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bouring district, at No. 211. Schiffgasse.
The Museum Club (§ 44.), opposite the University, contains reading, ball, and concert rooms, well supplied with papers and journals.
Neither the public nor private buildings in the town are at all remarkable in an architectural point of view, chiefly owing to the destruction caused by repeated sieges. One house, however, survives, which in the richly decorated façade ornamented with statues, coats of arms, &c., may give some notion of former splendour; it is the inn called Zum Ritter, from the figure of a knight on the top: it was built in 1592. It stands in the market-place, near the Church of the Holy Ghost, in which many electors and counts palatine were buried. Their fine monuments were destroyed by the French in 1793, when neither reverence for the dead nor the sacredness of the building prevented it becoming the scene of slaughter and sacrilege. The church is divided by a partition wall between the Catholics and Protestants, and the two services are performed under the same roof. The resistance of the townspeople to one of the electors, who wanted to deprive the Protestants of their half of this church, occasioned him to remove the Electoral court from Heidelberg to Mannheim in 1719-20.
tunes, and early death, shed a peculiar interest upon her
grave. The objects of greatest interest here are the Castle, and the views of the Rhine and Neckar valley.
The CASTLE, anciently the residence of the Electors Palatine, presenting the combined character of a palace and a fortress, is an imposing ruin. The building displays the work of various hands, the taste of different founders, and the styles of successive centuries: it is highly interesting for its varied fortunes, its picturesque situation, its vastness, and the relics of architectural magnificence which it still displays, after having been three times burnt, and having ten times experienced the horrors of war. Its final ruin, however, did not arise from those causes; but after the greater part of the building had been restored to its former splen dour in 1718-20, it was set on fire by lightning in 1764: and since the total conflagration which ensued, it has never been rebuilt or tenanted. It is at present only a collection of red stone walls, and has remained roofless for nearly a century. It is approached by a carriage road from behind, and by a winding foot-path on the side of the Neckar. The oldest part remaining is probably that built by the Electors Rudolph and Rupert. It has all the character of a stronghold of the middle The Ch. of St. Peter is remarkable ages, and the teeth of the portcullis as being the oldest in the town, and still project from beneath the archway because Jerome of Prague, the compa- leading to it. The Friedrichsbau, nion of Huss, attached to its door his named from the Elector, who built it celebrated theses, which he maintained, in 1607, is distinguished by excessive at the same time expounding the Re- richness of decoration : its façade to the formed doctrines, to a large multitude south is ornamented with statues of of hearers assembled in the adjoining ancestors of the Electoral family from churchyard. Here also is the simple Charlemagne. The part of the building tomb of Olympia Morata, who com- most deserving of admiration, for the bined the feminine grace and beauty of good taste of its design and the elegance a woman with the intellect and learning of its decorations, is that which over of a philosopher. Persecuted as a looks the river, and extends along the heretic in Italy, the land of her birth, east side of the quadrangle (g in the she was forced to fly, along with her plan), built by Otto Henry (1556), in husband, a German, and at length set- the style called cinque-cento, which is tled at Heidelberg, where she delivered allied to the Elizabethan of England. lectures to a large and admiring auThe statues of heroes from sacred and dience. Her extraordinary acquire- profane history, which decorate the ments in learning, her beauty, misfor-front, though of (keuper) sandstone,
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a a a. Footpath leading up to the Castle. b. Carriage Road.
c. Platform or Terrace.
d. Building of Frederick IV. (1607). The statues in the façade are ancestors of the reigning house of Bavaria, from Charlemagne and Otho of Wittelsbach.
e. Cellar containing the Tun. f. Entrance to it.
g. Building of Otho Henry, or Ritter Saal, begun 1556, finished 1559. This is the finest portion of the Castle; it is in the best style of Italian architecture, and the sculpture with which it is decorated is of high merit.
h. Octagon Tower (1525), first struck by the lightning which finally consumed the Castle in 1764.
i. Library Tower.
k. Frederick Second's Buildings (1549).
are by no means contemptible as works of art.
The English traveller will view with some interest that part of the castle called the English Palace (s), from its having been built for the reception of the Princess Elizabeth Stuart, daughter of James I., and grand-daughter of Mary Queen of Scots. The triumphal arch (9), having pillars entwined with ivy leaves, was erected by her husband, the Elector Frederick V., afterwards King of Bohemia, to celebrate their nuptials; it led to the flower-garden which he caused to be laid out for her pleasure, and it still goes by the name of Elizabethen Pforte.
"When her husband hesitated to accept the crown of Bohemia, this highhearted wife exclaimed, 'Let me rather eat dry bread at a king's table than feast at the board of an elector:' and it seemed as if some avenging demon hovered in the air to take her literally at her word; for she and her family lived to eat dry bread—ay, and to beg it before they ate it; but she would be a queen." MRS. JAMESON. The granite pillars supporting the canopy of the well (n) in the corner of the court of the castle are said by some to have been brought from Charlemagne's palace at Ingelheim, though they are undoubtedly derived from the quarry in the Odenwald. (See p. 589.)
In a cellar under the castle (e, f) is the famous Heidelberg Tun, constructed 1751; it is the largest wine cask in the world, 36 ft. long, and 24 ft. high; being capable of holding 800 hogsheads, or 283,200 bottles, which is far less, after all, than the dimensions of one of the porter vats of a London brewer. In former days, when the tun was filled with the produce of the vintage, it was usual to dance on the platform on the top. It has, however, remained empty since 1769, more than half a century.
One of the towers which formed the outer defences of the Castle (der Gesprengte Thurm) (p), was undermined and blown up by the French; but so thick were the walls, and so strongly
built, that though nearly the whole of one side was detached by the explosion, instead of crumbling to pieces it merely slid down from its place, in one solid mass, into the ditch, where it still remains. Subterranean pas sages, for the most part still preserved and accessible, extend under the ramparts.
The Gardens (originally laid out by the engineer Solomon de Caus) and Shrubberies round the castle, and the adjoining Terrace, to the eastward, afford the most agreeable walks and splendid points of view it is possible to conceive over the Neckar, issuing out of its vine-clad valley, and winding through a plain of the utmost fertility to join the Rhine, which appears here and there in distant flashes glittering in the sun. Spires and towers proclaim the existence of cities and villages almost without number, and the landscape is bounded by the outline of the Vosges mountains.
The best general View of the Castle may be obtained from the extremity of the terrace raised upon arches, and projecting over the Neckar. The building, however, is so grand an object, and the surrounding country so exceedingly beautiful, that the stranger will hardly be satisfied with seeing it from one point. He should mount the heights on the right bank of the Neckar, either by a path leading from the end of the bridge, which is steep, or by a more gradual ascent from Neuenheim. An agreeable path, easily accessible, called the Philosopher's Walk. conducts along the slope of the hill fronting the town. The hill behind it, which stands in the angle between the valley of the Rhine and Neckar, called the Heiligeberg, presents a more extensive prospect. On the top are
ruins of a castle and church of St. Michael, which succeeded to a Roman fort built on the spot. In 1991, the wild sect called Flagellants made a pilgrimage to this holy mountain, clad in black, and wearing a white cross in front and behind. In the Thirty Years' War, Tilly opened his trenches to bom bard the town from this point.
About 50 yards above the bridge, on the right bank, in a solitary inn called Hirschgasse, the students' duels are fought. 4 or 5 sometimes take place in a day; and it is no uncommon thing for a student to have been engaged in 25 or 30, as principal, in the course of 4 or 5 years.
The Königstuhl, the highest hill in this district, lies behind the town and castle. The summit may be reached in 1 or 1 hour's walk, or in a carriage, and the view is the most extensive in the neighbourhood. A lofty tower has been erected for the convenience of visitors, who often repair hither to see the sun rise, and if possible to extend the limits of the panorama, which cludes the valleys of the Rhine and Neckar, the Odenwald, Haardt Mountains on the W., the Taunus on the N. W., the ridge of the Black Forest on the S., with the Castle of Ebersteinberg, near Baden, and the spire of Strasburg Minster, 90 m. off. Tilly bombarded the town from this hil, after his attack from the right bank had failed: remains of his trenches are still visible.
There is a small tavern near the top, called Kohlhof, where persons anxious to see the sun rise sometimes pass the night previously.
The banks of the Neckar above Heidelberg are very interesting, and afford many pleasant excursions-one of the most agreeable being to Neckargemünd (Inn, Pfalz), 6 m. off; the excursion may be agreeably prolonged to Neckar Steinach, on the rt. bank (Inn, Die Harfe). The course of the Neckar is described in the HANDBOOK FOR S. GERMANY. (Rte. 158.)
A road, overlooking the Neckar, runs from the castle along the shoulder of the hill to the Wolf's Brunnen, an agreeable walk of 2 m. It is a pretty retired nook, named from a spring which rises there. There is a small inn close to it, famed for its beer and trout (kept in great numbers, and fattened in ponds and tanks; many of them attain a large size). Here, according to tradition, the enchantress Jetta, who lived on the spot, and first
foretold the greatness of the house of
At Handschuhsheim, about 2 m. on
The cherries of Dossenheim, a village about 2 m. beyond Handschuhsheim, on the Bergstrasse, are sent by steam-boats to the London market.
At the village of Neuenheim, which is on the rt. bank of the Neckar, nearly opposite to the railway station, in a in-house that goes by the name of Mönchhof, according to an obscure tradition, Luther was lodged when he passed through Heidelberg in 1518.
The Gardens of Schwetzingen, are Germ. m. from the Friedrichsfeld Stat. of the Mannheim railway. (p. 529.) Droskies may be hired for excursions in and around the town.
Heidelberg is a cheap place of residence, provisions being moderate and abundant. An English gentleman, who resided here in 1834, states his expenses for the year to have been but 3801., including horses, carriage, house-rent, and servants.
Eilwagen, daily, to Heilbronn in 7 hrs., to Stuttgard in 12, and to Würzburg in 15 (Rte. 110.).
Railways-to Mannheim; trains in 35 minutes, stopping at Friedrichsfeld, which is the junction station of the Frankfurt and Darmstadt railway; to Carlsruhe; and Baden by Oos, in 3 hours;- to Basle;-to Frankfurt. Steamboats on the Neckar to Heilbronn, in 10 hours, descending in 6. See HANDBOOK S. GERMANY.
Wiesloch Stat. rt. The large building called Kisslau was formerly a Ducal Palace, but is now a state prison.
The country to the S. of Heidelberg | cluding wine; Erbprinz, good; H. d'Anscarcely retains any trace of the beauty gleterre; Pariser Hof; Hof von Holof the Bergstrasse, but the line is land. There are very good baths in carried through a flat but fertile coun- the town. Carlsruhe, the capital of try, with a range of hills to the east- the Grand Duchy of Baden, the seat ward. of government and of the Chambers of Representatives, and residence of the court and foreign ministers, contains 24,000 inhab. It is a pretty but ra ther dull town, and one of the youngest capitals of Germany, as it was not begun till 1715. It owes its origin, not to any fitness in the situation for trade or manufactures, but solely to the accident of the Margrave Charles of Baden building a hunting-seat on the spot, which he fixed on from its seclusion and retirement, the surrounding country being at the time an al most uninterrupted forest. He called this retreat "Charles's Rest." In a few years, however, his solitude was invaded by other dwellings, and converted into a populous settlement, and the hunting-lodge became the nucleus of a new city, which derived from it the name of Karls-ruhe. It is regu larly built, in the form of a fail, or rather of a wheel. The main streets, like the spokes, all radiate from the palace, which terminates the vista in every street; so that the citizens who wish "to know which way the wind blows," must necessarily look to the palace weathercock. The streets are provided with trottoirs, a rare con venience in German towns, of which neither Vienna nor Munich can boast.
Langenbrücken Stat. Inn, Post. Here are sulphur baths. The establishment is well managed; the house large, commodious, and well furnished. There is a table-d'hôte and music, as usual at German watering-places. (§ 41.) The temperature of the springs ranges between 500 and 60° Fahr.; they are strongly impregnated with sulphur and sulphuretted hydrogen gas, being in their taste and smell very similar to those of Buxton.
Bruchsal Stat.-Inns: Badischer Hof, best; Zähringer Hof. This inanimate town of 7200 inhab., formerly belonged to the Prince-Archbishops of Spire. whose vast Palace, now empty, stands near the gate leading to Frankfurt. Travellers going to Munich and the Tyrol, by the most direct road, leave the railroad at Bruchsal. The road from Bruchsal to Stuttgard joins that from Carlsruhe to Stuttgard at Illingen.
Durlach Stat., once the residence of the margraves of Baden- Durlach, now the reigning family since the extinction of the line of Baden-Baden, 1771. An old ruined castle upon a height of the Thurmberg was the cradle of the family in its infancy. The more recent Château or Palace in the town is now deserted, and half pulled down; what remains is turned into a cavalry barrack. In the gardens are some Roman altars and milestones, found in the neighbourhood.
Eilwagen, hence to Wildbad in 6 hours. After passing (rt.) Gottesau, once a convent, now an artillery barrack, we reach the handsome buildings which
CARLSRUHE Stat. Inns: Post (Goldene Kreutz), table-d'hôte, 1 fl., in
From the railway you enter Carlsruhe by the Ettlinger Gate, and pass, in traversing the street leading to the palace, the monuments of the Grand Duke Carl (d. 1818), a bust; Lewis (d. 1830), a statue; and that of the Markgrave Charles William, founder of Carlsruhe, a pyramid of red sandstone, with a neat inscription. The 2 last are in the market-place, on the W. side of which is the Rathhaus, on the E. the Protestant Ch., and further on, in the court-yard of the palace, is the statue of the Grand Duke Karl Fre derick (d. 1811), by Schwanthaler. The Polytechnic school was built by