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notti was astonished to find that his pupil subsequently by the power of the imhad already composed an opera, Les agination of the mother, transferring the Aveux indiscrets., which he brought out, imperfection of some external object, or after having recast it, three years afterwards the mark of something for which she (1759). Encouraged by its success, he longed, and with which she was not inproduced, in 1760, Le Cadi dupé and Le dulged, to the child of which she was Maitre en Droit. The opera On ne s'Avise pregnant, or by some accident which hapjamais de tout, brought forward in 1761, pened to her during her pregnancy. But completed the musical revolution at the this has been disproved by common théâtre de la Foire, which then took observation, and by philosophy, not, perthe name of the Italian opera. Le Roi et haps, by positive proofs, but by many le Fermier ; Rose et Colas ; Aline, Reine strong negative facts; as the improbabilide Golconde ; L'Isle sonnante ; Le Deser- ty of any child being born perfect, had teur, &c., were received with great ap- such a power existed; the freedom of plause. On the death of Grétry, Monsigny children from any blemish, though their succeeded him in the institute, and on the mothers had been in situations most exdeath of Piccini, in 1800, he was appoint- posed to objects likely to produce them; ed director of the conservatoire, at Paris. the ignorance of the mother of any thing He died in 1817.

being wrong in the child, till, from inMonsoons (from the Malay mussin, formation of the fact, she begins to recolseason); periodical trade-winds, which lect every accident which happened durblow six months in one direction, and the ing her pregnancy, and assigns the worst rest of the year in an opposite one. They or the most plausible as the cause ; the prevail in the Indian ocean, north of the organization and color of these adventi10th degree of south latitude. From April tious substances; the frequent occurrence to October, a violent south-west wind of monsters in the brute creation, in blows, accompanied with rain, and from which the power of the imagination canOctober to April a gentle, dry north-east not be great; and the analogous appearbreeze prevails. The change of the ances in the vegetable system. Judging, winds, or the breaking up of the mon- however, from appearances, accidents soons, as it is called, is accompanied by may perhaps be allowed to have constorms and hurricanes. These periodical siderable influence in the production of currents of winds do not reach very high, monsters of some kinds, either by actual as their progress is arrested by mountains injury upon parts, or by suppressing or of a moderate height. (See Winds.) deranging the principle of growth, be

Monsters ; in physiology, creatures cause, when an arm, for instance, is wantwhose formation deviates in some re- ing, the rudiments of the deficient parts markable way from the usual formation may generally be discovered. of their kind. The deviation consists MONSTRELET, Enguerrand de, a chronsometimes in an unusual number of one icler of the fifteenth century, born at Camor several organs; sometimes, on the con- bray, of which he became governor, was trary, in a deficiency of parts ; soinetimes the author of a history in French, of bis in a malformation of the whole own times. The history extevds from some portion of the system, and some- 1400 to 1467; but the last fifteen years times in the presence of organs or parts were furnished by another hand. It connot ordinarily belonging to the sex or spe- tains a narrative of the contentions of the cies. In most cases, these unusual for. houses of Orleans and Burgundy, the mations are not incompatible with the capture of Normandy and Paris by the regular performance of the natural func- English, with their expulsion, &c. Montions, although they sometimes impede strelet died in 1453. them, and, in some cases, are entirely in- MoxT BLANC (white mountain); the consistent with the continuance of the loftiest mountain of Europe, one of the vital action. It is not surprising that we summits of the Pennine Alps, on the should be ignorant of the manner in borders of Savoy and Aosta, between which monsters, or irregular births, are the valleys of Chamouni (q. v.) and Engenerated or produced; though it is prob- treves; lat. 45° 50 N.; lon. 6° 52 E. able that the laws by which these are The following measurements of its elevagoverned are as regular, both as to cause tion above the surface of the Mediterraand effect, as in common or natural pro- nean sea are deemed the most accurate: ductions. Formerly, it was a general by M. Deluc, 15,302 feet ; M. Pictet, opinion, that monsters were not primordial 15,520; sir George Shuckburgh, 15,662; or aboriginal, but that they were caused M. Saussure, 15,670; M. Tralles, 15,780.

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Its elevation above the valley of Chamou- attracted notice by his verses on the death ni is 12,160 feet. It is discernible from of Charles II ; and, in 1687, he wrote, Dijon and Langres, 140 miles distant. It in conjunction with Prior, the City receives its name from the immense mantle Mouse and Country Mouse-a travesty of snow with which its summit and sides on Dryden's Hind and Panther. In the are covered, and wbich is estimated to reign of William III, he obtained the extend not less than 12,000 feet, without place of clerk of the privy council, and the least appearance of rock to interrupt became a member of the house of comits glaring whiteness. An ascent to the mons. In 1694, he was made chancellor summit was first made, in 1786, by doctor of the exchequer, and subsequently first Pacard, of Chamouni, and bis guide, lord of the treasury. His administraJames Balma. In August, 1787, Saus- tion was distinguished by the adoption sure ascended it with 18 guides, and re- of the funding system, and the establishmained on the summit five hours. The ment of the bank of England. In 1698, pulse was found to beat more rapidly, Montagu was a member of the council of and the party complained of exhaustion, regency during the absence of the king, thirst, and want of appetite. The color and, in 1700, was raised to the peerage. of the sky was very deep blue bordering In the reign of Anne, when tory intluon black, and in the shade the stars were ence prevailed, he was twice impeached visible. Up to 1828, fourteen ascents had before the house of lords ; but the probeen made. In 1818, Messrs. Howard ceedings against him fell to the ground. and Van Renssalaer from New York, in George I created him earl, and bestowed 1825, doctor Clark and captain Sherwill, on him the order of the garter; but Haliascended it.--See Sherwill's Visit to the fax, being disappointed in his expectation Summit of Mont Blanc (London, 1827). of obtaining the office of lord treasurer, In 1827, two English gentlemen, who joined the opposition. His death took made the attempt, were obliged, by a new place May 19, 1715. The poems and cleft in the ice, to take a new course, speeches of lord Halifax were published, which has proved to be less toilsome and with biographical memoirs, in 1715 (8vo.); hazardous than the former. Eighteen and the former were included in the glaciers lie around, whose various and edition of English Poets, by doctor Jahnfantastic forms increase the magical effect son. He aspired to the character of the of the wonderful spectacle from the sum- Mæcenas of his age, and his patronage of mit, from which the view extends nearly Addison is creditable to his discrimina150 miles in almost every direction. The tion, though little can be said in praise of highest summit is a small ridge, about six bis munificence. feet wide, precipitous on the north side, Montagu, lady Mary Wortley, one of and called in Savoy, the dromedary's back. the most celebrated among the female It is covered with a solid body of snow. literary characters of England, was the (See Alps, Glaciers, Andes, Himalaya, and eldest daughter of Evelyn, duke of KingsMountains.)

ton, by his wife lady Mary Fielding, the Most D'Or; a mountain of France, in daughter of the earl of Denbigh. She Puy-de-Dôme, about 6130 feet above the was born about 1690, at Thoreshy, in level of the sea, abounding in curious Nottinghamshire, and displaying uncomplants and mineral springs.

mon abilities at an early age, was educated Moxt PERDU ; summit of the Pyrenees, upon a liberal plan, and instructed by the on the frontier line between France and same masters as her brother, in the Greek, Spain; about 100 miles east of the bay Latin and French languages. In her of Biscay, and further west from the twentieth year, she gave an extraordinary Mediterranean. It has a double summit, proof of her erudition, by a translation of one computed at 10,700 feet, or, by anoth- the Enchiridion of Epictetus, which was er statement, 11,265 feet high; the other revised by bishop Burnet, by whom her at 10,400. The line of perpetual congela- education was últimately superinter:ded. tion here is about 7500 feet in height. Her mind was nourished in great com

MONTAGO, Charles, earl of Halifax; an parative retirement, previously to her English statesman and poet, born at Hor- marriage, in 1712, with Edward Wortley ton, in Northamptonshire, in 1661. He Montagu. Even after her marriage, she was descended from the family of the lived chiefly at her husband's seat of Montagus, earls of Manchester, and was Wharncliffe, near Sheffield, until the lateducated at Westminster school, and ter, being introduced to a seat in the

Trinity college, Cambridge. From the treasury, by the earl of Halifax (see the university he went to London, where he preceding article), brought his lady to

London. Being thus placed in the sphere copied by herself, and presented, in 1766, of the court, she attracted that admiration to the reverend Mr. Sowden, of Amsterwhich beauty and elegance, joined to wit dam, of whom they were purchased by and the charms of conversation, never fail the earl of Bute: a surreptitious copy of to inspire. She became familiarly ac- them was published in 1763, in 3 vols., quainted with Addison, Pope, and other 12mo. The authenticity of these letters, distinguished writers. In 1716, Mr. Wort- which obtained universal admiration for ley being appointed ambassador to the their wit, judgment and descriptive powers, Porte, lady Mary determined to accompa- was, for a long time, doubted; but all disny him, and hence her admirable corre- trust was done away by the following pubspondence, chiefly consisting of letters ad- lication, under the sanction of the earl of dressed to the countess of Mar, lady Rich Bute: the Works of the Right Honorable and Mr. Pope ; to whom she communi- Lady Mary Wortley Montagu, including her cated her observations on the new and in- Correspondence, Poems and Essays, pubteresting scenes to which she was a witness. lished by permission from her genuine paOn many occasions she displayed a mind pers (London, 1803, 6 vols., 12mo.), with a superior to common prejudices, but in none Life, by Mr. Dallaway. This edition conso happily as in a courageous adoption tains many additional letters, written in the of the Turkish practice of inoculation latter part of her life, which display much for the small-pox in the case of her own excellent sense and solid reflection, alson, and a zealous patronage of its intro- though tinged with some of the prejudices duction into England. In 1718, Mr. of rank, and indicative of increasing misWortley returned to England, and at the anthropy. request of Pope, lady_Mary took up her MONTAGU, Edward Wortley, the only summer residence at Twickenham, and a son of the subject of the preceding article, friendship was formed between these kin- was born in 1713. At an early age, he dred genuises, which gradually gave way was sent to Westminster 'school, from to dislike, produced by difference of po- which he ran away three times, and, assolitical opinion, petulance and irritability ciating himself with the lowest classes of on the side of the poet, and no small dis- society, passed through some extraordinaposition to sarcastic keenness on that of ry adventures, sailed to Spain as cabinthe lady; and a literary war ensued, which boy, and was at length discovered by the did honor to neither party. Lady Mary British consul at Cadiz, and restored to preserved her ascendency in the world of his family. A private tutor was then rank and fashion until 1739, when, her provided for him, with whom he travhealth declining, she took the resolution elled on the continent. During his resiof passing the remainder of her days on dence abroad, he wrote a tract, entitled the continent, not without the world sur. Reflections on the Rise and Fall of Anmising that other causes concurred to in- cient Republics. On his return to Engduce her to form this resolution. She, land, he obtained a seat in the house of however, retired with the full concurrence commons; but, living extravagantly, he of her husband, with whom her subse- became involved in debt, and left his quent correspondence betrays neither re- native country never to return. His fusentment nor humiliation. Venice, A- ture conduct was marked by eccentricivignon and Chamberry were, in turr, her ties not less extraordinary than those by residence, until the death of Mr. Wortley, which he had been distinguished in the in 1761, when she complied with the so- early part of his life. He went to Italy, licitations of her daughter, the countess where he professed the Roman Catholic of Bute, and returned to England, after 'religion; and from that he apostatized to an absence of twenty-two years.

She become a disciple of Mohammed, and a enjoyed a renewal of family intercourse scrupulous practiser of the formalities of for a short time only, as she died of a Islamism. After passing many years in gradual decay, in 1762, aged seventy-two. Egypt, and other countries bordering on As a poetess, lady Mary Wortley Monta- the Mediterranean, he was about to return gu exhibits ease, and some powers of de- to England, when his death took place at scription; but she is negligent and incor- Padua, in Italy, in 1776. He was the rect. The principal of her performances author of an Examination into the Causes in this class is her Town Eclogues, a sa- of Earthquakes, and some papers in the tirical parody of the common pastoral, Philosophical Transactions. applied to fashionable life and manners. Montagu, Elizabeth, a lady of literary As a letter-writer, ber fame stands very celebrity, was the daughter of Matthew high ; her letters were collected and Robinson, of the Rokeby family, and was bom in 1720. She had an opportunity At the age of 13, he had finished his of prosecuting her studies under the di- studies at the college of Bordeaux, under rection of doctor Conyers Middleton, to Grouchy, Buchanan and Muret. His whom she was probably indebted for the father destined him for a judicial station, tincture of learning which so remarkably and married bim somewhat later to Franinfluenced her character and manners. çoise de la Chassaigne, daughter of a In 1742, she became the wife of Mr. Mon- counsellor of the parliament of Bordeaux. tagu, who left her mistress of a handsome Montaigne vras for some time a parliafortune, which enabled her to gratify her mentary counsellor, but his aversion to taste for study and literary society. In the duties of the station led him to retire 1769, she published an Essay on the from it. The study of man was his faWritings and Genius of Shakspeare. This vorite occupation. To extend his observawork raised Mrs. Montagu to the rank of an tions, and to restore his health, which had arbitress of public taste. She opened her been shattered by the attacks of a heredihouse, in Portman-square, to ibe Blue- tary disease (the stone), he travelled in Stocking Club—a society so denominated Germany, Switzerland and Italy, and was from a peculiarity in the dress of Mr. every where received with great distincBenjamin Stillingfleet, one of the mem- tion. At Rome, which he visited in 1581, bers; and carried on an epistolary corre- lie received the title of a Roman citizen. spondence with men of letters, published In 1582, he was chosen mayor of Borafter her death, August 25, 1800.

deaux, and the citizens of that place were MONTAIGNE, Michel de, one of the most so well satisfied with his administration, ingenious French writers, was born Feb. that they sent him to the court (in 1584), 28, 1533, at the castle of the same name, to attend to their interests there. Withbelonging to his family, in Perigord. His out doubt, the order of St. Michael was father, Pierre Eyghem, seigneur de Mon- conferred on him by Charles IX, at this taigne, an Englishman by birth, and a time, without any solicitation on his part, brave soldier, who had been chosen may- as has been reported. After making or of Bordeaux, bestowed the greatest several other journeys of business, he recare on the cultivation of young Michel's turned to his castle, and devoted himself promising talents, but adopted a peculiar entirely to philosophy. His quiet, howmode of education. In order to facili- ever, was disturbed by the troubles which tate his son's acquisition of the Latin lan- distracted France in consequence of the guage, which he had himself found diffi- cruel persecutions of the Huguenots ; his cult, he employed a German tutor, entirely castle was plundered by the leaguers, and ignorant of French, but complete master he himself was ill treated by their adverof Latin, before the child had left the saries. To these causes of distress was nurse's arms; and as all the family were added the plague, which broke out in never permitted to speak any other lan- Guyenne, in 1586, and compelled him to guage in the presence of the child, he had leave his estate, with his family, and wanthe pleasure of seeing the infant so com- der through the country, which was then pletely matriculated into it as to be obliged the theatre of all kinds of atrocities. He to learn the French as a foreign tongue. the resided some time in Paris, but "We all Latinized,” says Montaigne, “at finally returned home, and died in 1592, the castle, in such a manner that several after much bodily suffering, with the Latin expressions came into use in the composure of a philosopher. Montaigne villages around, which exist to this time." has described himself in his celebrated Greek he learned in the usual manner, Essais; but he confesses only the lighter after it had been attempted in vain to de- fuults. He acknowledges himself indolude him into a knowledge of it. The lent and averse to restraint, and complains treatınent of his father was peculiar in of the badness of his memory. He had some other respects; thus he caused him few of what are commonly called friends, to be waked in the morning by the sound but to his chosen intimates he was warmof musical instruments, Jest the genius of ly attached. He loved to converse on the boy should be injured by his being familiar terms with educated men, whose moused too suddenly, he allowed him the observations were teints d'un jugement most unrestrained indulgence in his plays, mûr et constant, et mélés de bonté, de franand endeavored to lead him to the faith- chise, de gaieté et d'amitié. He was also ful performance of his duties solely by fond of the society of handsome and ininspiring him with a sense of right and telligent women, although he says one wrong. Montaigne always 'shows the should be on his guard against them. greatest regard for his father's memory. The imagination he considered a fruitful source of evil. He had many ideas on two English translations of the Essays, education which have been revived in our one by Charles Cotton, and an earlier one times, without his receiving the credit of by John Florio. them; he wished that children should MONTALEMBERT, Marc René, marquis enjoy both physical and moral freedom; de, born at Angoulême, in 1714, entered swathing he considered as injurious, and the army in his 18th year, served in the was of opinion that habit would enable us campaign of 1733, and distinguished himto dispense with all clothing. His views self at the sieges of Kehl and Philipps. on legislation and the administration of burg. As a reward for his services, the justice enlightened his own age and have company of the prince of Conti's guards been useful to ours. He endeavored to was given him. After the peace, he devot. simplify the laws and legal processes, and ed his leisure to the sciences, and entered very justly remarks that laws are often the academy in 1747, whose memoirs conrendered futile or injurious by their ex- tain some of his papers, no less remarkable cessive rigor. His moral system was in for the originality of their ideas than fortheir general indulgent, but on some points purity and elegance of style. During the strict. Speculative philosophy he reject- seven years' war, he was stationed with ed, devoting himself to the lessons of ex- the Russian and Swedish armies, and, at perience. He studied human nature in later periods, was sent to Brittany and the children and illiterate peasants. Equally isle of Oleron, the latter of which he forremoved from a general skepticism and tified on his new system. In 1779, he from dogmatism, he was accustomed to erected a wooden fort on the island of Aix, suggest possibilities instead of making which astonished scientific men by its assertions, and to throw light on his sub- strength and completeness. His extravaject from every point. His motto was gance obliged him, in 1790, to sell his esQue sais-je ? His great work, his Essais tate in the Angoumois, for which he re(first published in 1580, and often repub- ceived payment in assignats, and passed lished and translated into many languages), the rest of his life in poverty. As a parcontains a treasure of wisdom. It may tisan of the revolution, he (1789) surstill be deemed one of the most popular rendered his pension, which had been books in the French language. The essays conferred on him on account of the loss embrace a great variety of topics, which of an eye. During the stormy period of are touched upon in a lively, entertaining the revolution, he was imprisoned. He manner, with all the raciness of strong, died in 1800. Among his works are La native good sense, careless of system or Fortification perpendiculaire, ou Art défenregularity. Sentences and anecdotes from sif supérieur à l'Art offensif (11 vols., 4to.); the ancients are interspersed at random Mémoire sur les Afüts de la Marine ; with his own remarks and opinions, and flexions sur le siége de Saint-Jean d'Arc ; with stories of himself, in a pleasant strain Mémoires ou Correspondance avec les Généof egotism, and with an occasional license, raux et les Ministres, from 1761 to 1791 ; to which severer casuists can with some with some comedies, tales and chansons. difficulty reconcile themselves. Their Montanus, in the middle of the second style, without being pure or correct, is century, bishop of Pepuza, in Phrygia, an simple, bold, lively and energetic, and, illiterate man, who gave himself out for according to La Harpe, he “impressed on the promised Comforter, who was to bring the French language an energy which it to perfect maturity the Christian system. did not before possess, and which has not In his doctrines, he deviates from the rebecome antiquated, because it is that of ceived opinions only in maintaining that sentiments and ideas, and not alien to its all true Christians receive the inspirations idiom. It is not a book we are reading, of the Holy Ghost. The chiliastic or milbut a conversation to which we are listen- lennarian notions, and his rigid adherence ing; and he persuades, because he does to the letter of the law, he had in common not teach.” The best edition is that of with the Judaizing Christians; and the Coste (3 vols., 4to., London, 1724). His moral peculiarities of his sect consisted style, though not always pure and correct, merely in a more strict observance of exaccurate and elevated, is original, simple, ternals, frequent fasts, the contempt of Jively, bold and vigorous. Besides his heathenish learning and worldly convenEssays, his Voyages deserve mention, iences, abstinence from second marriage, although not intended for publication. and a willingness to submit to celibacy Montaigne also translated, at the request and martyrdom. His disciples called of his father, a treatise on Natural Theol- themselves Pneumatici, from a belief in ogy, by Raymond Sebonde. There are their superior spiritual perfection ; they

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