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Persons interested in military matters will be disposed to visit the Arsenal of a fortress so important as Strasburg: it contains fire-arms for 155,000 men, and 952 pieces of cannon, 412 of which are required for the defence of the town and the citadels. There is a cannon foundry here, and one of the largest depôts of artillery in France. By means of large sluices, constructed in the time of Louis XV. by Vauban, at the spot where the Ill enters the town, the country around Strasburg, between the Rhine and the Ill, can be laid under water, and the city rendered unapproachable by an army, and almost impregnable.

The Seminaire is a huge and handsome edifice, close to the cathedral: it was originally the bishop's palace.

There is a good provincial Theatre here, near the square called Broglie, from a governor of Alsace of that name: a very splendid Synagogue was erected, in 1834, by the Jews. It is curious to contrast the present with the former condition of that people in this city. Nowhere did they suffer more cruel or tyrannical persecutions. The street called Brand Strasse (Firestreet), was so named because, on the spot where the Prefecture now stands, a bonfire was made, in 1348, to burn the Hebrews; and 2000 of that devoted race, accused of having poisoned the wells and fountains, and thus caused the plague which desolated the city about this time, were consumed in the flames. From henceforth no Jew was allowed to live within the walls; and the summons of a horn, blown every evening from the Minster tower, compelled them all to depart.

The body of General Kleber (a native of Strasburg), originally interred in the Minster, has been removed to a vault in the centre of the Place d'Armes (Paradeplatz), and a monument has been erected over it.

Strasburg is famous for its Pâtés de foies gras, made of the livers of geese, which are enlarged to an unnatural size by the cruel process of shutting the birds up singly in coops too narrow to allow them to turn, and stuffing them twice a day with maize.

They are generally kept in a dark cellar, and the winter is the season for fattening them, coolness being essential. There is such a coop in almost every house in the town. Sulphur or garlick is steeped in the water given to the birds to increase their appetite. Instances are known of a goose's liver which had attained the weight of 2 or even 3 lbs. Hummel, No. 9. Rue des Serruriers, is said to make good pâtés.

The gates of Strasburg are shut at 10 o'clock, after which neither ingress nor egress is allowed.

The principal Promenade is the Ruprechtsau, an extensive space, laid out in walks and gardens, beyond the walls.

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(Route 105. p. 551.), is situated at the entrance of the valley of the Kinzig. This stream descends from the Black Forest, and joins the Rhine at Kehl. The scenery at its upper extremity is very pleasing, though inferior to that of the Höllenthal (Rte. 109.). 2 m. beyond Offenburg, near the pretty village of Ortenburg, the modern Gothic Castle of the Russian Baron Bergholz is conspicuous on the 1. of the road, upon an eminence overlooking the mouth of the Kinzig Thal. The first small town on the route is Gengenbach it has 2000 inhab., and an old monastery, now secularised, with a fine church attached to it.


2 Bieberach. The scenery from Bieberach to Hornberg is very picturesque, almost romantic. The road passes through Steinbach and Hasslach, on the left bank of the Kinzig, before reaching 24 Hausach. clean.

Inn comfortable and

F. S. The ruined castle anciently belonged to a branch of the family of Fürstenberg, who were seigneurs of the town. A road turning off on the left conducts to the baths of Rippoldsau. (HANDBOOK, SOUTH GERMANY.)

densche Hof), the best on the line, good, rather dear, is at a little distance from the village, of 800 inhab., which lies off the road in a very romantic situation, hemmed in by high precipices, from one of which, 1 m. distant from the inn, a pretty waterfall descends. Triberg is the centre of a manufacture peculiar to the Black Forest, that of wooden clocks, exported to the number, it is said, of 200,000 yearly, under the name of Dutch clocks, not only throughout Europe, but even to America and China. The sulphur-coloured straw-hats worn by the peasantry, are also made here. Beyond Triberg there is a steep ascent.

The Briegach, one of the headwaters of the Danube, rises within a short distance of

1 St. Georgen. Here is a Benedictine convent of great antiquity, one of the focuses of the civilisation of the surrounding district. It was burnt by a Duke of Würtemberg because the monks refused to adopt the Reformation, but was soon succeeded by another. Ruins of the old convent exist. The new road, which is excellent, ends at Peterzels, about a mile beyond St. Georgen. An almost continuous descent leads to

by bleak hills.

Our road, continuing to the right, passes through a country which has 2 Villingen.-Inn, Sun (post). A quite a Swiss character. The broad-market town, 3600 inhab., surrounded roofed wooden houses, the costume of It has the appearance the people, and, above all, the frequent of having been built on the site of a occurrence of goitre, tend to increase Roman encampment. It is a square the resemblance. crossed by 2 main streets at right angles, one passing through the centre of the square, the other somewhat on one side of it. There are 4 gates, one at each end of these streets.

1 Hornberg.-Inns: Post, good: comfortable sleeping quarters; Bär (Bear). This little town is beautifully situated under a height, crowned by an old donjon keep, and at the foot of the main chain of the Black Forest range. The skeleton of these moun tains is granite; and they attain their greatest elevation (4616 feet above the sea) near Feldberg.

The new line of road to Tryberg avoids a wearisome ascent and uninteresting country, being carried up the valley of the Gutach, one of the most sequestered and beautiful in the Black Forest, and through a gorge, being partly hewn in the rock, to

1 Triberg. The posthouse (Ba

About 4 m. E. of Villingen, near a village called Swenningen, is the Source of the Neckar. This is indeed a land of fountains and of watercourses; and though the height of the mountains is not great, and they have no glaciers, or perpetual snow, yet the reservoirs of the Black Forest feed with large supplies the two principal rivers of Europe. The flakes of winter snow which descend upon some of the ridges, nay, even the drops of rain falling on opposite sides of a house, in some situations, are destined to end their career at the

two opposite extremities of a continent; and, while part find their way to the German Ocean, others, which reached the ground within a few feet of them, take an opposite course, and fall into

the Black Sea.


2 Donaueschingen.-Inns: Schütze; Poste (Falke). This town is the chief place of the small Landgraviate of Baar, and contains 3053 inhab. principal building is the Palace of the mediatised prince of Fürstenberg, a plain modern edifice.

In a corner of the garden, and between the walls of the palace and the church, is a round basin filled with clear sparkling water, which may be seen bubbling up from the bottom. Its waters, running out of the basin, are conducted for about 50 yards, in a subterranean channel, into the Briegach, which from that point receives the name of the Danube. This little basin, under the castle window, goes by the name of the Source of the Danube. The real origin of that river seems to have been involved in a portion of the same mystery which conceals the source of the Nile. The claims which the basin in the courtyard has to be considered the source that the name of Danube is not given to the river until the waters of this little rill are received into it, and that the two upper streams, the Brege, whose fountain-head is at the solitary chapel of St. Martin, about 5 m. N. W. of the village of Furtwangen, and 25 m. from Donaueschingen, and the Briegach, rising near the convent of St. George, 20 miles off, in spite of the previous length of their course, are both liable to be exhausted by drought, until supplied by the rill from the castle garden of Prince Fürstenberg.


The whole country round Donaueschingen may be compared to a wet sponge, so abundant and numerous are the sources of water in springs, rills, ponds, and marshes, all of which go to swell the tide of the Danube. About a mile out of Donaueschingen, the village of Hülfingen, the road crosses the Brege, which in regard to its previous length may be looked on as the main stream of the Danube; the


Briegach falls into it about a mile lower down.

Eilwagen, in 9 hours, direct from Donaueschingen to Constance by Geisingen (1 Germ. m). Engen (2), where Moreau beat the Austrians, in 1800, with a loss of 7000 men on either side. The height of Howenhowen, an extinct volcano, once more vomited forth flames; but in spite of the tremendous fire of the Austrian artillery planted on it, it was carried by the French. Radolfzell (3). Constance (21).

In the midst of the bare open coun try, interspersed with tufts of furze traversed on the way to Schaffhausen, a ruined castle is seen on a hill, with a village on the slope beneath it, at a little distance to the left of the road. This is Fürstenberg, which gives its name to the principality now mediatised. Riedböhringen is a small village. 2 Blumberg; a desolate-looking post-house.

This stage is almost entirely occupied in the ascent and descent of a steep hill called the Rande. The view, from the top, near a wooden crucifix, is charming. On the left are seen 3 singular mountains, which from their shape, may at once be known as extinct volcanoes: they are called Hohen Stoffeln, Hohen Krähe, and Hohentwiel. Further on, in the distance, a wide expanse of the Lake of Constance, with the towers of Constance itself, backed by the snowy mountains of Switzerland, rises to view. Half way down the hill is a row of small houses; these are the Douane of the Baden frontier (§ 32.). Immediately beyond them the traveller reaches Swiss ground, and the road passes through a little valley, completely Swiss in aspect as well as situation to

3 SCHAFFHAUSEN (see HANDBOOK FOR SWITZERLAND). Inns: Weber's, at the falls, nearly 2 miles from the town; Couronne, good, and not expensive.

There is a post-house in Schaffhausen, which supplies horses on the road to Constance. The relays are

1 Randegg. Here is the Baden custom-house.

Near Singen (Inn poor and extortionate) you pass at the foot of Hohentwiel, The castle is now dismantled. The lofty rock upon which it stands gives it the appearance of an Indian hill fort.

2 Radolfzell (Post-house, a very good inn). A desolate town, situated at the extremity of the branch of the Lake of Constance, called Unter See, with a fine church, in the true German Gothic style. "In the broad part of the Rhine, where it is still rather a lake than a river, is the Isle of Reichenau, anciently famed for a monastery, founded by one of the successors of Charlemagne, of which the Church (partly Romanesque) and Treasury remain. In the Treasury are to be seen, the shrine of St. Fortunata, an ivory ciborium, a cope, a crozier, and a missal of the 10th century."-F. S.

The scenery of the road which runs along the left bank of the Rhine from Schaffhausen to Constance is more pleasing than the above road, but there are no post horses on it.

Petershausen, on the rt. bank of the Rhine opposite Constance, was originally a free abbey of the empire.

The Rhine here, suddenly contracted from a lake to a river, is crossed by a wooden bridge into

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2 CONSTANCE. Inns: Brochet (Hecht), very good, looking over the lake, partly new, with very attentive landlord, Mr. Keppler, who is an accomplished fisherman, and has excellent rods, nets, punts, and all appliances for fishing, trolling, &c., which he lets out on moderate terms. He has also very extensive water privilege in and around Constance. Hotel Delisle, outside the territory of the Customs League; Post; (Goldner Adler, Aigle d'Or) good.

Constance, a decayed city, of 7200 inhab., instead of 40,000, which it once possessed, is remarkable for its antiquity, since its streets and many of its buildings remain unaltered since the 15th century. Although situated on the 1. or Swiss bank of the Rhine, it belongs to Baden. It is connected

with the opposite shore by a long wooden covered bridge, and occupies a projecting angle of ground at the W. extremity of the Bodensee, or lake of Constance; its agreeable position and interesting historical associations make amends for the want of life perceptible within its venerable walls. It has of late, however, revived considerably; the government have formed, at a large expense, a Port on the lake, which facilitates the navigation, while it is an ornament to the town.


The Minster is a handsome Gothic structure, begun 1052, with fine openwork turrets in the W. end; the doors of the main W. portal between the two towers are of oak, curiously carved in compartments, with a representation of the Passion of our Lord, executed in 1470 by one Simon Bainder. nave is supported by sixteen pillars, each of a single block, 18 ft. high, and dates from the 13th century; it is flanked by circular arches in the Romanesque style, and is very wide; the aisles are pointed. The spot where the "Archheretic Huss" stood, as sentence of death by burning was pronounced on him by his unrighteous judges, is still pointed out as a stone in the centre of the nave near the pulpit. Robert Hallam, Bishop of Salisbury, who presided over the English deputation to the council, is buried here, in front of the high altar, under a tomb, which is very remarkable, as being of English brass; which is fully proved by the workmanship. It was probably sent over from England by his executors. He wears the Order of the Garter. The carved woodwork of the stalls of the choir is very fine. In the N. transept is a representation of the death of the Virgin in figures of life size. The crypt is of the 10th or 11th cent. Two sides of the ancient cloisters, whose arches are filled in with exquisitely beautiful tracery, are yet standing. The other sides were destroyed by fire in 1824. In an angle of the cloisters is a curious circular building in the pointed style, in the centre of which is a Gothic model of the Holy Sepulchre, used for Good Friday ceremonies, which is curiously ornamented with Scriptural figures.

lasting and odious celebrity on it— the treacherous seizure and cruel murder of John Huss and Jerome of Prague, in spite of the safe conduct granted to the former by the Emperor Sigismund, the president of the as

There are some curious relics in the Sacristy, as, one of the arrows which pierced St. Sebastian, skull of St. Conrad, enclosed in a silver figure, piece of the true Cross, &c.; also much fine Brabant lace, and a beautiful Gothic fire-place and piscina, superior to those at Cour-sembly. tray. In the Vestry-room above are a range of singular cupboards or presses of carved oak, none of a later date than the 15th cent. There is a beautiful view from the tower of the cathedral, E. over the lake, and mountains of Tyrol, and W. over the valley of the Rhine.

The Dominican Convent, now a cotton-printing establishment, is very interesting. The place is still shown where Huss was confined, though the stone chamber itself has been removed (at least all that remained of it) to the Kaufhaus. The church forms a picturesque ruin, in the early style of German Gothic. The chapter-house is even older. The cloisters are perfect. The little island upon which this building stands was fortified by the Romans, and a portion of the wall, towards the lake, can yet be discerned.

In the Hall of the Kaufhaus (built 1388), looking towards the lake, the Great Council of Constance held its sittings, 1414-18, in a large room supported by wooden pillars. That famous assembly, composed, not of bishops alone, like the ancient councils, but of deputies, civil and ecclesiastical, from the whole of Christendom, including princes, cardinals (30), patriarchs (4), archbishops (20), bishops (150), professors of universities and doctors of theology (200), besides a host of ambassadors, inferior prelates, abbots, priors, &c., was convened for the purpose of remedying the abuses of the church; and as those abuses began with its head, the proceedings were prefaced by a declaration that a council of the church has received, by Divine right, an authority in religious matters, even over that of the pope. It exerted its influence in curbing the Papal power, by deposing the infamous John XXIII. and Benedict XIII., and by electing in their place Martin V. But there is one act of this council which fixes

The chairs occupied by the emperor and pope, the Bible of Huss, a model of the dungeon, now destroyed, in which he was confined, of the same size as the original, and in which the actual door and other fragments have been incorporated; a car which is said to be that in which he was drawn to execution; the figure of Abraham which supported the pulpit in the Minster, and which the people mistook for Huss, and defaced accordingly, and some other relics of the council, still remain in the hall, besides a collection of Roman and German antiquities, dug up in the neighbourhood. charged for admission.

1 F. fr. is

The house in which Huss lodged, bearing a rude likeness of him, is pointed out in the Paul's Strasse, near the Schnetzthor.

He was thrown into

prison, soon after his arrival, in the Franciscan Convent, now a ruin, whence he was removed to a more irksome dungeon, affording scarcely room to move, in the before-mentioned Dominican Convent.

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The field outside of the town, in the suburb of Brühl, in which he suffered martyrdom, with a fortitude which moved even his judges and executioners to admiration. nay, even the place where the stake was planted, are still pointed out; and rude images of Huss and Jerome, formed of clay taken from the spot, are offered for sale to the stranger.

In 1415 a perpetual treaty of peace (signed at Aarberg, 24 July 1415), was negotiated at Constance, between Sigismund of Austria and the Swiss Confederation, which put an end to the contest for the liberty of the Swiss cantons which began with the fight of Morgarten (15 Nov. 1315), and was decided by that of Sempach (9 July 1386). Behind the Hecht inn, and distinguished by an elegant Gothic bay window, is the house in which the Em

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