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seriously contemplating their abolition, and is only withheld from such a step by the not knowing how to provide for the persons supported on them.
The founder and originator of these valuable institutions was the late General Van den Bosch, who was the first director. While serving in the Dutch colonies in the East, he purchased an estate in the island of Java, and devoted much of his time to improvements in agriculture. It did not long escape his observation that the estate of a native mandarin, which lay next to his own, and resembled it in soil and situation, never failed, in spite of all the pains he took with his own land, to produce far finer crops. This induced him to
The road from Meppel to Leeuwarden passes through Steenwyk to5 Heerenveen.
4 LEEUWARDEN (Inn, Nieuwe Doelen, very good), chief town of the province of Friesland, with a population of more than 17,000 souls. one of the churches are monuments of the Stadholders of Friesland, which the French defaced. The fortifications are turned into plantations. Leeuwarden possesses a large and handsome Townhouse. The façade of the House of Correction (Huis van Burgerlyke en Militaire Verzekering), with the date MD., is worthy of observation. It is a rich specimen of mixed brick and stone work, with seven statues repre
the quaint gable. Just within the Harlingen gate stands a fine old leaning church tower, of bricks of two colours and grey stone: the body of the church was destroyed by a storm. From the top of the tower is a fine view over the rich pastures of Friesland to Harlingen.
form an acquaintance with his neigh-senting Virtues, &c. upon the steps of bour, from whom he learnt a system which proved so beneficial, that the estate, which he purchased in Java for 25,000 rix dollars, fetched 150,000 when sold, on his departure from the country. The secret of the mandarin's luxuriant crop appears to have been the attention he paid to obtaining a good stock of manure for his land; to this the efforts of the colonists are studiously directed. (See a Journal of a visit to the Dutch dairy farms, in 1848, by Lord Blantyre, published in the Industrial Magazine.)
The direct road to Groningen runs through Assen. It takes about 8 hours to travel by Trekschuit from Meppel to Assen.
3 Assen. A village of only 1800 inhab., though the chief place in the province of Drenthe. It has two Inns; both execrable: the Post is the least bad. (Goldner Römer.) Near Assen, at Ballo and Suidlaaren, occur examples of those very singular sepulchres of an ancient people, commonly called Hünebedden they are usually large stones placed upright in the ground, in rows, surrounded by circles of smaller stones, or covered by others laid across, and open at the end; some are 80 feet long. Urns, hatchets, hammers, and other articles of wood and stone, but none of metal, bave been found in them.
No province of Holland has preserved, to the same extent, its ancient manners and costumes as that of Fries
land. The head-dress of the women, the gold hoops and pendants, and the beautiful lace caps, are especially deserving of remark. Such a head-dress sometimes costs 2000 guilders. These costumes may be seen in perfection at Leeuwarden on market-day. The women are celebrated for beauty. Many of the towns, villages, and even farmhouses, and all the old churches, are built on mounds (teepen) raised above the surface, which originally afforded refuge to the inhabitants from inundation, before the country was properly dyked. The Frieslanders pride themselves on having been from the earliest times a free and independent people, governed by laws of their own, which Charlemagne caused to be collected and written down, and which still exist.
12 miles W. of Leeuwarden is the seaport of Harlingen (Inn, Heerenlogement), on the Zuider Zee, with 9000 inhab. There is a steamer from London to Harlingen every Wednesday,
and 2 every Saturday. Much butter, the product of Friesland, is exported hence. It stands on the site of a town swallowed up by the sea in 1134, and is itself protected by one of the largest dykes in Holland, 40 ft. high, fenced in at its base with 3 rows of piles driven into the ground. The monument erected by the Dutch to the Spanish Governor Roblas, who first introduced (1570) an improved method of constructing these sea-walls, still exists S. of the town; gratitude for the benefits conferred having proved stronger than national hatred against a Spaniard. A Trekschuit goes daily from Harlingen to Groningen, by Franeker and Leeuwarden; and a steam-boat to Amsterdam 3 times a week.
river, crossed by a ferry for horses and carriages.
1 Leer (Inn, König von Preussen, good :— Prinz v. Oranien), a town of 5000 inhab., with a considerable trade to England in agricultural produce. "Between Leer and Oldenburg, in the middle of the swamp, is a little primitive district called Soterland, where the old Frisian language is still spoken."
- F. S. There is steam communication from Leer to Emden, but bad travelling by land.
About 32 m. W. of Leeuwarden (6 hours by diligence), and connected with it by a grand canal extending from the river Ems to Harlingen on the Zuiderhaus Zee, lies
4 GRONINGEN. Inns: Pays-Bas :Doelen :- De Groote] Münster: Wapen van Amsterdam. A fortified town at the junction of the Hunse and Aa; the most important of the N. provinces of Holland. 30,000 inhab.
The University, founded in 1615, is frequented by about 400 students, and has an excellent museum of natural history. The finest buildings are the great Church of St. Martin, a handsome Gothic structure, and the Hôtel de Ville, a modern building, faced with Portland stone; both situated in the Bree Markt, one of the grandest squares in Holland. On the Ossenmarkt is the monument of Guyot, the founder of an institution for the deaf and dumb, which is still flourishing.
By means of a canal called Schuitendiep, large vessels come up from the sea to the town.
4 Winschoten. Inn, Post, best, but bad; last town in Holland; 2000 inhab.
12 Neue Schanze, a small frontier fortress of Hanover, strong from its position among swamps, which render approach difficult.
2 Weener on the Ems, here a broad
2 Emden (Inn, Post, in the market place), a fortified town, capital of the Hanoverian province of E. Friesland, contains about 15,000 inhab. It has the most extensive trade in oats of any port in Europe. It lies in a marshy situation; but the land around it is of great fertility, yielding, besides oats, much butter and cheese. In the Rathis a curious collection of ancient arms and armour. The town lies below the level of the Ems, and is defended against it by strong dykes, notwithstanding which it has suffered from repeated inundations. A canal is now constructing between strong dykes connecting Emden with the deep water of the Dollart; and the town will, when this is completed, be protected by a high and strong embankment against the incursions of this estuary. In 1826 the water stood in the streets for 3 months up to the first floor of the houses. On the ramparts were buried many thousand British officers and soldiers who died here from the sufferings they endured in the retreat of the Duke of York's army from Holland, in the dreadful winter of 1791.
Backhuisen and Moucheron, painters, were born here.
Steamers to Delfzyl in Groningen every day.
The shortest way from Groningen to Emden, and the best in not very bad weather, is by Treckschuit to Delfzyl, in 5 or 6 hours, through the picturesque village of Appingadam. At Delfzyl is a little seaport inn, the Post. A good steamer crosses the Dollart every day, in about 1 hour, to Emden; on its
arrival at which place, another steamer | the cakes before they are baked, in starts for Leer, which is reached in order to ascertain that the dough is about 2 hours from Emden. Tra- properly mixed. Many thousand vellers bound for Oldenburg and Bre- pounds of this gingerbread are annually men may proceed on at once by dili- exported. Travellers should ask for gence from Leer to Oldenburg, a the Deventer Koek, at the shop of W. journey of 8 or hours. Steamers J. Smies, called the Allemans Gading, proceed up the Ems beyond Leer. in the Groote Kerkhof E., No. 1354. It is close to the house at which the diligence stops.
near the palace.
2 DEVENTER. Inns Nieuwe Keizers Kroon (Imperial Crown): -'t Wapen van Overyssel. A thriving town on the bank of the Yssel, 14,000 inhab., and a considerable iron foundry and carpet manufactory. The Cathedral is a vast and venerable edifice, in the late Gothic style, surmounted by a handsome tower; it contains some good painted glass. The English forces, under the Earl of Leicester, gained possession of Deventer in 1586; but Col. Wm. Stanley, who was appointed Governor, treacherously yielded it to the Duke of Parma in 1587, taking over with him his regiment of 1300 men. He became a traitor from a principle of conscience, believing his duty to his country to be incompatible with that which he owed to the Romish faith. This is the native place of the philologer Gronovius, and Erasmus went to school here. Deventer is celebrated for its gingerbread; and in order to keep up its reputation, an officer, appointed by the magistrates, inspects
1272, by the side of the Yssel, to protect the country from inundations. On the way lies the Zevenhuisische Plas, one of the most recent instances of the draining of a polder (§ 11.).
At Kordenoord, near Gouda, may be seen two of the finest windmills in Holland; they are of vast size and admirable construction.
24 GOUDA or Tergouw. Inns: Doelen, very good:- Salmon (Zalm). A decayed town of 17,500 inhab.; with a large grass-grown square.
The large Ch. of St. John (Jans Kerk) is famous for its painted glass windows, considered to be nearly the finest in Europe. They are for the most part 30 feet high, (2 are nearly double that height), and finished with great attention to the details, but are of various degrees of merit. They were executed, between 1560 and 1603, by 2 brothers, Dirk and Wouter Crabeth, and their pupils and assistants. One (No. 10.), having been destroyed by a storm, was restored in 1655, and by its inferiority proves the art to have been then on the decline. The finest are by the Crabeths, and are pointed out by their initials in the following enumeration. They were presents from towns or wealthy individuals, made on the rebuilding of the church after a fire, about the year 1560. Very elaborate drawings of them, by Christoph. Pierson, are preserved in the vestry. A small book, very diverting, from its quaint English and mis-spelling, is sold by the verger for 5 stivers, intituled, "Explanation of the famous and renowned Glas-work or painted Windows, in the fine and eminent Church at Gouda, for the use and commodity of both Inhabitans and Foreigners that come to see this artificial work." The subjects of the windows are as follows, beginning on the left hand on entering the church by the door under the steeple: -1. An Allegorical Representation of Liberty of Conscience. 2. The taking of Damietta by the Emperor Frederic Barbarossa in the 3d Crusade. The Virgin of Dort. 4. Justice and Valour with the Arms of the Lords of
Rhineland. 5. The Queen of Sheba visits Solomon, by W. Crabeth. 6. Siege of Bethulia: Beheading of Holofernes, by D. Crabeth. 7. The Last Supper, with Queen Mary of England and Philip II. of Spain, the donors, kneeling. The upper part of this window was destroyed by a hailstorm. By D. C. 8. The Sacrilege of Heliodorus, by W. C. 9. The Angel appearing to Zacharias. 10. The Annunciation. 11. Birth of John the Baptist. 12. The Nativity, by W. C. 13. Christ among the Doctors. 14. John the Baptist Preaching, by D. C. 15. The Baptism of Christ, by D. C. 16. Sermon on the Mount, by D. C. 17. John the Baptist rebuking Herod. 18. John the Baptist's Disciples questioning Christ, by D. C. 19. Beheading of John the Baptist. 20. and 21. represent the Sufferings, Resurrection, and Ascension of Christ. 22. The Money-Changers driven from the Temple, by D. C. 23. The Offering of Elijah before the Priests of Baal, by W. C. 24. The Angel sending Philip to baptize the Ethiopian, and Peter and John healing the Lame Man, by D. C. 25. The Relief of Leiden, and Raising the Siege. 26. The Relief of Samaria. 27. The Pharisee and Publican in the Temple. 28. The Woman taken in Adultery. proving David. ing forth Jonah.
29. Nathan re30. The Whale cast31. In the S. transept, Baalam and his Ass. Besides these, there are 13 windows above the choir, representing Christ and his Apostles.
"The church contains a very powerful and sweet-toned organ, in which the vox humana stop is especially fine.”
- H. F. C.
The Hôtel de Ville was the residence of Jacqueline of Bavaria, whose part was taken by the citizens during the civil wars of the Hoeksen and Kabiljauwsen (Hooks and Cod-fish, the names of two factions, like Whig and Tory with us). It was of fine old red brick and stone, but has been white
There are large manufactories of bricks here. The clay for bricks is
scraped up out of the bed of the Yssel, with a sort of hoe having a sack attached to it, and is particularly well adapted for the purpose. Tobacco pipes were also made here in large quantities. The clay for them was brought from the banks of the Moselle and the neighbourhood of Namur. The pipes are shaped in moulds of brass; but the most difficult operation, the boring, is done by the hand, with a piece of iron wire blunt at the extremity, and requires great dexterity in the workmen. The trade has fallen off, owing to the prevalence of cigars. Very few people are now employed in it.
The best cheese in Holland is a new milk cheese, called Gouda cheese, being made near this town.
The Rhine communicates, for ship navigation, with the Yssel and Meuse, by Gouda. A ship-lock at the Gouda Sluis passes the vessel across the dyke of the Rhine into a spacious canal connected with the Kromme Gouda river. This last was made in 1281 as a slaker to the Rhine. It is 9 miles long, and has an excellent tide lock at Gouda, 153 ft. long and 25 ft. wide in the chamber.
A cross-road, not very good, conducts from Gouda to Woerden, a town of 2600 inhab., on the banks of the Old Rhine. Best Inn, Veerhuis.
4 Utrecht. (See Routes 5. and 10.)
THE HAGUE TO UTRECHT.
9 Posts 414 Eng. Miles. From the Hague to Leiden, Railroad, see Route 2.; if by road, then as follows: Near Voorburg is the house of Hofwyk, built by Constantine Huygens, the poet and statesman, described by him in his poems, and afterwards inhabited by Christian Huygens, the mathematician, and discoverer of Saturn's ring. Farther on, at the village of Leydschendam, the traveller may remark the difference of level of the waters of two districts, the Rhijnland on one side, and the Delftland on the other, which are here separated by a lock.
2 LEIDEN is described at page 40. A diligence runs every morning, in 5 hours, from Leiden to Utrecht.
On leaving Leiden, before reaching Kouderkerk, is Rembrand's mill, where he was born; it lies on the left hand in going to Utrecht, between the road and the Rhine. See P. 44.
2 Alphen. Inn, The Star, is famed for its perch dressed in waterzootje in high perfection. Beyond this the road passes the beautiful villages of Zwammerdam and Bodegraven, and afterwards through
2 Woerden, all memorable as the scenes of the atrocities committed by the French army, under Marshal Luxemburg, in 1672. Their cruelty, as described by Voltaire, is not exagge rated: so great was the hatred which it inspired in the minds of the Dutch, who were witnesses of their conduct, that descriptions of the war, called "Fransche Tyranny," were written and printed as school-books for their children to read, calculated to hand down an inheritance of hate for their enemies to future generations.
2 UTRECHT. There is a more direct road from the Hague, avoiding Leiden and Woerden by Voorburg (14 post), Gouda (31), UTRECHT (4), in Route 5.
THE RHINE, A. FROM ROTTERDAM TO
Travellers, whether in search amusement or pressed for time, should avoid the voyage up the lower part of the Rhine, below Cologne, because there are two other very interesting routes from England to Cologne; one by Rotterdam, Hague, Amsterdam, and Utrecht (Routes 2. and 5.), which, however, is somewhat circuitous; the other by Ostend, or Antwerp, and Brussels (Routes 17. 21. and 23.), which is the shortest way from London, and by far the quickest since the formation of railroads through Belgium. The best way to visit the Rhine from England is to go by Belgium and its