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peror Sigismund lodged. Constance belonged to the crown of Austria from 1549 to 1805, when, by the treaty of Presburg, it was transferred to Baden. Since 1802 it has ceased to be a bishopric. The spirit of industry is reviving, and several manufactories of cotton, two of muslin, and one of silk, have recently sprung up.

Petershausen, on the opposite bank of the Rhine, was until 1803 a Benedictine monastery; it is now a château of the Grand Duke. It is still surrounded by its ancient fosse and ramparts. 3 interesting Excursions may be made hence; to Reichenau (p. 567.), Mainau, and Heiligenberg. The island of Mainau, about 4 m. N. of Constance, is one of the prettiest private residences in Germany. It is well cultivated, yet with no want of trees, forming a nice little estate. The palace is very large; it was once a commandery of the Knights of the Teutonic Order, and retains a series of their portraits, and some good pictures of Miss Ellenried. From the balcony or from the terrace of the garden there is a magnificent view over the lake, of the mountains of the Vorarlberg and Appenzell, among which the Sentis is pre-eminent. Nearer at hand the cultivated German shores, with the towns of Mörsberg, Friedrichshafen, &c. complete the picture. Mainau now belongs to the Countess Langenstein: it is approached by a wooden footbridgem. long, connecting it with the shore; there is an inn on the island. Diligences daily to Zurich, in 8 hrs.; Schaffhausen, in 4; St. Gall, in 5; Donaueschingen, in 8; and Freiburg, in 17.

Steamers daily between Constance and the different ports of the lake. They correspond with the diligences to Milan, at Rorschach; with the Eilwagen for Stuttgard at Friedrichshafen, and with that to Augsburg and Munich at Lindau:-thus maintaining a daily communication between Constance and these cities.

A steamer also to Schaffhausen in 3 hours, returning in 6, every day from April to October

The Lake of Constance is described in the HANDBOOK FOR SWITZERLAND. ROUTE 109.

FREIBURG IN BREISGAU TO SCHAFFHAUSEN BY THE HÖLLENTHAL. 11 Germ. m. =51 Eng. m. Eilwagen daily, one direct in 11 hours; the other, which makes a detour by Donaueschingen, in 144 hrs. A new road from Freiburg to Schaffhausen has been for some time projected. Although the distance is so small, the stages are so very tedious and hilly that at least 13 hours are occupied on the road trav elling post, exclusive of all stoppages except the time spent in changing horses.


The valley of the Treisam, commonly known as the Höllenthal, or Valley of Hell, is at its commencement near Freiburg a level and fertile plain of considerable width, bounded by gently sloping wooded hills. As you ascend, it gradually contracts, and, about 9 m. from Freiburg, assumes a character of romantic beauty and grandeur. charm lies in the rich foliage of the woods covering its steep sides, out of which project buttresses and pinnacles of bare rock, at the foot of which runs the Treisam, bordered with turf and studded with frequent water-mills. Even here, its scenery, though wild, exhibits none of those horrors which its name would seem to imply. It extends to Steig. Perhaps the most remarkable spot is that called the Hirschsprung.

Burg. Through this valley Moreau executed his famous retreat of the Black Forest, with an army, in 1796, and gained by it as high a reputation for military talent, as he would have acquired by a victory. The French Marshal Villars declined attempting this pass in 1702, saying he was "not devil enough."

Steig. Inn, Post or Stern (Star); clean accommodation and good fare, including capital trout, at a cheap rate. Immediately beyond the Star, the road begins to ascend a steep slope, which carries it out of the Höllenthal, leaving

behind it the finest scenery. 1 f. 12 kr. is paid for an extra horse up the Höllensteig. The country which opens out beyond is called (Himmelreich) Kingdom of Heaven; but has no claim to the name except its elevation in contradistinction to the Höllenthal below. At the top the road divides into 2 branches; that on the left goes to Donaueschingen: we continue to follow the shortest and most direct. A small lake, called Titi See (Inn, Rössle), is passed on the right, and another equally steep hill succeeds, which must be surmounted before reaching

Inns Post, de

13 Lenzkirch. cent; Cheval Blanc, good. Here many wooden clocks, for which the Black Forest is famed, are made one may be bought for 4 fl.

2 Bondorf. This village was burnt down in 1827. [ [About 18 m. from this, and the same from Stühlingen, lies the magnificent Benedictine Abbey of St. Blaize, now sequestrated, and turned into a factory, where spinning-jennies and fire-arms are made. The Church, built by Ixnard 1768-80, is a rotunda of somewhat larger dimensions than the Pantheon at Rome. On the dissolution of the monastery, the monks removed into Carinthia, taking with them the bones of some ancestors of the house of Habsburg, who had been buried in their abbey.]

At the summit of the ascent which the road makes in this stage, the Lake of Constance may be descried in clear weather. Near the end of this stage is the castle of Hohen Lupfen, belonging to Prince Fürstenberg, but inhabited only by a peasant. It occupies a most commanding position on the brow of a hill, at whose foot lies

2 Stühlingen. Inns: Post and Hirsch. A little further on the Wutach, a small stream, is crossed, which forms the boundary of Switzerland. 2 Schaffhausen. Inn, Couronne, Weber's Inn at the falls 2 m. from the town. (In the HANDBOOK FOR SWITZERLAND.)

The left-hand road, leading out of the Höllenthal, conducts from Steig to Neustadt (Inn, Post;

1 post.

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18 Germ. miles=83 Eng. miles. Eilwagen daily, in about 15 hours. The road is very well kept, but hilly and badly engineered. It may be posted in a day and a half. A Lohnkutscher requires nearly two days, and charges (at Würzburg) 20 to 22 guilders, besides trinkgeld. Unfortunately there is no good sleeping-place half way. Mosbach is the best, but the distance thence to Würzburg is too great for a single day's journey with the same horses, except in the height of summer. There is nothing of particular interest on the way except the scenery within a few stages of Heidelberg. It is a charming drive along the Neckar to Neckar Gemund, where the road crosses the river and ascends to

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In order to facilitate reference to the Routes, most of them are inserted in the Index
twice; thus the road from HAMBURG
to Berlin is also mentioned under the head BERLIN
Such reversed Routes are mixed in the Index with an asterisk* to

*to Hamburg.

distinguish them.

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Annaberg, 436.


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Ath, 115.

Annweiler-Castle of Trifels, Audenarde, 112.

ANTWERP, 144-158. 'Cathe-
dral and works of Rubens,
145. Spire, 148. Churches
- of St. Jacques, 149.; St.
Paul, 150.; St. Andrew, 150.;
Augustins, 150. ; St. Anthony,
151. Museum of pictures,
151-155. Docks, 155. Cita-
del and siege, 156. Hotel
de Ville, and Bourse, 157.
Railroad, 158.

siege by the Duke of
Parma, 123.

-* to London, 120.
to Rotterdam, by land, 90.
by water, 92.

to Brussels, 159.
* Ghent, 143.

to Turnhout, 158.

Apollinarisberg, 273.
Appeldoorn, 82.

Appenweier, 551.

Arbergen, 408.

Ardenne, seat of King Leo-
pold, 200.

Ardennes, the forest of, 200.
Argenfels, 275.

Amber fishery on the Baltic,420, Arkona in Rugen, 415.

Amerongen, 89.
Amersfoort, 77.

AMSTERDAM, 52. Palace, 53.
Churches, 54. Picture Gal-
lery, 55, Charitable insti-
tutions, 57. Spin House,
58. Felix Meritis, 59. Dock-
yard, 60. Water boats, 60.
Manufactures, 62.


to Broek and Saardam, 63.
to Texel and Helder,


Auerbach, 541.
Auerstadt, 444.

Bacharach, 290.

Bacon, Lord, on Travel, ix.
Baden, duchy of, 541. 549.
BADEN BADEN, 554. Inns,
554. Beauties of situation,
555. Hot springs, 555. New
Schloss, Secret Tribunal, and
its dungeons, 557. Church,
558. Convent, 559. Con-
versations Haus, 556. Phy-
sicians, Post Office, 558.
Excursions around; Alt
Schloss, 558. Ebersteinburg,
Lichtenthal, Gernsbach, and
Murgthal, 559.

to Wildbad, 561.
*to Carlsruhe, 554.
to Strasburg, 561.
Badenweiler, 551.
Baggage, 216.

Ballenstadt, 404.

Ban de la Roche, 561.
Barmen, 376.


Bastogne, 197.

Aix-la-Chapelle, 249.

Alexisbad, 404.

Baden Baden, 554.


Arlon, 197.

Arminius, colossal statue of,

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Bertrich, 309.
Brückenau, 439.
Dobberan, 339.

Ems, 493.

Hof-Geismar, 391.

Homburg, 518.

Liebenstein, 484.

Liebewerda, 427.

Putbus, 413.

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Bautzen, 426.

Bavarian (?) broom girls, 386.
Beemster in N. Holland, 72.
BELGIUM, 94. Introductory
information, 94--107. Ge-
neral view of, 99.

ports, 91. Money, 95. Post-
ing, 95.; other modes of
travelling, 97. Railroads, 97.
Cities of, and architecture,

Bensheim, 541.

Berg, ancient duchy of, 376.
Bergen op Zoom, 92.
Bergen, 415.
Bergstrasse, 538-542.
Bergues, 117.

BERLIN, 343. Inns, 343. Post-
Office- Droskies, 343. So-
ciety in, 344. Unter den
Linden, 345. Brandenburg
gate, 345. Monuments, 345.
Churches, 346. Royal Pa-
lace, 346. Kunst Cabinet,
$46. King's private resi-
dence, 348. New Museum,
vases, and bronzes, 348.
Sculptures, 349.
350 352. Royal library,
352. University, 353. Mu-
seum of natural history, 353.
Egyptian museum, 353. Ar.
senal, 354. Iron foundery,
355. The Gewerbe Schule,
356. Theatres, 356. Music,
Sing-Academie, 356.
seum, 356. Winter gardens,
Restaurateurs, 357.
Confectioners, 357. Best
shops, 357. Post Office, 357.
Environs, $58. Tegel, 358.
Tivoli and Kreutzberg, 358.
Park, 358. Reviews, 359.
*to Hamburg, 341.
to Potzdam and Leipzig,
359. 364.

to Dresden, 368.

*to Dusseldorf, by Hesse
Cassel and Elberfeld, $75.
*to Hanover, 368.


to Cologne, by Minden,

by Magde-

burg, Brunswick, and Pa-
derborn, 379.

to Stettin and Swine-

munde, 410.

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to Danzig, 415.; and Brederode, 69.

Königsberg, 418.

to Bromberg, 421.

to Frankfurt on the Oder,

and Breslau, 423.

to the Riesengebirge,
Hirschberg, and Warm-
brunn, 427.

Brege river, 566.

Breisach, alt, 553.

BREMEN, 383.

commerce, 383.

Territory and

Rathhaus, 383. Bremerha-

fen, 384.

*to Dusseldorf, 381.

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Brohl, trass mills of, 275.
valley of, 275.306.

Bromberg, 421.

-to Dantzig and Berlin,
Broom girls, 386.

Brückenau baths, 439.
Bruchsal, 548.

BRUGES, 126. Les Halles, 131.
Churches, 127. Paintings of
Hemling at, 128. 180. Hotel
de Ville, 129. Academy,
130. Palais de Justice, 130.
*to Calais, 119.
to Courtrai, 142.
to Ghent, 132.

Brunnen of Nassau, 493-505.
BRUNSWICK, 370. New Palace,
371. Museum, 371. Albert
Durer's St. John in the
Wilderness, 371. Cathedral,
371. Black Brunswickers,


to Berlin, by Magdeburg,

BRUSSELS, 162–169. Park, 163.
King's Palace, 163.
of the Prince of Orange, 163.
Chambers, 163.

164. Library, 164.

de Ville, 165.



165. Cathedral of St. Gu-
dule, 165. Notre Dame de
Chapelle, 166. Shops, 163.1
Lace, 168. Theatre, cafés,
post-office, diligences, 167,
168. Promenades and en-
virons, 169. Excursion to
Waterloo, 169.; to Tervu-
eren, 191.

*to Calais, by Lille, 107-

to Malines and Ant-
werp, by railroad, 159.

to Waterloo, Namur,
&c., 169.

to Liège, by Louvain,

to Aix-la-Chapelle, by
Maestricht, 194.

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COLOGNE, 253. Cathedral, 256.

Shrine of the three kings,
257. Dom-bild, 257. Church
of St. Peter, and Rubens'
Crucifixion, 258. Church
of St. Ursula and 11,000 Vir-
gins, 258. Santa Maria, 259.
St. Gereon, 260. Museum
of pictures, 261. Eau de
Cologne, 262.

to Frankfurt, by Siegburg
and Limburg, 328.

to Altenberg Abbey, 262.
to Aix-la-Chapelle, 251.
to Bonn and Coblenz, up
the Rhine, 263.

*to Dusseldorf, 263.
to Berlin, by Elberfeld,


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Danube, source of the, 566.
DANZIG, 416. Granaries, ca-

thedrals, 416. Picture by
Van Eyck, 417. Arthus Hof,
fortifications of, 417. Duke
of, 417.

to Marienburg and Kö-
nigsberg, 418.
-*to Berlin, 415.


*by Brom-

berg, 421.
DARMSTADT, 537. Catholic
Church, palace, pictures,
537. Fossils, 537. Theatre,
Exercier Haus, 538. Gar-
dens, Casino, wild boars,

to the Odenwald, 586.
to Heidelberg and Carls-
ruhe, 586.

*to Frankfurt, 536.

Daun, 327.

Delft, 29.

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