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ascend a long but gradual eminence. Near the top stands a small obelisk erected by the French, bearing the inscription, "Route de Charlemagne, terminé en l'an I. du règne de Napoleon." From this point, and from the heights a little further on, the view is most charming, extending over the Rhine, through the whole of the Rheingau, as far as the distant range of the Taunus. In such a situation it was that Charlemagne built his favourite residence of

1 Ingelheim, now reduced to a miser able village, about 1 m. from the bank of the Rhine. Some writers suppose that it was the birthplace of Charlemagne; at least he loved to dwell here, and built himself (768 to 774) a magnificent palace, which he decorated with 100 columns of marble and porphyry, the spoils of Roman buildings, and with rich mosaics, sent to him by Pope Hadrian from Ravenna for that purpose. The site of the edifice is now occupied by mud hovels and dung heaps, and partly by a Jews' burying ground. It stood near the smaller of the two churches-the one nearest to Mayence; and the only relics remaining of it are a few mutilated fragments of pillars within the church, and a column of granite inserted in a corner of an old ruined gateway. In the church is also shown the monument of one of Charlemagne's four queens, a rudely carved stone, on which a female figure, crowned and in regal attire, is discernible.

The orna

ments round the stone in the pointed style indicate clearly that it is of a much later time than the reign of Charlemagne. These paltry fragments, and a few mouldering walls, are all that remain to tell where the palace of the great king stood. The other church on the side of Bingen with a tall square tower, is an interesting example of the Romanesque style.

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The red wine of Ingelheim is very tolerable.

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4 Germ. m. 22 Eng. m.

This Railroad, the Taunus-Bahn, opened in 1840, is a single line, double only in places to allow the trains to pass each other. The Terminus is in Castel, opposite to Mayence, on the rt, bank of the Rhine. (Inn, Bahrdt's.) Omnibuses ply to and fro for 12 kr. The branch line to Wiesbaden (6 trains daily, in 16 minutes) is carried right through the fortifications of Castel, passes fort Montebello to Mosbach Stat., whence a branch line (for horses) leads to Biebrich on the Rhine. Trains go 6 times a-day in 1 hour to Frankfurt. Fare in the second class (Diligences) (there is a better class somewhat more expensive), 1 florin, including 40 lbs. of baggage.

Any quantity above that pays at a very extravagant rate, viz. 5 florins for 300 lbs. The transport of a private carriage is 64 florins.

A bridge toll (brückengeld) of 30 kr. is paid for a carriage with 2 horses, in crossing the bridge of boats from Mayence to Castel. Castel belongs to Hesse Darmstadt; but a little way out of the walls 2 painted posts, by the road side, mark the frontier of Nassau. The railway is carried at first along the rt. bank of the Main, along the slope of the vineyards. About 4 m. on the road is

Hochheim Stat., a village on the summit of a hill of moderate elevation. In its immediate vicinity, and along the sunny banks sloping down to the Main, for a space of 3 m., are the vineyards which produce the wine called Hock, - -a name improperly given by the English to Rhenish wines. The best wine is grown in the vineyards below the church, which are sheltered from cold winds by the houses of the town. They were anciently the property of the Chapter of Mayence, or Domdekaney, but now belong to the Duke of Nassau, and are highly valuable. The narrow strip of ground upon which the railway passes through them was very costly.

Flörsheim Stat.

2 Hattersheim Stat.

Höchst Stat., on the Nidda, which is crossed by a bridge. The chief building in it is the deserted Palace of Bolongaro, a rich tobacconist, erected in the last century. Railway from this to Soden (3 m.) at the foot of the Taunus, and diligence thence to Königstein. (Rte. 97.) The Feldberg, the highest of the range, and the Castle of Falkenstein at its foot, are visible near this. The boundary of the territory of Frankfurt is marked by an ancient watchtower on the post-road to the left.

2 FRANKFURT A M. (Rte. 95.) Terminus, outside the St. Gallus Thor.

ROUTE 100.

and Pariser Hof; Pfälzer Hof; Adler. A poor though populous town of 9003 inhab., belonging to Prussia, in a picturesque situation, which has lately risen into great repute as a wateringplace, so that the accommodation is scarcely adequate to the number of viKreuznach is much resorted sitors.


18 Germ. m. = 863 Eng. m.

A post road, macadamised as far as Sobernheim. Schnellposts daily to Saarbrück by Kreuznach and Birkenfeld. To Treves daily, in 14 hrs. Omnibuses 6 times a day between Bingen and Kreuznach for 10 Sgr. The most beautiful scenery of the Nahe is confined to the vicinity of Kreuznach and Oberstein. A carriage with two horses may be hired from Bingen to Kreuznach and back in one day (26 m.), for 6 or 8 florins, including the drive to Münster am Stein (2 m. beyond Kreuznach), in order to visit the Rheingrafenstein.

The Nahe pours itself into the Rhine at Bingen, through a portal formed by the Rochusberg on the rt. side, and the Rupertsberg on the left, after a course of scarcely 60 miles, during which it bathes the territories of 5 different sovereigns Oldenburg, Hesse Homburg, Prussia, Bavaria, and Hesse Darmstadt.

The road runs along the 1. bank of the Nahe, which is Prussian; the rt. belongs to Darmstadt: it passes the villages of Munster, Laubenheim, and Brezenheim, before it reaches

to on account of its cold Saline Spring, situated on an island m. above the town. A careful analysis has dis covered the existence in the water of iodine and bromine in small quantities. It has been found singularly beneficial in scrofulous cases, and the resort to it is rapidly increasing; the number of visitors exceeds 3000 annually. A Kurhaus and Baths are erected near it within a grove of acacias, and an avenue of poplars leads to the There are also brine baths here. The ruined choir of the Ch., near the bridge, is picturesque and of a good style (date 1332). A good view of Kreuznach may be had from the pleasure ground on the top of the Schlossberg. In 1632, Kreuznach was taken by assault by the troops of Gustavus Adolphus. A party of English volunteers serving under him was most instrumental in its capture. The attack was led by Lord Craven, the champion of the Queen of Bohemia; and not only he, but every English officer present, was wounded on this occasion. Bookseller.-Jügel, of Frankfurt, has a shop here.

Physician. speaks English.

Dr. Schweich, who

There is a carriage-road hence to the top of the Rheingrafenstein, on the rt. bank of the Nahe, which commands a fine view up the river, and may be reached in half an hour's time.

2 m. above Kreuznach, on the left bank of the Nahe, are the Salinen, or Saltworks, of Theodorshalle; and on the right bank those of Carlshalle, belonging to the Grand Duke of Darmstadt.

They consist of a collection of very long sheds, filled with faggots through which the salt water is made to trickle, after being raised by pumps 2 Kreuznach. Inns: Oranienhof, in order to evaporate it, and convert it and Rheinstein, both good; Englischer | into saturated brine, fit for the boiling.

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but 1 per cent. of saline particles,
which requires to be raised to 26 or 28
per cent. to convert it into saturated
brine. 1 m. further (3 m. from
Kreuznach), is another extensive saline,
called Münster am Stein, built on a
flat, nearly encircled by the Nahe, at
the foot of the magnificent precipice of
red porphyry 600 ft. high, which is
crowned by the Castle of Rheingrafen-
stein, an ancient stronghold of the
Rheingraves, destroyed by the French
in 1689. It is literally perched, like an
eagle's nest, on a pinnacle of the rock,
and is accessible from the salt works by
a ferry and a very steep footpath.
From a neighbouring and still higher
peak, called the Gans (Goose), the best
view over the Nahe is obtained.

The springs naturally contain the way from the Glan to the borders
of the Alsenz; the quicksilver is also
situated in the coal formation.]

[A little above the Rheingrafenstein, at the junction of the Alsenz with the Nahe, rises Ebernburg, a castle which belonged to Franz of Sickingen, the last of the knights errant, the terror of Worms and Frankfurt, who, though but a simple knight, besieged the cities of Metz and Treves with an army of 2000 horse and 17,000 foot, bidding defiance to the Emperor. In this stronghold he sheltered from persecution many of the early Reformers, who were his bosom friends. Melanchthon, Bucer, and Ecolampadius, took refuge here under his roof; and Ulric Von Hutten composed several of his works in this retreat. Its defences were so much augmented and strengthened, that it was thought capable of bidding defiance even to the armies of the em. pire. After Sickingen's death, however, his castle, though stoutly defended at first, was at length surrendered to the Electors of Hesse and of Treves, who carried off all the spoils, and then burnt it. The valley of the Alsenz contains some picturesque scenes and several ruined castles. Inns: Müllers, at Alsenz; and Hörsters (very fair) at Dielkirchen, 9 m. from the top of the Donnersberg (p. 523.). Near Obermoschel is the quicksilver mine of Landsberg, now unproductive. Between Obermoschel and Meissenheim there are coal mines, which extend all

During the next stage from Kreuznach the road quits the side of the Nahe, and, leaving these castles and the salt works considerably on the 1., proceeds direct to Sobernheim, passing on the rt. of the Castle and Abbey of Sponheim, the cradle of one of the noblest and most ancient families on the Rhine.

1. near Staudernheim, lie the exten. sive ruins of the convent of Dissibodenberg.

A little below Sobernheim the Nahe receives the waters of the Glan. 24 Sobernheim.-Inns: Post; Adler. An old town, pop. 2300. In the 10th cent, the inhabitants, aided by the Pope, who granted them an indulgence for two years, built a bridge over the Nahe; since then, the river has changed its bed, and left the bridge on dry land.

At Martinstein a basin-shaped valley opens out, at whose extremity rise the majestic ruins of the Castle of Dhaun, commanding a fine view. A path leads down from them, past the village of Dhaun and Johannisberg, into the Nahe valley again. Below Johannisberg a wild gorge opens out, through which a road runs to

2 Kirn.-Inns: Bey Rheinlander, Bey Wittwe Doll. The scenery from the Castle of Dhaun to Oberstein is magnificent, and will well repay the toilsome journey from Kreutznach. The road is now macadamised the whole way to

2 Oberstein (Inns: Post; Bey Cæsar), which is one of the dirtiest towns it is possible to conceive. "It is a small town very picturesque from its old ruined wooden buildings, and beautifully situated on the Nahe, shut in by high and romantic cliffs, chiefly of porphyry or amygdaloid, abounding in agates, amethysts, &c., of great beauty and variety. The business of cutting and polishing them occupies a consi derable number of the inhabitants. The stones are ground and polished by means of grinding stones of red sand

stone, moved by water-wheels in numerous small mills scattered along the neighbouring streams. There are large polishing mills at Idar, 1 mile off. Close to Oberstein are two fine precipitous isolated rocks. On the summit of each are remains of an ancient castle; one still inhabited by peasants, the other quite a ruin. Immediately under the latter, in the face of the precipice, about of its height above the valley, a large cavity has been hollowed out, in which the ancient Lutheran church may be said to be embedded."-T. T. It is approached by stairs cut in the rock. The living rock forms the roof and one side of the building; the other side is built up with a wall of masonry, in which are two large windows to light the interior. A spring of water gushes out of the floor.

The agate manufactory is not so profitable as formerly; but the locality is interesting to the mineralogist, as, in addition to very fine and large agates, he will here be enabled to collect many other rare minerals and crystals, as chabasite, harmotome, &c.

Oberstein belongs to the distant Duchy of Oldenburg. The territory on the opposite side of the river formerly belonged to S. Coburg, but has been sold to Prussia.

The vale of the Nahe loses its beauty and interest above Oberstein. The road continues excellent.

24 Birkenfeld (Inn, kept by Widow Medicus), is the chief town of the principality of that name, belonging to Oldenburg, and contains a plain whitewashed Ducal Château.

A hilly, but well macadamised road, provided with post-horses, leads over the bleak high land of the Hochwald, from Birkenfeld, by Hermeskeil (a straggling village, containing nothing remarkable), 3 Germ. m. to Treves, 4 Germ. m. about 32 Eng. m.

3 St. Wendel. A fine Church here. 14 Ottweiler. Friedrichsthal. At Duttweiler, about 3 Eng. m. before reaching Saarbrücken, is a seam of coal, which has been on fire for the last 150 years. It is called "der brennende Berg."

4 Saarbrücken or Saarbrück. (Inns: Post; Bär.) A Prussian town of 8000 inhab. on the Saar, which here begins to be navigable, and is crossed by a bridge connecting the town with the suburb of St. Johann. The Schloss was, down to 1793, the residence of the Princes of Nassau-Saarbrücken; and in the Palace church (Schlosskirche) are many monuments of that family. There are several coal mines in the neighbour. hood. About 2 miles S. of Saarbrücken, and higher up the valley of the Saar, is Arnual, with a fine Gothic church (1315), in which are some remarkable monuments of the NassauSaarbrücken family.

Schnellposts daily, by Metz to Paris; by Saarlouis, Merzig, and Saarburg; to Maintz, and to Kreuznach. Steam. boats run daily between Saarbrücken and Saarlouis.

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3 Saarlouis. Inns: Hof; Salmen; Hase. A strong fromtier fortress of Prussia, with a long stone bridge over the Saar, which flows half round the town, and sometimes during the winter lays part of it under water. The fortifications may be inundated by sluices. One of the barracks contains an Artesian well. Saarlouis was fortified by Vauban in 1680, by order of Louis XIV. Hence its name, which was during the 1st French revolution changed to Sarrelibre. The inhabitants (7000) are partly descended from English prisoners placed here by Louis XIV. It is the birthplace of Marshal Ney. By the peace of Rys wyk, France was left in possession of Saarlouis, but it was transferred to Prussia by the treaties of 1814-15.

2 Merzig. At about one-third of the way between this place and Saarburg


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21 Germ. m. and 7 French posts =146 Eng. m.

A diligence goes daily in 34 hours, a mallepost in less.

This road was made by Napoleon, to open a direct communication between Mayence and Paris, and thence is called the Imperial road (Kaiser Strasse).


A very

14 Niederolm. 14 Wörrstadt. 1 Alzey. Inns : Hof; Poste; zum Kaiser. ancient town (3500 inhab.) known to the Romans as Altiaia. The Castle, an extensive ruin, was destroyed by the French in 1689. The road quits Hesse Darmstadt and enters Bavaria at the village of Morschheim.

1 Kirchheim Boland.-Inn, Poste. A town of 3200 inhab., having iron works in its vicinity.

The Mont Tonnerre (Donnersberg), is about 6 m. distant. The road leaves it on the right, winding round its base. It is mentioned by Tacitus, who calls it Mons Jovis. During the French do

mination it gave the name to a Department, of which Mayence was the chief town. The mountain is 2090 Par. ft. above the sea, and is composed of porphyry. On the Plateau at the top is a farm-house, once an old convent, which affords humble accommodation. It is encircled by a wall, whose origin is unknown, though it is supposed to be Roman. The best view is obtained from the point called Hirtenfels, or from the signal tower which was erected for a trigonometrical survey, but is not so fine as that from the Melibocus on the opposite side of the Rhine.

1 Standebühl.

2 m. E. of Dreisen lies Göllheim (Inn, Hirsch), where the Empr. Adolphus of Nassau was slain by the lance of his rival the Empr. Albert, 1298; a stone cross under an open chapel marks the spot.

2 Sembach. The Ch. of Otterberg, a little to the N. W. of Sembach, is a beautiful Gothic structure, begun by the Empr. Conrad II. 1040, but completed at a much later period.


1 Kaiserslautern.-Inns: Donnersberg Hotel, very good; Baierische Hof, dear; Post. A town of 6500 inhab., in a very pretty situation. antiquity is very great. The Empr. Barbarossa built a strong castle here, which was destroyed by the French in the War of the Succession, and a prison now occupies its place. Three successive engagements took place near this in 1793-94, between the French and Germans, in which the last gained some advantage. There are considerable woollen manufactories here. A railway was opened on the 1st July, 1848, from this place to Homburg. It forms part of the line called the Pfälzische Ludwigsbahn, which is to connect Mannheim and the coal-mines of Bexbach, near Homburg.


2 Landstuhl Stat. ·Inns Baierische Krone; Post. A town of 1500 inhab., which formerly belonged to the Counts of Sickingen, whose Castle in ruins overhangs the town; its walls are 24 ft. thick, and many of its chambers are hewn out of the rock.

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