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The brave and chivalrous Frans of of Hesse as far as Worms, thence Sickingen, the Cid, and Bayard of through Rhenish Bavaria to MannGermany, the friend of Luther, and heim; it conducts the traveller through of Götz of Berlichingen, lost his life the ancient Imperial cities of Worms in it, in a bold struggle to defend and Spires, so interesting in an histori it from the besieging forces of his cal point of view, and so dull and desodeadly and powerful enemies, the late in their present state. Those who Bishop of Treves and the Elector of prefer pretty scenery should take the Hesse. His death was caused by a route by Darmstadt and the Bergheavy beam detached by a cannon strasse (R. 105.). Whichever route is ball from the roof, which fell on him followed, the traveller should not omit and crushed him. He was buried to visit Heidelberg and Baden. under the altar in the Catholic church, where his monument, mutilated by the French, may still be seen.

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STEAMERS ascend the Rhine from Mayence to Mannheim twice a-day, in 6 hours, returning in 4; from Mannheim to Strasburg daily in 20 hours, stopping at Daxlanden or Leopoldshafen to let out passengers for Carls ruhe. The steamer descends in 2 days from Strasburg to Cologne, stopping the first night at Mannheim or Mayence; and the best boats reach Rotfron-terdam from Mayence in 36 hours.

1 Homburg Stat.-Inn, Karlsberger Hof. A town of 2840 inhab. The fortress upon the Schlossberg, celebrated in the history of the Thirty Years' War, was razed 1714. 2 Rohrbach.

At Renderich is the Bavarian tier. 2 Saarbrücken, Prussian. In p. 522. 1 Forbach is the first place within

the French frontier.

23 St. Avold.

2 Foligny.

1 Courcelles Chaussy.

1 METZ. Inn, H. des Victoires. Half way from Frankfurt to Paris. See HANDBOOK for FRANCE.

ROUTE 102.

The river winds very much in this part of its course, and the ascending voyage is tedious, slow, and disagree able. Of late years many canals have been formed across the isthmuses created by the turns of the river, and thus its course is being shortened. This renders the steam-voyage quicker. Still it is preferable to travel upwards by railway.

Eilwagen daily from Mayence to Mannheim; thence by rail to Heidel berg, &c. The direct road by the banks of the Rhine from Spires to

THE RHINE (E). MAYENCE TO STRAS- Strasburg is given here, for the benefit

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of those who travel by steam; but there is no inducement to follow it in a carriage.

The Rhine above Mayence loses all The E. bank of the Rhine, along its beauty; the wide plain through which the road runs from Mayence, is which it flows, bounded by the very at distant chains of the Vosges and Hardt on the W., and the Odenwald and Black Forest on the E., is as dull and nearly as flat as Holland. The river does not fall more than 22 ft. between Spires and Mannheim.

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first a succession of gentle hills planted with profitable vineyards, the best among them being those of Bo denheim and Laubenheim. the low ground of the Rhine valley, all the way to Switzerland, is fertile in the


The soil of

a small

1. Nierstein (Inn, Anker), town of 2200 inhab., gives its name to a very good second class wine, produced in the surrounding vineyards. The Sironabad, near Nierstein, was

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no assistance to the praiseworthy undertaking.

A ruined chapel within the churchyard is half filled with the skulls and bones of Swedes and Spaniards, who fell here in battle, 1631, champions of the cause of Protestantism and Popery.

rt. Gustavus Adolphus recorded his passage of the Rhine, in the winter of Dec. 7. 1631, by a monument on the rt. bank at Erfelden, a little above Oppenheim. It consists of a pillar with a lion on the top. The Swedes crossed the Rhine singing a psalm; and there is a tradition, that their sovereign and leader was ferried over on a barn door. The field of battle still goes by the name of the Spaniards' churchyard, from the number of bones found in it.

The road now quits the borders of the river, which winds exceedingly. A canal, cut across an isthmus formed by its bendings, saves the boatmen a circuit of several miles. rt. At Gernsheim (Inn, Lamm; Karpfen), on the rt. bank of the Rhine, a colossal statue of sandstone, 12 ft. high, of Peter Schöffer, the partner of Faust in the discovery of printing (1457), who was born here, has been erected, and is fresh painted every year on his birthday! Omnibus to Darmstadt, fare 30 kr.

24 1. Oppenheim. --- Inn: the only one is called Zum Gelben Haus (the Yellow House); it furnishes decent accommodation. On a hill to the N. W. of this town (of 2400 inhab.), under the stately ruins of the ancient Imperial Castle of Landskron, stands the Church of St. Catherine, a building worthy to arrest the attention of all who pass this way. It is a pure example of the Gothic style, displaying at the same time the utmost richness of decoration consistent with elegance and propriety. The towers are in the style of the 12th century; the nave and E. chancel, begun 1262 by Richard of Cornwall, Emperor of Germany, were completed in 1317; the W. chancel, now a ruin, in 1439. The nave is remarkable for its lightness and beauty; the painted glass of the windows must have been splendid; in one of them it still remains nearly perfect. Some of them have a species of fan-shaped tracery. The rose window is one of the finest specimens in Germany, and most elaborate in its tracery. There are some curious monuments in the church of the Dalbergs and Riedesels, a family of the Wetterau, who bore asses' ears for their crest; but, like the painted windows, they are sadly mutilated; indeed it is melancholy to see what was once so fine a building, and still possesses so much beauty, fallen into such a state 1. Immediately below Worms, outof decay and neglect. The roof of the side the walls, though once included nave is gone, and within its walls is a within them, is the Gothic Church of wilderness of grass and weeds. These our Lady (Liebe Frau), date 1467. It injuries owe their origin to the French, is situated within the vineyard which who burnt down a part of the church produces the pleasant third-rate wine during the war of the Palatinate. It called after it Liebfrauenmilch (our has happily undergone some repair re- Lady's milk). On each side of its cently, at the expense of the town; its entrance are curious carvings reprecomplete restoration is out of the ques-senting the Wise and Foolish Virgins. tion, as it has been left too long to go to decay, and the Grand Duke lends

The latter part of this stage from Oppenheim to Worms is dreary. The election of an Emperor of Germany (1024), which ended in the choice of Conrad II. (the Salic), was held on the great plain between Oppenheim and Guntersblum; the various German races, who had a voice, encamped on either side of the Rhine, no city being large enough to hold them.

The steamer brings to off Worms; the town is about 1 m. distant from the

Rhine, which anciently washed its walls. It is partly concealed from view by trees. Inn on the Rhine, Rheinischer Hof, near the Crane.

1. 23 WORMS. Inns: Post or Schwan; Schwarzer Adler. A little more than 8000 inhab. is the actual amount of the population of Worms, which once contained 30,000. It still retains its old walls, flanked at intervals by handsome and massive towers, probably of the 13th cent. This once important Imperial Free City is still venerable even in its decay from historical associations connected with it, such as few other cities in Europe can boast of. It was called by the Romans Augusta Vangionum, and Borbetomagus. In the times succeeding their dominion it was the residence of many Frankish and Carlovingian kings; Charlemagne himself was married here, and held, near Worms, those rude legislative assemblies of the Franks, called, from the month in which they were convoked, Mai Lager (Champs de Mai).

Worms was the seat of many Diets of the German Empire: two of them are particularly important in the history of Europe; that of 1495, which, by abolishing the right of private war (Faustrecht), first established order in Germany; and that of 1521, when Luther appeared before the young emperor, Charles V., and the assembled princes, to declare his adhesion to the Reformed doctrines, which the Diet finally declared to be heretical. the infamous burning and demolition of Worms by the incendiary Melac (1689), the ruffian instrument of Louis XIV. and Louvois, the city has never regained its prosperity. The only fine edifice in the town is

pointed arch makes its appearance the W. end of the nave, which is more modern. It has 2 towers at each end, and within has 2 choirs and 2 high altars, one for the chapter, the other for the laity. The chancel ends in a semi-octagon, The interior, 470 ft. long, has been repaired in a very gaudy style. The side chapels date from the 14th and 15th cent. On the S. side is a magnificent pointed portal, whose sculptures deserve examination, date 1472. In the chapel of St. Nicholas are placed some remarkable mediaval sculptures (date 1487), removed from the cloister, now destroyed; they re present, 1. the Annunciation; Nativity; 3. the Genealogical Tree of the Virgin; 4. the Descent from the Cross; 5. the Resurrection. The traces of faded painting on the walls and piers are curious, as being among the earliest productions of German art, In the baptistery and chapel close to the S. door 1. are many gravestones with figures in relief, of good work.

2. the

The red stone walls to the N. of the Dom are substructions of the ancient Bischofshof, destroyed by the French in 1689, and again in 1794. In it was held the diet of 1521, at which Luther appeared before Charles V. have incorrectly supposed that this event occurred in the Rathhaus, which stood where the Lutheran church now


which a poor picture representing the stands, in the market-place, and in Diet is hung up.

The W. end and choir of St. Paul's Since Church are interesting for the antiquity and beauty of their architecture. They date probably from the year 1016; the

the Dom Kirche or Cathedral; -a

rest of the church is recent.

The Synagogue is said to be more plays in its structure the style of the than 800 years old, and certainly dis 11th century: 2 doorways and a circuplain and massive building of red sand- lar building (Thora) for holding the stone, begun 996, finished 1016, in the books of the law, deserve the architect's Byzantine or round-arched style. part of the E. end fell down 1018, and


attention. The Jews have been esta blished in this spot from a very early

them in

the church was consecrated anew by period, and enjoyed privileges denied Bp. Eppo 1110, a fact which would most other parts of Germany, The country round Worms was the

seem to mark a renovation or reconstruction of the previous edifice. The

favourite theme of the Minne Sängers,

who speak of it under the name of Wonnegau (Land of Joy). It is partly the scene of the Niebelungenlied, an ancient heroic poem of the 5th century. which may be called a German Iliad. According to the tradition, its hero, Siegfred, killed the dragon on the borders of the Rhine opposite Worms. The island facing the Rheinischer Hof is called Rosengarten: -- the combat between Chrimhelda and Brunhelda is supposed to have been fought on the square on the S. side of the Dom.

Near Pfiffligheim stands Luther's Elm Tree, under which the reformer is reported to have reposed on his way to the Diet, when, in reply to the warnings of friends who wished to deter him, he said that he "would go to Worms, even though there were as many devils within its walls as there were tiles on its houses." At Herrnsheim, about 2 m. out of the town, is the Château and Park of the Dalberg family, and a church of the 14th century, containing several of their monuments.

N. B. Travellers proceeding down the Rhine, and acquainted with its scenery between Mayence and Bingen, may vary their route in an agreeable manner, and avoid going twice over the same ground, by leaving the Rhine at Worms, and proceeding through an interesting country by Alzey (p. 523.), 3 Germ. miles, to Kreuznach on the Nahe (p. 520.), 33 Germ. miles-road excellent, but hilly. The beautiful scenery of the Nahe is described in Route 100.; they should ascend it as far as Oberstein, and may then either return to the Rhine at Bingen, or proceed on by Birkenfeld to Treves, whence they may descend the Moselle to Coblenz.

As far as Worms, both banks of the Rhine belong to Darmstadt: a few miles above it commence the territories of Baden on the right bank, and of Rhenish Bavaria on the left, across which our road lies. The road passes 1. Frankenthal (Inn, Rother Löwe), originally a colony of Flemings, driven out of their country by religious perse

cution in 1562, who introduced manufactures not before known in Germany, and raised this small town by their industry to a state of great prosperity. It was held for some months in 1622-23 by the scanty English force under Sir Horace Vere, sent over by James I. to support the cause of his son-in-law the Elector Palatine; but neither in number nor in the skill of their commander were they fit to cope with a veteran general like Spinola, to whom and his army of "tough old blades" they were opposed, and they were accordingly obliged to surrender the town to the Spaniards. It has now 5000 inhabs. A canal connects it with the Rhine. At Grünstadt, a few miles N. W. of Frankenthal, the painter Holbein is believed to have been born.


2 1. Oggersheim. Inn, Pfälzer Hof. rt. The Neckar enters the Rhine about mile below Mannheim. A bridge of boats over the Rhine leads from (1.) Ludwigshafen, the beginning of a new town, into Mannheim. railway connects Ludwigshafen with Spires and with the coal mines of Bexbach, in the neighbourhood of Saarbrück. It was opened between Neustadt, Ludwigshafen, and Spires in 1847, and between Kaiserslautern and Homburg, 1 July, 1848. Ludwigshafen was much injured during the defence of Mannheim in the insurrection of June, 1849. The landing-place of the steamer is just below the bridge of boats, of a mile distant from the town, where the bonding warehouses (Freihafen), a handsome building by Hübsch, have been erected at the water side.

1 MANNHEIM. Inns: H. de l'Europe (dear), close to the landing-place of the steamers, with a noble Saal, and 100 bed-rooms of all sizes, from 1 fl. upwards (servants 24 kr. daily); La Cour du Palatinat (Pfälzer Hof), in the town, very good; Russischer Hof; Rheinischer Hof.

The situation of this town, on the right bank of the Rhine, and between it and the Neckar, is low and somewhat damp. A high dyke protects it from inundations.

The Rhine here at 317


Eng. m. from the sea is 1200 feet in breadth. Mannheim was formerly the capital of the Palatinate, and has about 24,000 inhab. Nearly 300 English reside here, chiefly on account of the cheapness of living and of the agreeable society, to which the presence of the amiable Grand Duchess Stephanie and her court adds a charm. It was once strongly fortified, and was in consequence several times ruined, and twice literally reduced to ashes, and levelled with the dust by sieges and bombardments: first in the Thirty Years' War; afterwards by the French, in the war of the Orleans succession. It did not exist as a town till after 1606; and, within a century, was twice rebuilt; after which it was again bombarded by the French in 1794, and by the Austrians in 1795; indeed, from the first moment of its existence it appears to have been an object of struggle. The French General, who took the town in 1689, called the townspeople together, and informed them that it was the unalterable determination of his master, Louis le Grand, to raze Mannheim with the ground; but, as a special favour, he would intrust the work of destruction to themselves, and would allow them 20 days to complete the work. As the inhabitants could not bring themselves to put into execution this diabolical sentence, the duty was performed by the soldiers, who drove out the lingering tenants, set fire to the houses, blew up the fortifications and churches. During the siege of 1795, half of the palace was burnt, and only 14 houses remained uninjured; 26,000 cannon balls and 1780 bombs, were thrown at length the French garrison of 9700 men surrendered to General Wurmser. Fortunately for its future welfare, it is now defenceless, owing to the removal of its ramparts.

To the cause stated above, the modern town owes its present rectangular and monotonous regularity. It consists of 11 straight streets, crossed by 10 other streets at right angles to them, and at equal distances; an arrangement which renders it difficult for a stranger to distinguish one part of

"The streets


the town from another. are not named, and the system by which houses are identified is so singu. lar, that it merits explanation. block of houses is distinguished in the following manner :-The town is divided into two parts by the great street leading from the palace to the suspension bridge over the Neckar. The first row of blocks of houses parallel to this street, on each side, is numbered 1; the second row of blocks of houses on each side, parallel to the first, is numbered 2, and so on. But taking the blocks in cross rows, on one side of abovementioned great street, the row nearest to the palace is lettered A, the second B, and so on; and on the other side the street, the row nearest the palace is lettered L, the second M, and so on. Thus a letter and a figure are necessary to define any block of houses. In each block the houses are numbered 1, 2, 3, &c. Thus in looking in the Mannheim Directory for a person's residence, you will find (for instance) C. 3, 6. This means No. 6. in the block which is defined by the mark C. 3. The letter C shows in which row of blocks it is as taken one way, and the figure 3 shows in which row of blocks it is as taken the other way."— G. B. A. In the public squares are fountains, which want only water to render them useful as well as orna mental; indeed, good water is scarce here.

The town is remarkable for its cleanliness; Göthe calls it 66 Das freundliche, reinliche Mannheim."

Mannheim does not possess many objects of interest, and need not detain a traveller long.

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