanc, France, 15,810 feet: Whitney, California, 14,898; Rainier, Washington, 14,444 feet: Pike's Peak, Colorado, 14,147 feet; Fremont's Peak, Wyoming, 13,576 feet. The largest lakes are Lake Superior, with an area of 32,000 square miles, and Lake Michigan, 25,600 square miles.

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ritory in 1895. miles of line per 10,000 inhabitants,

RAILROAD STATISTICS.

South Carolina ....

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2,635.76

Mileage.
State or
Territory. June 30, June 30,
1894. 1895.

Alabama ...........] 3,708.61 3,700.59
Arkansas .......... I 2,466.99 2,544.22
California. . . . . . . . . . 4,861.40 4,853.26
Colorado. . . . . . . . . . . . . 4,529.83 4,550.95
Connecticut . . . . . . . . 1,013.22 1,008.25
Delaware . . . . . . . . . . . 3.17.77 317.77
Florida. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2,926.57 2,999.81
Georgia ............ 5,102.16 5,101.59
Idaho . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1,087.93 1,085.28
Illinois * -- - - - - - - - - - 10,460.58 10,649.28
Indiana J...........] 6,326.16 || 6,395.28
Iowa . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8,477.54 8,513.37
Kansas . . . . . . . . . . . . 8,841.21 8,812.03
Kentucky .......... 3,020.80 3,033.94
Louisiana. . . . . . . . . . 2,050.51 2,105,82
Maine . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1,510.13 1,642.99
Maryland . . . . . . . . . . 1,291.17 1,300.56
Massachusetts ..... 2,118.49 2,118.96
Michigan . . . . . . . . . . 7,633.23 7,677.86
Minnesota ......... 6,009,07 6,045.42
#:Fr. - - - - - - - - 2,478.26 2,505.19
Misso ------ - - - - - 6,499.01 6,591.97
Montana ------- - - - - 2,735.26 2,841.05
Nebraska .......... ,540.05 5,565.67
Nevada . . . . . . - - - - - - 925.87 915.62
New-Hampshire ... ,191.00 1.206.48
New-Jersey ........ ,155.22 2,215.62
New-York - - - - - - - - - ,071.84 8, 102.81
North Carolina..... ,432.44 3,437.01
North Dakota ..... ,516.00 2,523.49
Ohio ------------ - - - ,546.73 8,615.23
Oregon . . . . . . . . . . . . - 78 1,520.57
Pennsylvania ...... 39 9,751.39
Rhode Island ...... 06 221.06

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South Dakota ..... ,799. 2,798.30 Tennessee ......... ,064 3,110.48 Texas - - - - - - - - - - - - - ,264. 9,374.75 Vermont .......... 987.81 981.09 Virginia - - - - - - - - - - - ,564.46 3,574.12 washin n . . . . . . . ,810.92 2,840.18 West Virginia ..... ,935.77 1,993.74 Wisconsin ......... ,022.95 6,050.93 Wyoming - - - - - - - - - - 1,159.78 1,179.97 Arizona . . . . . . . . . . . 1,126.00 1,373.41 Dist. of Columbia. . . 28.35 28.57 Indian Territory.... 1,010.63 1,000.36 New-Mexico - - - - - - - 1,414.54 1,487.31 Oklahoma. . . . . . . . . . 382.39 382.39 Utah - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 1,358.53 1,375.72

1895, 180,657.47; 1894, 178,708.55; 1893, 175,461.07; 1892, 171,563.52; 1891, 168,402.74: 1890, 163,597.05.

"The miles of railway lines constructed reflect. as compared with square miles of territory and population, the rate of development in railway facilities since 1890. Thus in the year 1890 there were 5.51 miles of line for each 100 square miles of territory, which was increased to 6.08 miles of line per 100 square miles of ter— In 1890 there were 26.05 as against 26.16 miles in 1895. The total number of locomotives in the employ of the railways of the United States on June 30, 1895, was 35,699, and the total number of cars in the service of the railways was 1,270,561. The number of persons employed was 785,034, a decrease of 88,568 as compared with 1893. The amount

of railway capital was $10,963,584,385, which shows that the railways of the United States are capitalized at $63,206 per mile. The number of passengers carried during the year was 507,421,362, being a decrease of 33,266,837 as compared with the previous year. Reducing this to passenger per mile it would show, as per the reports of the railways, that the number of passengers carried one mile was 12,188,466.271, being a decrease of 2,100,— 999,622 as compared with 1894. The number of tons of freight reported by the carriers was 696,761,171, being an increase of 58,574,618 tons over that of 1895. The number of employes killed during the year was 1,811, and the number injured was 25,696. The number of persons killed was 4,320, and the number injured 8,052.

WEDDING ANNIVERSARIES.

First............... . . . . . . Cotton wedding Second.................... Paper wedding Third...................Leather wedding Fourth..................... Book wedding Fifth....................Wooden wedding Sixth. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Garnet wedding Seventh. . . . . . . . . . . . . . ... Woollen wedding Eighth. . . . . . . . . ......Bric-a-brac wedding Ninth. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Topaz wedding Tenth. . . . . . . . . . . . - - - - - - - ....Tin wedding Twelfth. ......Silk and fine linen wedding Fifteenth. . . . . . . . . . . . . ... Crystal wedding Twentieth. . . . . . . . . . . . . . ...China wedding Twenty-fifth.......... .....Silver wedding Thirtieth.................. Pearl wedding Thirty-fifth. . . . . . . . . . . ..Sapphire wedding Fortieth......... . . . . . . . . . . Ruby wedding Fiftieth. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Golden wedding Seventy-fifth........... Diamond wedding THE CUBAN REVOLT.

The causes which led to the uprising of the Cubans against Spanish rule in the island of Cuba, on February 24, 1895 (on which day the Cubans declared their separation from the Spanish monarchy), are many. Señor Palma set these causes forth in a communication to Secretary Olney in December, 1895. He said that they were substantially the same as those of the former revolution, which lasted from 1868 to 1878, and terminated only on the representation of the Spanish Government that such reforms as would remove the grounds of complaint on the part of the Cuban people would be granted. The hopes thus held out were never realized; taxes were levied anew on everything conceivable; the offices in the island were increased, but the officers appointed were all Spaniards; the native Cubans were left with no public duties to perform, except the payment of taxes to the Government and blackmail to the of ficials; Spain framed laws so that the natives were substantially deprived of the right of suffrage; the taxes levied were almost entirely devoted to support of the army and navy in Cuba, to pay the interest on the debt that Spain had saddled on the island, and to §. the salaries of the vast number of Spanish officeholders, devoting only $746,000 for internal

improvements, out of $26,000,000 collected

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118

by tax; no public schools were put within reach of the masses for their education; all of the principal industries of the island were hampered by excessive im

ports; the commerce of the island, with every other country except Spain, was crippled in every possible manner; the

Cubans were not provided with security of person or property; the judiciary were instruments of the military authorities; there was trial by "ocol; at any time at the will of the ain-General; there was no freedom of speech, press or religion. Cuba is divided into six provinces, as follows: Pinar del Rio, Havana, Matanzas, Santa Clara, Puerto Principe and Santiago de Cuba. The people in Santiago, Matanzas and Santa Clara responded promptly to the call for the uprising, the other provinces delaying only because of the lack of arms. From the very beginning conflicts between the Spanish troops and the Cubans were of almost daily occurrence, and many engagements of importance took place, ports being captured and towns taken. The Cuban forces at first consisted of cavalry, infantry and engineers; later a corps of artillery and a sanitary corps were added. The Cuban “army of liberation,” as it was called, had a strength in March of about 43,000 men. In addition to these there were innumerable local bands of from fifteen to twenty, or even 100. These did not form part of the fighting force proper, their chief functions being to carry out the orders of Gomez prohibiting the grinding of cane, the movement of troops and supplies by rail, the shipment of provisions to cities, the suppression of “plateados,” who rob, burn and commit other crimes. From the beginning the Cuban forces were outnumbered by those of Spain by at least four to one, but it was a reckless, dare-devil army with but one idea in view, and that was to free Cuba. Major-General Maximo Gomez was made commander-in-chief of the Cuban Army, having direct command of the western division, while General Antonio Maceo had command of the eastern division. The Spanish Government found the attempt to keep Cuba in her possession not only a #so and an expensive undertaking, but their commanders, in Cuba were unsatisfactory. After the insurgents had been in the field about a month Captain-General Callejas (by request) resigned his office, and Martinez de Campos was sent to Cuba to “put down the rising at any cost.” He promised to accomplish this, establish peace, and return to Spain by November. "The insurgents were not crushed by November, nor did De Campos return to Spain with the signed articles of peace. He was recalled, however, on January 17, 1896, and succeeded by General Weyler, who Senator Sherman characterized as “a demon rather than a general.” From the beginning of the insurrection the conduct of the Cubans as to prisoners was in strong contrast to that of the Spaniards. Prisoners taken by the insurgents were invariably well treated, cared for, and liberated as soon as possible. on the part of the Spaniards, butcheries and outrages were committed on peaceful men and women, as well as the Cuban soldiers. General Weyler is

THE TRIBUNE ALMANAC FOR 1897.

sued three proclamations on February 16, 1896, the first of which defined offenders made subject to military jurisdiction and trial, and these included newspaper correspondents, marauding bands, spies and guides, and those supplying arms and ammunition, etc., to the Cubans, or who should praise them. The other proclamations required all persons to register and identify themselves at the military headquarters, and designated how military trials should be conducted. They removed all doubt of his intention to adopt a vigorous policy toward the rebels in the cities as well as those in the field. As to the Cullan Civil Government, a Provisional Government was established by the convention which fixed upon the date for the revolt, by electing Jose Marti as the civil bead. Señor Marti was killed on May 20 following, in the battle near Dos Rios. Early in September, 1895, representatives from each of the provinces were elected to the Constituent Assembly, which was organized to establish a permanent government, republican in form. The Assembly met at Jimaguay on September 13, and three days later the Constitution of the Republic was adopted. The Constitution authorized the vesting of the executive and deliberative functions in a President and Cabinet. The Cabinet was to consist of four secretaries, who, together with the President and Vice-President, were to constitute the Ministerial Council. There was no provision made for a representative government. The Judicial Department was to be kept distinct from the other two divisions of the government. The permanent government was formed by electing the following chief officials: President, Salvador Cisneros; Secretary of War, Carlos Roloff: General-in-Chief, Maximo Gomez; Lieutenant-General, Antonio Maceo. During the struggle the United States maintained a position of strict neutrality, but filibustering expeditions were fitted out and they managed, in some instances, to elude the officials. On June 11, 1895, the American Secretary of State issued instructions to customs officials, enjoining them to prevent the departure from United States ports of such expeditions. On the following day the President issued a proclamation admonishing all persons to abstain from violations of the laws which forbid acts of hostility directed against a friendly na– tion. Resolutions for the recognition of the belligerency of Cuba were introduced in Congress at different times, but they were for the most part confused and contradictory. Ultimately the following corn— promise resolution was passed by the Senate on February 28, 1896, by a vote of 64 to 6: “Resolved, That in the opinion of Congress a condition of public war exists between the Government of Spain and the Government proclaimed, and for some time maintained by force of arms by the people of Cuba, and that the United

states of America should maintain a strict neutrality between the contending powers, according to each all the rights of belligerents in the ports and territory of the United States. |

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FIRES IN THE UNITED STATES-TREATY WITH M ExICO.

119

“Resolved further, That the friendly | Losses from the destruction of offices of the United States should be the sugar cane crop..... ... 50,000,000 offered by the President to the Spanish | Lost by the proprietors of 40,— Government for the recognition of the in- 000 horses taken either by dependence of Cuba." the patriots or the Spanish

These resolutions were concurred in by troops . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . -- 600,000 the House of Representatives on April 6 Small towns destroyed....... 3,000,000 by a vote of 245 to 27. Destruction of railroads...... 3,000,000

A. Cuban paper printed the following | Stores sacked................ - 2,000,000 estimate of what the war in Cuba cost Destruction of country es— in a single year, and which five years tates and farms...... ... ... 5,000,000 of peace and prosperity would be neces- || Losses of capitalists in com— sary to make up: mercial importing business. 10,000,000 War expenses. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ... $60,000,000 Cattle taken by the patriots. 500,000 Total ......................#134,000,000

FIRES IN THE UNITED STATEs.

“The Chronicle Fire Tables” for 1896, a large and comprehensive collection of details of fires and losses by insurance in the United States in 1895, shows that while the number of fires was in excess of 1894, the insurance loss fell off somewhat. The total number of fires in 1895

was 53,961, of which 22,711 were dwellings and boarding-houses, with a total loss of $142,000,000; against 52,266 fires in 1894, and a total loss of $140,000,000. The following table is a recapitulation of “The Chronicle” statistics:

No. Insurance fires. Causes. Total loss. loss. 388 | Accidents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . $1,917,130 $1,247,525 514 Ashes and hot coals. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . - - - - - • 248,403 169,710 74 Bonfires ------------- - - - - - - - - - ---------- - - - - - - - 64,055 33,055 124 Burglars . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 316,260 158,091 3.18 Candles ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ------- 281,651 180,231 -33 Carelessness . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 738,550 552,902 so | Cigars and cigarettes....... --------------------- 1,701,784 1,011,649 6 Collisions ...... --------------------------------- 123,800 34,000 4,560 [ Defective flues................................... 7,877,640 4,434,137 32 Defective heating......... ---------------------- 100,170 66,160 40 Drunken men................. ------------------- 85,610 48,450 338 l Electric wires and lights........... - - - - - - - - - - - - - 1,852,601 1,434,430 372 | Engines and boilers............................. 4,088,725 2,454,540 3,882 Explosions (gas, chemicals, etc.). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6,543,053 4,206,031 470 Fireworks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . -- 666,783 334,956 285 J. Friction of machinery........................... 2.333,001 1,438,491 *65 s Furnaces .............................. --------- 1,722,598 1,028,711 of Gas jets............. ---------------------------- 324,450 259,393 o; J Jenition (chemicals, etc.)................... - - - - - 1,482,999 1,090,937 5,770 Incendiarism.................................... 15,804,921 8,151,202 10 l Insane persons................ ------------------ 17,375 3,800 1-205 Lamps and lanterns............................. 1,609,678 916,349 949 Lightning ........... - - - - - - - - - - - ----------------- 1,839,786 963,417 2,157 Matches ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2,043,598 1,104,565 159 Naturgal gas.................................... 628,810 231,360 2,290 || Sparks ....... - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 4,940,334 2,550,162 of J Sparks (locomotive).............................. 2,123,000 1,068,001 too Spontaneous combustion......................... | 2,850,408 2,045,083 2,163 | Stoves and stovepipes......... -------------- ---- 3,321,035 1,889,081 364 Tramps ........... ------------------------------ 774,416 410,668 1,039 || Other causes known............... - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 2,062,256 1,267,762 10,371 Unknown ------------------------------- -------- 38,423,765 | 26,038,333 11.305 Not reported..... ----------------------- --------- 31,849,656 17,550,626 TREATY WITH MEXICO, On June 4, 1896, an agreement went “Article II–It is understood for the

into effect, providing for the reciprocal purpose of this agreement that no Ind

ian scout of the Government of the

ossing, of the international boundary
line by the troops of the United Staes and
the Republic of Mexico in pursuit of hos-
tile Indians. The following is the text
of its conditions:
“Article I—It is agreed that the regular
Federal troops of the two republics may
reciprocally cross the boundary line of the
two countries when they are in close pur-
suit of Kid's band of hostile Indians on
* conditions stated in the following ar-
cles.

United States of America shall be al-
lowed to cross the boundary line unless
he goes as a guide and trailer, unarmed,
and with the proviso that, in no case,
more than two scouts shall attend each
company or detachment.
“Article III—The reciprocal crossing
agreed upon in Article I shall only take
place in the uninhabited or desert parts
of raid boundary line. For the purposes
of this agreement the uninhabited or *

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