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It is one of the finest in Europe, and was saved from being cut down by the express command of Louis XIV., at a time when his army spared nothing else in Holland. Travellers going to Nymegen by the post road should desire their drivers to pass through it, as it lies but a little way out of the direct road. The game of Pall Mall is still kept up. Utrecht is the head-quarters of the Jansenists, a sect of dissenters from the Roman Catholic church, who object to the bull of Pope Alexander VII., condemning as heretical certain doctrines of Jansenius, Bishop of Ypres. They scarcely exist in any number except in Holland, where they are now reduced to 5000. Utrecht is the see of their archbishop.

Medical men will take an interest in a large collection of anatomical preparations, wax figures, &c., as it is one of the finest of the kind in Europe.

Utrecht has some manufactories and bleaching grounds. The gates are shut at night, but admittance is obtained at any hour by paying about 2 pence. Omnibus to Vreeswyck (1 hr.), to meet the Rhine steamers, every Mon., Wed., Fri., and Sat.; starts from M. de Groot's Vreeburg.

The hire of a carriage with 2 horses, to Rotterdam (Rt. 9.), 12 leagues, is 22 guilders, including tolls and fees to the driver.

RAILWAY, Utrecht to Arnhem in 11 hr., 33 miles.

The road proceeds for a considerable distance through a country abounding in wood. Many fine forest-trees are seen here, and scarcely anywhere else in Holland.

Driebergen Station. About 3 miles N. W. of this is Zeist (6 m. from Utrecht), remarkable for a Moravian colony settled in it, which deserves to be visited. The whole establishment is distinguished for the order and neatness maintained in it, and is supported by the manufactures of the brothers and sisters. On the N. of the road, near Zeist, is a mound of earth, erected in 32 days by the French army of 30,000 men, under Marmont, on the occasion of Napoleon being made em

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Arnhem, chief town of Guelderland, on the r. bank of the Rhine, 3 m. below the point where the Yssel branches off from it, has 15,000 inhab. It was fortified by Coehorn: but the ramparts are now turned into walks. Sir Philip Sydney died here, Oct. 1586, of the wound received in battle near Zutphen: his wife had come over to soothe his dying hour. Though Arnhem itself has no attractions to detain the traveller, its neighbourhood abounds in villas, parks, and gardens; the finest being that of the Baron de Heeckeren, Hartgesberg: the entrance close to the railway station. The pleasure-grounds are fine, and the view from the Belvedere tower striking. Further off, near the village of Velp (4 m. E. of Arnhem) are several fine country seats, Biljoen, Beekhuisen, Roozendaal, Middacht, Ridderoord, &c. to the gardens of which the public are allowed admittance. The finest view of Arnhem and the surrounding country is from the grounds of the country seat of the Baron van Brakell. Many of the grounds of the country seats are open; but some have notices-only in Dutch

of man-traps and spring-guns. This part of Guelderland may, indeed, be termed "the Dutch paradise;" but its chief attractions, beside those which it derives from art, are, the abundance and purity of its flowing streams, to which the native of other provinces of Holland is a stranger, and the beauty of the trees.

Diligences 4 times a-day to Nymegen; daily to Deventer. The road to Nymegen crosses the Rhine by a floating bridge, and traverses the district called Over Betuwe (see p. 89.), passing through the villages of Elden and Elst. At Lent, a small village on the

Waal, with a tolerable inn, opposite Nymegen, a flying bridge conveys carriage and passengers across the Waal


2. NYMEGEN. Inns: None good, and all dear. H. des Pays-Bas, near the steam-boats, dear: Plaats Royal: Hotel de Francfort: Rotterdamer Wagen, near the Quai: most of the diligences start from this house. Nymegen is situated on the left bank of the Waal; it has 24,000 inhab.: the Romans called it Noviomagus. It is a frontier fortress of Holland, strongly defended, and built on the side and slope of a hill called the Hoenderberg, on which the Romans formed a permanent camp to protect their Belgic possessions from inroads of the Germans. As this is a frontier town, passports are taken from strangers on their arrival; and those who intend to set out early in the morning should take care to regain them overnight. The quay is separated from the town by a wall, and it is difficult to obtain an entrance at night after the gates are shut.

The Town Hall (Raadhuis), a building in the style of the Renaissance (1554), ornamented in front with 2 rows of statues of German emperors, benefactors of the town, is chiefly remarkable as the place where the Treaty of 1678, between Louis XIV., Charles II. of Spain, and the States of Holland, was signed. It contains portraits of the ambassadors upon this occasion, and a few Roman antiquities, dug up in the neighbourhood, where the ground is constantly disclosing similar relics of the Roman settlement here. The sword with which the Counts Egmont and Horn were beheaded is also shown here.

The Church of St. Stephen, begun 1272, is an interesting Gothic building of brick, in the form of a Greek cross, and contains, in the centre of the ancient choir, the monument of Catherine de Bourbon, wife of Adolphus of Egmont, Duke of Gueldres. Her effigy is engraved on a plate of copper, and upon smaller plates at the sides are figures of the Apostles and coats of


Upon an elevation, which for Holland is considerable, stood the Castle of Valkenhof, commonly called het Hof, said to have been built. by Julius Cæsar, and inhabited afterwards by Charlemagne. It was demolished in 1794 by the French. The only parts now remaining are a fragment of the church and a very perfect circular Chapel or Baptistry near the brow of the hill: it is probably of the 12th or 13th century. The space of ground adjoining it, once a part of the ramparts of the town, is planted with trees, and serves as a public walk, overlooking the river and quay. On another eminence a little higher up rises the Belvedere, a lofty summer-house built by the town, on the foundation of a tower, said to be part of a château of the Duke of Alva, now converted into a café. The view from its top is pleasing, comprehending the rivers which branch off at the head of the delta of the Rhine; viz. the Rhine, the Waal, and the Yssel; with the Maas flowing on the south. This is the most interesting spot in Nymegen, and together with the few other sights may be seen in two hours. The views from Berg-en-dal, Beek, and Upbergen, in the neighbourhood, will also leave agreeable impressions.

Nymegen remained long in the hands of the Spaniards: a bold attempt made in 1589 by Martin Schenk van Nijdek, a Guelderland nobleman, to surprise the town, failed, and he was drowned. His body, when found by the Spaniards, was quartered and hung in chains to the principal gates, but was afterwards interred in the Great Church. One of these chains is preserved in the town hall.

In 1672, Marlborough, then Captain Churchill of the grenadiers, serving under Turenne at the siege of Nymegen, attracting that great general's praise by his bravery, was called by him the handsome Englishman.

Diligences, 4 times a day, in 2 hours to Arnhem (meeting the railway trains to Utrecht and Amsterdam) daily; the Hague, in 12 hours; Cologne, by Cleves, in about 18 hours; and Dusseldorf in 12 hours. Steamers to Cologne

see Route 34.), and down the Rhine (Route 12.), to Roterdam in 8 hours; in summer daily, in winter, 3 times a-week.




123 Posts=58 Eng. miles. Diligence daily in 9 hours.

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noted as the birthplace of Barneveld, Grand Pensionary of Holland. The college for the education of Jansenist priests (see p. 75.) is established here. There are manufactures of bombazeen here, and much tobacco is cultivated and dried in the neighbourhood.

About 5 m. from Amersfoort is the beautiful villa of Soestdyk, presented by the States of the Netherlands to the present King when Prince of Orange, in gratitude for his conduct at Waterloo: it is prettily situated, surrounded

Pass the Diemermeer polder (see with gardens. There is nothing reR. 5.).


Muiden. When the forces Louis XIV. had succeeded in taking Naarden, the Dutch let in the sea near this point, laid the whole country under water as far as Amsterdam, and thus effectually checked the advance of the invading army, and saved the Low Countries from subjugation. Muiden commands the enormous sluice gates which have been erected since that event. The Dutch historian Hooft resided in the château. A short distance S. of Muiden is Weesp, at the mouth of the Vecht; this place has many distilleries of gin, which is particularly in request for the American market. Amsterdam is supplied with water from a place called Nichtevecht, higher up on the Vecht.

3 Naarden. - Inn: Hof van Holland. A fortress with immensely broad ditches, fortified by Coehorn, on the Zuider Zee, 2000 inhab. It was taken by the Spaniards under Frederick of Toledo, who burnt it to the ground, after having put to the sword all its inhabitants, without distinction of age or sex. It was again taken, in 1672, by the French, and afterwards recovered by William III. It forms the key of all the water communications of Holland. At Naarden the marsh land ends, and the vast heaths, which extend, with partial interruptions of cultiva tion, all the way to the Ems and Elbe, begin.

Beyond this the road turns away from the sea.

33 Amersfoort. Inn, Doelen, not good; 9000 inhab., on the Eem; is

markable in the road by 23 De Klomp to3 Arnhem (see Route 5.).

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23 Elburg.. Inn, Post.

The road passes through Hattem on the left bank of the Yssel: then crosses that river to

23 ZWOLLE.- Inns, Keizer's Kroon; extortionate:- Heerenlogement. The capital of Overyssel is a prosperous commercial town of 14,000 inhab., remarkable for its cleanliness, situated on a small stream called the Zwarte Water. The entrance from Deventer through an old gateway, with peaked turrets, is

picturesque. There are good streets | ception of these persons, whom they and spacious places. The reformed would otherwise be compelled to mainChurch of St. Michael contains a hand- tain at home. The expense of estasome carved pulpit. The gardens and blishing, with necessary outfits, 3 fawalks about the town are very agree-milies, or 24 persons, was found to able. A convent, which once stood on the hill of St. Agnes, was the residence, for 64 years, of Thomas à Kempis, whose work on the "Imitation of Christ" is translated into almost every living language. He died here in 1741. G. Terburg, the painter, was born at Zwolle, 1608.

Through Hasselt and Zwarte Sluis to

31 MEPPEL. Inn, Heerenlogement. About 15 m. from Meppel, and 3 from Steenwyk, are the Pauper Agricultural Colonies of FREDERIKSOORD and WILLEMSOORD. There is a tolerable inn on the spot.

amount to 1600 fl., or about 1427.
Loans were then raised, each limited
to this amount, as the expense of lo-
cating 3 families: these were advanced
by the government, by the king in his
private capacity, by communes, and by
benevolent societies, or individuals.
For each loan the contributors were
allowed to send 3 families.
There are
now (1848) upwards of 2000 families
at Frederiksoord and the adjoining
colony of Willemsoord.
Each family
has a separate cottage, built at a cost to
the society of 401. The original plan
was to give every family 3 acres of
land, half of it having been rendered
productive beforehand, a cow, and a
pig. They were also furnished with
clothes, implements of agriculture, and
provisions for a certain period. All
this and other advances were set down
as a debt to the society, to be repaid
by the earnings of the colonists, and by
the produce of the land. The instances
of the complete discharge of the original
debt are very rare indeed, and the ma-
nagers soon rested satisfied if no new
debts were contracted in addition to
the first. The whole establishment was

The great increase of mendicity in Holland after the years of scarcity, 1816 and 1817, led to the formation of a Society of Charity (Maatschappij van Weldadigheid), for the purpose of rescuing from beggary able-bodied labourers and their families, by settling them on waste lands, employing them in rendering these wastes productive, and by educating their children. The project met with the support of the late king. A society was at once formed at the Hague, with Prince Frederick as president. In a short time 20,000 sub-placed under the superintendence of a scribers were enrolled, who contributed 3 florins each, in all 70,000 fl. (about 5850). With this, in 1818, 1300 acres of tolerably good land, 2600 acres of barren heath in the province of Drenthe, and on the borders of Overyssel, were purchased. The land cost 56,000 fl. 14,000 remained. The first operations were rendering the river Aa, which runs through the district, navigable to the Zuyder Zee; erecting 52 cottages for as many families, or for 6 or 8 individuals each; and a public magazine, a spinning-factory, and a school. On


Oct. 10. 1818, 52 pauper families, sent from various communes, were settled in the colony, to which was given the name of Frederiksoord (oord, district). The communes to which they belonged contracted with the society for the re

director: a sub-director was appointed to preside over each 100 families; a quartermaster over 20 families; and a section-master, thoroughly and practically an agriculturist, over 12 families.

Except in 30 or 40 cases, in which the parties are in the position of tenants to the society, and pay as on lease for their 3-acre allotments, the colonists now work for the society on any lands desired, and have no longer any connexion with 3 acres: each family, however, still receives a house, a cow, and a garden not exceeding 1 acre. One reason for this change was, that there were many incapacitated for cultivating lands, but able for other trades. claiming and cultivating the land is, however, the chief employment of the colonists, and those who are ignorant


of agriculture are instructed. The spade and hoe have been chiefly used. All work is performed by the piece, and not by time. Each labourer receives, at the end of the day, a card stating the amount of his earnings, for which he receives an equivalent in potatoes, bread, &c. There is a maximum fixed; if he earns more than that per week, the surplus is put in reserve, and given him at the end of the year, after deducting for the administration of the colony, &c.: he also receives some clothes quarterly. The idle are compelled to work, or, if they refuse, are sent off to the penal colony of Ommerschans. At seasons unsuited to field labour, the women are employed in spinning and weaving. The children are instructed in schools built on the spot, and are entirely in the schools until they are 12 years old, or, if backward, 13: they then commence work at weaving or out-of-door work, &c. &c. The children are only kept in the colony until 20 to 23 years of age, when they are desired to provide for themselves. There are places of worship for Lutherans, Catholics, and Jews. education of the children is entrusted to the care of the managers.


Houses have been built by the colonists with bricks formed from the clay dug on the spot, cemented with lime produced from shells brought from the sea-shore, and burnt with turf found on the land. The houses are built at intervals along the side of broad roads, crossing each other at right angles, and are all on one plan, and are well adapted for the comforts of a family. They are thatched with reeds, which are said to be more durable than straw or heather, lasting from 20 to 30 years. This reed (Arundo phragmitis) grows by the sides of the canals and rivers, 6 and 7 feet high.

Besides these two free colonies, two others, having much the character of Penal Colonies, have been established -one at Veenhuizen, 15 miles from Frederiksoord, and 9 from Assen, but situated on the same uninterrupted heath. It was originally proposed to settle here the children of the different

orphan asylums in the towns of Holland, under the idea that the situation and air of the large towns were detrimental to their health. Accordingly, the society agreed to receive them for a consideration of 60 guilders per annum for each child. This scheme, however, did not meet with general approval, and was subsequently abandoned, and the establishment converted into a mendicity colony. It corresponds nearly in its character, arrangements, and discipline with that of Ommerschans, a few miles from Meppel. This was a dilapidated fortress, situated also in the midst of a heath. It serves as a penitentiary for refractory free colonists, and for the amendment of beggars and idle persons, but not criminals, sent by their parishes or the government. They are compelled to work either as field labourers or in the workshops. They are generally sent for a certain number of years, to reform idle habits. Punishments of various kinds are inflicted on the refractory. A value is put on their daily work, and they receive a certain portion for themselves. The colony is said not to be entirely self-supporting. The number of détenus amounts to about 2000, including women and children. Their escape is prevented partly by a canal which surrounds the building, partly by a cordon of watchmen established in 25 cottages built in a circle, at the distance of 5 minutes' walk from one another.

The experiment has been tried now for 30 years, and though, in point of profit, it has not realized the sanguine expectations of its projectors, nor as a commercial speculation is likely to succeed, yet it has succeeded in the benevolent objects at which it aimed, by rescuing many hundred individuals and families, previously paupers and friendless, from vice and destitution; making them useful members of society; and in rendering fertile and profitable, and capable of supporting human beings, large tracts of land previously desert and useless, which are daily increasing in value. The expenses of these colonies have indeed become so great a burden, that the government has been

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