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Hübsch in 1836. Over the portal are statues of Keppler and Erwin von Steinbach.
The Palace or Schloss presents nothing remarkable. The view from the turret which surmounts it, called The Bleythurm, deserves to be seen, as it will give a correct notion of the singular plan on which Carlsruhe is built. The town is nearly surrounded by the Haardt Forest, which is intersected by roads radiating from the palace, and corresponding with the streets of the town. Beyond this are seen the silvery windings of the Rhine, and behind it the Vosges 'Mountains, in France; while to the S. the picturesque outline of the Black Forest mountains, and on the N. those of the Bergstrasse, complete the panorama. The Theatre attached to the palace is open 3 times a week. The building is plain in its exterior, but is well fitted up within.
The Estates or Parliament of Baden hold their sittings here: their debates are open to the public.
One of the finest buildings is the Academie Gebäude, erected by Hübsch, 1843, of grey sandstones, with stripes of red. It is decorated with frescoes by Schwind, and contains a collection of paintings. There are a portrait of Colbert, Ph. de Champagne; 2 portraits by Van der Helst; many Dutch pictures; and a medallion portrait of Newton, by de Witte. Those of the old masters are of 2d rate value, but there are good specimens of the modern German School: Achenbach, Dietz, Schwind.
There is a Museum of Natural History, on the right of the palace, rich in fossil remains; a large portion of the skeleton of a mammoth was dug up at Oos.
Carlsruhe also possesses a library of 90,000 vols. and a botanic garden.
The Palace Gardens, and those called Amaliensruhe, which are thrown open most liberally to the public, afford agreeable walks. Another pleasant short walk is to the village of Biertheim, where there are good baths.
A noble avenue of Lombardy pop
lars, the oldest and highest in Germany, none being under 90 ft., and some more than 120 ft. high, 2 miles long, leads towards Durlach.
Stultz, the celebrated tailor, is the founder of an hospital in this town, near the Mühlberg gate, which he endowed with a sum of 100,000 florins; he was in consequence created a baron.
In the shops of Franz Nöldeke and Mr. Bielefeld will be found a number of interesting publications, engravings of all sorts, with guide-books, and views of the Rhine, and of Baden, &c.
The Club (§ 44.) is called the Museum: strangers may be admitted to it by a member. M. Nöldeke will introduce English strangers. All the German, many French, and a few English papers are taken in here.
In the Friedhof is the grave of Jung Stilling, who died here 1817.
Eilwagen twice daily to Stuttgard in 74 hrs.; to Augsburg in 25;-to Wildbad in 6;-to Zweibrücken in 111⁄2;to Landau in 3;- to Pforzheim in 3.
Railway continued. About 2 m. from Carlsruhe, on the rt. of the railroad is Bulach, where is a modern Romanesque Ch., with two towers, built by Hübsch in 1838. The interior contains frescoes by Dietrich of Stuttgard.
The Duchy of Baden is one of the most fertile districts in Germany, and that part of it through which the railroad passes produces tobacco in large quantities, maize, hops, hemp, and flax, besides every species of grain. It is a country of wine also, and oil, as the hills are clothed with vineyards, and the roads are shaded by luxuriant walnut-trees, from the nuts of which an excellent and clear oil is pressed, nearly as good for culinary purposes as fine olive oil. The agricultural peasantry in this country commonly wear cocked-hats, even in the fields,-a singular decoration for a ploughboy.
RASTADT Stat. Inns Badischer Hof; Goldenes Kreutz. This town of
7000 inhab. on the Murg, is a dull place, but has been converted into a Fortress of the German Confederation, as a frontier defence against France.
of Baden, built by the Margravine Sibylla, wife of the heavy Louis of Baden, who fought against the Turks along with Prince Eugene. It is neither large nor very handsome, and any splendour it may originally have pos sessed is faded and decayed. It is chiefly interesting as illustrating the manners and tastes of former days, and from the singular character of Sibylla, its founder. In her youth she was very handsome, and not a little vain of her beauty; as a proof of which she has left in her boudoir 60 or 70 portraits of herself, in as many different costumes. The old-fashioned furniture of the château, originally tawdry rather than tasteful, is nearly worn out. There are no works of art in the house; but one or two old cabinets filled with glass, and some singular Delft ware in the forms of birds and beasts, are kept in the lower rooms.
The Palace, built by the eccentric Margravine Sibylla (see below), is a large edifice of red sandstone. It was the residence of the last Margraves of Baden, but is now uninhabited, and has a deserted and decaying appearance. Its design is on the whole handsome; and it has a further claim to attention, because two Congresses, important in the annals of Europe, have assembled under its roof. One in 1714, when Marshal Villars and Prince Eugene signed a treaty of peace in the small unpainted cabinet, its walls stained with ink-spots, still pointed out to visitors; the second, in 1797-99, which was abruptly by the mysterious murder of the French envoys, Roberjot and Bonnier, as they were quitting the town, In the garden of the after a conference. No satisfactory château is an odd, many-sided buildlight has ever been thrown upon the ing, resembling a Chinese temple: this instigators or perpetrators of this foul was Sibylla's Chapel. A youth of fri assassination, and direct violation of the volity seems, in her case, to have ter law of nations, committed, it is sup-minated in an old age of bigotry and posed, in the expectation of finding superstition. secret and important papers on the persons of the victims. About 10 minutes' walk outside the Rheinau gate a monument marks the spot where the French deputies were murdered.
Before an altar within it, in a chamber designedly rendered as gloomy as a dungeon, she spent the greater part of her days and nights during the latter years of her life, inflicting upon herself all kinds of priva tions and penances. Here is still preserved the scourge of whip-cord, ending in wire points (like a cat-o'-nine
The Picture Gallery (so called) is filled with a great deal of trash; but in another apartment are preserved the Turkish trophies, horsetail stand-tails), with which she used to discipline ards, arms, &c., gained by the Margrave Louis in his successful campaigns against the Turks, together with the armour he wore, and his portrait. In further testimony of his successful valour, whole-length portraits of 4 Circassian slaves are pointed
They formed part of the victor's share of the booty, and accompanied him home. How they were received by the lady Sibylla his wife, does not appear to be known.
herself; also, her hair shirt, and a cross of wire net-work, with points turned inward, which she wore next her skin, while 2 circular pieces of the same were placed for her to kneel upon. Her bed was a thin rush mat, laid on the floor; and her only companions were two wooden figures, as large as life, of the Virgin and St. John. These were he: guests, and with them she used to sit down to table; equal portions of every meal being served to all three; but their share was afterwards given to the poor. The Favourite is about 6 mile from Baden.
After leaving the Rastadt Stat. the railway crosses the river Murg, and a little further passes at about m. on the left, the Favourite, an old-fashioned Oos Stat.-A branch Railway di and deserted château of the Margraves verges hence to Baden S m. E.
106.) The railway then crosses the bach (built 1471), Oppenau (Inn, Oos rivulet.
Bühl Stat. Inn, Post. Ottersweier Stat. Here the valley of Hub opens out on the E.; within it lies the Hubbad, and the ruined Castle of Windeck. A little further on at Sasbach, on the left of the railroad, stands an obelisk of granite, erected in 1829, by the French, to mark the spot where their great General Turenne was killed by a cannon ball, while reconnoitring the Austrian army, 27th July, 1675. This is the 4th monument which has been set up to his memory, the others having been destroyed. His death arrested instantly the success of the French arms, no neral in his army being found capable of following up his plans. The most contradictory and futile orders were issued; till the troops, discouraged by inaction and failure, exclaimed, in irony, "Lâchez la pie (the piebald charger of Turenne, upon which he had so often led them to victory); elle * nous conduira.”
Krone: not a regular post station, but will supply horses), and 3 Freudenstadt. From Appenweier an Eilwagen to Rippoldsau, the last place in Baden, on this road, in 6 hours.]
rt. The spire of Strasburg Minster is visible. 1. The well preserved Castle of Staufenberg, built in the 11th century, by a Bp. of Strasburg, crowns a distant eminence.
OFFENBURG Stat. Inn, La Fortuna (Pfaehler's); very good: a capital cuisine, and a clever and obliging host, who understands English. He is also a wine-merchant, and his Zeller and Klingelberger wines, grown near this, are very good; the price of a cask varies from 127. to 151. La Poste. In going from Frankfurt to Basle, or vice versâ, the traveller may dine fortably at the Offenburg Station, as ge-hr. is allowed. Dinners from the 1st May to the end of October, at the Station, by Pfaehler, of the Fortuna Hotel. Offenburg is a town of 3700 inhab., situated at the entrance of the valley of the Kinzig, through which runs the direct road from Strasburg to Schaffhausen (Rte. 108.). The modern Gothic Castle of Ortenburg, at the mouth of the Kinzig Thal (see Rte. 108.), is 2 m. distant. It has been built by a Russian nobleman at a cost of 30,000%. Strasburg is about 12 m. distant. The railway then crosses the Kinzig. Niederschopfheim Stat. Friesenheim Stat.
Achern Stat. The bowels of Turenne were interred in the little chapel of St. Nicholas; his body was conveyed to France. A little beyond this the railroad crosses the Rench, a stream descending from the Kniebis.
Appenweier Stat. A railway here branches off on the right to Kehl (Strasburg), 2 Germ. m. 9 Eng. m. Travellers bound for Strasburg and going afterwards to Freiberg or Schaffhausen, will find it convenient to go on to Offenburg, and leaving their baggage there, to return thence to Strasburg. They may deposit it at M. Pfaehler's (of the Fortuna) new establishment, opposite the Station, without incurring any extra expense. [A road goes from Appenweier over the Kniebis to Freudenstadt and Stuttgard (39 m.) by Oberkirch, 2 m. from which is the fine Gothic Church of Lauten
1. Beyond the town, the Castle of Hochburg, one of the most extensive ruins in Germany, appears. Denzlingen Stat.
About 3 m. N. of Freiburg, on the 1., is the ruined Castle of the counts of Zähringen, founders of the reigning family of Baden. From the ruins a beautiful view is obtained over the surrounding district, called the Breisgau; for nearly 500 years a province of Austria, but ceded to Baden by the Peace of Presburg, 1805.
FREIBURG (Fr. Fribourg) Stat. Inns Zähringer Hof, very good; Engel (Angel); Goldner Löwe (Golden Lion); Pfau (Peacock); Sauvage (Wilder Mann), very fair; Hotel Föhrenbach, close to the railway, a new house. This, the ancient capital of the Breisgau, is situated in one of the prettiest spots on the outskirts of the Black Forest, at the mouth of the Höllenthal (Valley of Hell), upon the Treisam, runlets from which are carried through all the streets. It has 15,000 inhab. (1500 Protestants, recently
The Minster is remarkable as being almost the only large Gothic church
in Germany which is finished, and which has escaped destruction from fire, or the violence of war. It is equally admired for the delicate symmetry of its proportions, and the good taste of its decorations. It owes its existence, partly to the munificence of the princes of Zähringen; but also to the zeal and liberality of the citizens of Freiburg, who taxed themselves to the utmost, and made great sacrifices to complete it. The architect's name is unknown; Erwin of Steinbach, who built Strasburg, may have been his pupil. It was begun under Conrad III., of Zähringen, 1152. The nave, W. front, tower, and rich porch below it, date from 1236-72, and are by far the finest part of the building: the choir is infe rior, and of a later period, 1513. The oldest parts are the transepts, together with their external turrets, in the round style. The W. tower, 380 ft. high, one of the very few of the kind ever com. pleted, exhibits a skilful transition from a square base into an octagon. which is surmounted by a pyramida spire of the most exquisite open-work tracery, all of stone, of extreme boldness as well as lightness. The ascent of the tower (6 kr.) gives a good idea of the beauty of the building: view is better from the Schlossberg.
Beneath the tower is the main en trance into the church, by a magnificer: portal, richly ornamented with sculp tures. The portal leading into the choir from the N. also deserves attertion; the sculptures below the arch represent the Creation by the Deity in the form of an old man, shaping the sun, moon, and stars out of balls, and breathing life into Adam.
The interior of the church contain the monument and armed effigy o Berchtold V., last Duke of Zähringer (1228): a curious carved pulpit, the work of George Kempf, 1561 and singular piece of sculpture of the Lord Supper, consisting of 13 figures, by s artist named Hauser, 1561. The wis dows are filled with stained glass, a beautiful colours: the oldest is of the 15th century; that of the choir, supe rior in point of drawing, dates on
from the beginning of the 16th. That in St. Alexander's or the Miners' Chapel, is from designs of Baldung Grün, 1515, and very fine. Some good modern painted glass has been inserted.
In the chapel of St. Martin (Locherers), on the N. of the choir, a remarkable carving in wood represents the Virgin, sheltering beneath her mantle a whole host of worshippers of all ranks, including popes, cardinals, bishops, &c., date 1520. Prior (Domprobst) Bocklin's chapel contains his monumental effigy in armour, and a Crucifix of silver, hammered and gilt, of Eastern workmanship.
The painting over the high altar, set within an elegant Gothic framework, is by Hans Baldung Grün (an old painter of Gmünd in Swabia, d. 1552). The chief subject, in the centre when the doors are opened, is the Ascension of the Virgin, and her Coronation by the First and Second Persons in the Trinity; on the shutters at either side are the 12 Apostles. The outside of these is occupied by 4 subjects the Annunciation, Visitation of Elizabeth, Birth of Christ, and Flight into Egypt (perhaps the best). At the back of these paintings are others by B. Grün also, visible from the choir aisle; the chief piece being a row of portraits of magistrates of Freiburg. On the one side are St. George and St. Lawrence; on the other, St. John Baptist and St. Jerome as a cardinal. It is curious, rather than beautiful, as a work of art.
The University Chapel in the S. aisle contains 2 good pictures by Holbein, in his early style,-a Nativity, and an Adoration of the Magi; the latter very fine, especially the figure of the Virgin. It was painted for the Oberriedt family, whose portraits are introduced below.
The University, founded 1456, has only 228 students. It is the Roman Catholic seminary of the Grand Duchy of Baden Heidelberg is Protestant. Freiburg is now the see of an archbishop.
Near the gate leading to Frankfurt stands the Protestant Church, an eleN. Germ.
gant building in Romanesque (Byzantine) style, with an octagon tower. was skilfully transferred, stone by stone, from an old convent at Thennenbach, 15 m. off in the forest, to which it was originally attached.
The Kaufhaus, S. of the cathedral, is a very quaint Gothic building of the 16th cent., resting on pointed arches, decorated externally with fresco portraits gilt of the Emp. Maximilian, his son Philip I., Charles V., and Ferdinand I. The Gothic portal under the arcade exhibits a singular arrangement.
2 Gothic Fountains in the streets are worth notice. The town is flourishing from the wine and timber trade, and the manufacture of chicory. There are delightful Walks round the castle hill (Schlossberg), about hour's walk from the minster. The ascent begins near the Schwaben Thor. The eye ranges over the vale of the Treisam, bounded in the distance by the waving outline of the Black Forest Hills rising one behind another. The filigree work of the spire is seen from this to the greatest advantage.
The beautiful scenery of the Höllenthal, on the way from Freiburg to Schaffhausen, is described in Rte. 109. A traveller, not intending to pass through it on his way to Switzerland, should make an excursion from Freiburg as far as Steig, 11 miles, to explore its beauties.
Eilwagen daily to Schaffhausen in 11 hrs., and Constance in 18, through the Höllenthal; to Alt Breisach in 21 hrs., and thence to Colmar.
[16 m. W. of Freiburg, on the rt. bank of the Rhine, stands Alt- Breisach, a decayed town, once a frontier fortress, and the key of Germany on the W., but with nothing to show its former importance save the Minster of St. Stephen, on a hill. It contains some monuments and a silver shrine, which held the relics of the martyrs Gervasius and Protasius, found by St. Ambrose at Milan, and placed by him in the Ch. of St. Ambrogio (HANDBOOK N. ITALY, p. 168.). Its chief curiosity, however, is its beautiful Altar Screen, carved in wood. The central compart