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ARTS, SCIENCES, LITERATURE, HISTORY, POLITICS AND
BROUGHT DOWN TO THE PRESENT TIME;
A COPIOUS COLLECTION OF ORIGINAL ARTICLES
THE BASIS OF THE SEVENTH EDITION OF THE 'GERMAN
E. WIGGLESWORTH AND T. G. BRADFORD.
CAREY AND LEA.
BY G. & C. & H. CARVILL-IN BOSTON BY
CARTER & HENDEE.
Entered, according to the Act of Congress, in the year 1832, by
CAREY AND LEA, In the Clerk's office of the District Court of the Eastern District of Pennsvlvania
MONOTHEISM; the belief in, and wor “to the unknown God,” mentioned in the ship of a single God, opposed to a plural- Acts of the Apostles, is also a proof of the ity of gods (polytheism). The most prevalence of the same feeling. Reflectancient written records (the Bible), and ing minds, too, were always found, who the traditions of the most ancient nations, deviated from the national polytheism, as give us cause to regard this religion (in an the heathen philosophers, Parmenides, imperfect state indeed) as the oldest and Socrates, Plato, &c., and many later Plaoriginal religion. The Mosaic annals tonists, the Egyptian philosopher Psamspeak of God as the Creator of heaven mon, who, according to Plutarch (Life of and earth ; and the ancient doctrines of the Alexander), inculcated the doctrine that Bramins speak of a single divine nature God is the general Father of all men, holding preeminence over the three other choosing the best of them for his chilprincipal divinities, which are to be re- dren. The history of the Hebrews afgarded, as it were, as the three chiel ener- fords the most striking instance of the gies of a supreme God, viz. of the Para- preservation of monotheism amid the brama, who is fully and clearly set forth, corruptions of paganism. Notwithstandwith all the attributes of divinity. The ing the errors into which they were freChaldeans,also, besides the light which they quently led by the example of the nations opposed to darkness, believed in a higher around them, they still preserved the idea increate light, which is eternal, almighty, of one God, the Creator of heaven and wise and good, and from which first pro- earth, till, from their view of Jehovah, ceeded the corporeal light. The Persians whom they regarded and adored, for the placed above their Ormuzd and Ahriman most part, only as the original God of the iheir Zeruanon Akherme, and the eternal chosen people, was unfolded the purer word. Even the Egyptians had, in their and more comprehensive monotheism of Eikton, a Supreme Being, at least for their Christianity. secret religion. All the different my- MONOTHELITE. (See Maronites.), thologies have, among the host of gods MONROE, James, one of the presidents with which they people heaven and earth, of the U. States, was born April 28, 1758, some supreme God, inore or less defined, in Westmoreland county, Virginia, on the but, in every ease, distinguished above thé Potomac, on land of which, a century and others. And in every instance we see, a half before, his ancestor, who first miin these mythologies, the gods gradually grated to this country, was the original multiplied, as man departed, farther and grantee. He was educated at William farther, from the simple and original reve- and Mary college, and, in 1776, entered lation, till lost in the multitude of deified the revolutionary army as a cadet. He personifications which he had himself cre- was soon after appointed a lieutenant, and, ated; but even in the case of the most in the summer of that year, marched to refined polytheism, there always remains New York, and joined the army under the an idea of something more powerful, to command of general Washington. He which even the gods are subject, as the was engaged in the battle of Harlem Fate of the ancients. The altar at Athens, Heights, in that of White Plains, in the retreat through the Jerseys, and in the greatest consequence to this country, as it attack on Trenton. In the last, he was in terminated in the acquisition of Louisiana. the vanguard, and received a ball through In the same year, he was appointed ininhis left shoulder. For his conduct in this ister to London, and the next year to action, he was promoted to a captaincy. Spain. In 1806, in conjunction with the General Wilkinson, in his Memoirs, bears late William Pinkney, he was appointed strong testimony to the gallantry and zeal minister to London, where he pursued the of Mr. Monroe, in the New Jersey cam- negotiations with the Fox ministry. Mr. paign. He was soon after appointed aid Monroe, having been prominently brought to lord Sterling, and served in that capacity forward as a candidate for the presidency, during the campaigns of 1777 and 1778, as successor to Mr. Jefferson, had an opand was engaged in the actions of Bran- tion given him to remain at the court of dywine, Germantown and Monmouth. London, or return. He returned, but soon He distinguished himself in these actions. after withdrew from the canvass. In By entering the family of lord Sterling, he 1810, he was again elected a member of lost his rank in the line, which he was the assembly of Virginia, and, in a few anxious to regain; but, as this could not weeks after the meeting of that body, govbe regularly done, Washington recom- ernor of that state. Nov. 26, 1811, he was mended him to the legislature of ginia, appointed secretary of state. The war dewho authorized the raising of a regiment, partment being in a very embarrassed state, and gave him the command. In the ex- on the departure of its head, general Armhausted state of Virginia, colonel Monroe strong, Mr. Monroe undertook it, and made failed to raise his regiment, and therefore extraordinary and very useful exertions to resumed the study of the law, under the help the war on the lakes, and the dedirection of Thomas Jefferson, then gov- fence of New Orleans. After he had reernor of Virginia. He was active as a duced to order the war department, he volunteer in the militia, in the subsequent resumed the duties of the department of invasions of Virginia, and, in 1780, visited state, which he continued to exercise unthe southern army, under De Kalb, as a til
, in 1817, he was chosen by the people military commissioner, at the request of of the U. States the successor of James governor Jefferson. In 1782, he was Madison. In 1821, he was reëlected by a elected a mermber of the Virginia assem- vote unanimous with a single exception, bly, and, the same year, by that body, a one vote in New Hampshire having been member of the executive council, and, in given to John Q. Adams. He was wise 1783, at the age of twenty-four, a member and fortunate in the selection of his minof the old congress, in which he served isters and measures. He went further three years. He was always at his post, than either of his two immediate predeengaged in the most arduous duties. He cessors, in maintaining the necessity of an introduced a resolution to vest in congress efficient general government, and in the power to regulate the trade with all strengthening every arm of the national the states, and other important resolutions. defence. He encouraged the army, inHe was appointed a commissioner to settle creased the navy, and caused those foreign the controversy between New York and naval expeditions to be sent out to the Massachusetts. In 1787, he was again West Indies, the Mediterranean, the coast returned to the assembly of Virginia, and, of Africa, and the shores of South Amerin 1788, was a member of the convention ica, which have given instruction to our of that state, to decide on the present con- officers, augmented the number of our stitution of the U. States. In 1790, he seamen, protected the national commerce, was elected a member of the senate of the and caused the country to be universally U. States, in which body he served until respected by distant nations. He ordered 1794. In May, 1794, he was appointed the principal head lands and exposed minister plenipotentiary to France. Mr. points along our borders and the seaMonroe was recalled from this mission in coast to be accurately surveyed, plans of 1796, by president Washington, with an fortifications drawn, and the reports made implied censure. In 1799, on the nomi- up, with a view to the ultimate complete nation of Mr. Madison, he was appointed defence of the frontiers of the U. States, governor of Virginia, in which situation, both on the land and sea side. He directhe served the constitutional term of three ed inquiries, surveys and plans, as to the years. In 1803, he was appointed minis- most suitable sites for the northern and ter extraordinary to France, to act in con- southern naval depots for the repair and junction with Mr. Livingston, the minister accommodation of our fleets during times resident there. This mission was of the of war and peace. The cession of Florida by Spain to the U. States was effected most too late, by liberal appropriations of during his administration. It was during congress to satisfy the large claims which his administration that the emancipated he preferred on the government for monSpanish and Portuguese colonies were eys disbursed and debts incurred on its formally recognised by the American gov- account. ernment. He assumed high constitutional Mons (Latin for mountain); found in a grounds in favor of internal improvement great number of geographical names, parand the bank of the U. States. He was ticularly in languages derived from the mainly instrumental in promoting the Latin, as Montigny (inflamed mountain), pension law for the relief of indigent rev- Piedmont (foot of the mountain), Montolutionary soldiers. During his adminis- pellier (Mons Puellarum), Montmirail (adtration, the illustrious Lafayette was invit- mirable mountain), Montmartre (mountain ed to visit these shores as the guest of the of Mars or of the martyrs), Montreal (roynation. He took the most energetic al mount), Vermont (green mountain), &c. measures in favor of the abolition of the Mons (Berghen); a city lately belongslave-trade, and continued to encourage ing to the kingdom of the Netherlands, at the establishment of the principles of present in the kingdom of Belgium, capicommerce with all nations, upon the basis tal of the province of Hainaut, situated of free and equal reciprocity. It is a high on a steep bill
, on the Trouille. Since compliment to the firmness, judgment and 1818, its fortifications have been much sagacity of Mr. Monroe, that he proclaim- extended and strengthened, and it now ed to the world the determination of the forms one of the strongest frontier forU. States not to suffer any European pow. tresses of Belgium. The country around er to interfere with the internal concerns can be easily laid under water. Populaof the independent South American gov- tion, 20,000. Its manufactures have been ernments. The well-timed expression of considerable; consisting of woollen, linen this sentiment put an end to all rumors of and cotton goods, oil, soap, pottery; and it any armed intervention in the affairs of has carried on an extensive trade in coals, Spanish America. Colonel Monroe retir- obtained in the neighborhood, hops, grain, ed from the office of president at the end cattle, horses, mill-stones, marble. Mons of his second term. În the late stages of is an old city, and has belonged by turns his life, he was associated with the ex- to Spain, Austria, and France. (See presidents Jefferson and Madison, in Netherlands.) founding and regulating the university of MONSEIGNEUR (French, my lord); a title Virginia. Subsequently, he was chosen a of dignity in France; the dauphin was member of the convention for amending formerly styled monseigneur, without any the constitution of his native state, and addition. Princes, archbishops, bishops, presided over the deliberations of that as- cardinals, marshals of France, presidents sembly. He did not disdain to act as jus- of parliament, &c., were addressed by this tice of the peace in the county of Loudon, title. The plural is messeigneurs. The in which he resided. Mr. Monroe died at Italian monsignore is used in a similar New York, on the 4th day of July, 1831, manner. the anniversary of American indepen- MONSIEUR (in French), used simply, dence, like the ex-presidents Adams and without any addition, formerly designated Jefferson. Colonel Monroe's biography the king's eldest brother. In common use, is intimately and honorably connected it answers both to the English sir and Mr., with the civil and military history of the and is also used before titles. In writing, U. States. We have merely indicated the it is expressed by the abbreviation M. principal stations which he held, and the The plural is messieurs. Monsieur is nature of the services which he perform- sometimes used by English writers as a ed. He was one of the leaders of the term of contempt for a Frenchman. democratic or Jefferson party, and involv- MONSIGNY, Pierre Alexandre, born 1729, ed in most of the party questious and oc- in Artois, a popular musical composer, currences by which the country was who is considered as the creator of the divided and agitated. He possessed a French comic opera. While young, his very energetic, persevering spirit, a vigor- talent for music was suddenly awakened ous mind, and extraordinary powers of by his witnessing the performance of Perapplication. In his unlimited devotion to golesi's Serva Padrona, and he devoted the public business, he neglected his pri- himself entirely to the study. He learned vate affairs. He retired from office ex- composition under Giannotti, who distremely deep in debt—a situation from missed him in five months, as a pupil who which he was relieved, though when al- knew all that he could teach. But Gian