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Reichenbach Stat. The railway is interrupted a little beyond this station, owing to the "high level" bridge over the Göltzscht Thal, near Mylau, not being completed. It will consist of 4 tiers of arches, except in the centre, where there are only 2; and is built of brick. The very well equipped carriages, which carry the railway passengers from Reichenbach to Plauen, perform, the journey in about 3 hours.

Reichenbach (Inns: Dass Lamm; Engel) is a thriving manufacturing town; it has 4500 inhab., who are chiefly employed in the manufacture of muslin, and in spinning and weaving cotton and wool into kerseymeres, merinos, flannel, and "English thread." A fire in 1833 destroyed a great part of the town.

3 Plauen.-Inns: Zum blauen Engel; Post; Deutsches Haus: a town of 7000 inhab., also deriving prosperity from manufactures of linen, cotton, and muslin. It is irregularly built on uneven ground, and is traversed by the stream of the Elster, which waters a romantic valley, and produces pearls; a royal fishery is established at Oelsnitz for collecting them. The old Castle (called Rathschauer), rising high above the town, was in ancient times the residence of the Bailiff, or Voight (Advocatus regni), from whom the surrounding district got the name of Voigtland; it is now converted into public offices.

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The railway is open between Plauen and Hof, and passes over the high land which forms the watershed of the Elster and the Saale. The country is rather pleasing, partly cultivated, and partly covered with fir woods.

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barren; the rock is primary limestone, abounding in fossils; and there are many iron mines in the district. The town of Hof was burnt down for the tenth time recorded in its annals, in 1832, and consequently a large part is newly built. A handsome church was erected in 1833. The frontiers of Saxony, Reuss, Prussia (the town of Gefäll is Prussian), and Bohemia, are not more than 10 m. distant from Hof. An extensive smuggling trade is carried on with Bohemia.

A railway connects Hof with Nuremberg and Augsburg, passing Culmbach, Lichtenfels and Bamberg. (See HANDBOOK FOR S. GERMANY, Route 172.)

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Inns: Sächsischer

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Hof; Der Ring; Goldene Sonne. An important mining town of 7500 inhab., chiefly engaged in the mines, and in preparing the ores of silver, cobalt, &c., obtained from them. considerable manufactory of smalt here. That used in the Dresden china is prepared here from the cobalt. The town was founded 1471, in consequence of the discovery of the mines. The Parish Church is a very fine building, in the latest Gothic, 1516-40. Its altar-piece is the finest work of the elder Cranach, the Crucifixion, and at the back the Last Judgment, with 8 wings or shut. ters; they are interesting as specimens of Protestant art, and the treatment of sacred subjects after the Reformation. Schneeberg snuff, a preparation of herbs found on the mountains of the Erzgebirge, taken as common snuff, is said to be good for sore eyes, and to cure headaches. In the neighbourhood are the

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picturesque castles of Stein, Eisenburg, and Wiesenburg.

The mining district of the Erzgebirge (ore mountains) displays few of the beauties of nature on its surface. Her bounty has here been expended below ground, where she has stored away, for the use of man, vast supplies of silver, lead, tin, iron, cobalt, and coal. The soil is poor, vegetation is scanty, and is further checked in the vicinity of the mines by the vapours from smelting furnaces; and the face of the country is disfigured by hillocks of rubbish and heaps of slag.

The road passes through Eibenstock, a mining town of 4400 inhab.; in and about it are furnaces, founderies, and tin mines.

3 Wildenthal. Hence to Carlsbad there are two roads. (See the other described in Rte. 94 a.) On the road here described, there are no relays of post horses between Wildenthal and Carlsbad. 14 Johann Georgenstadt (vulgarly called Hansgörgenstadt). Inns Rathskeller; Schiesshaus. A mining town, named after the Elector John George, in whose reign it was built as an asylum for the Protestants driven out of Bohemia by Ferdinand II., 1654. It has about 3400 inhab. It stands in a rough and very elevated district, a sort of Saxon Siberia, whose produce lies beneath the barren surface, and consists of silver, tin, lead, iron, cobalt, bismuth, uranium, &c. The men are chiefly miners, the women employ themselves in making bobbinet. Hence to the Bohemian frontier is not more than mile.


4 Carlsbad, in HANDBOOK FOR SOUTH GERMANY (Rte. 260.). The nearest road from Carlsbad to Dresden is by Joachimsthal, Annaberg, and Freiberg. (Route 259.) SOUTH GERMANY.



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At Gumpelstadt a road turns off to the 1. to the Bath of Liebenstein, charmingly situated on the skirts of the Thuringian Forest. Travellers may be well accommodated in the Badhaus or Herzogliche Gasthaus, and in the Neubau. The court of Saxe Meininger passes a portion of the bath season here, in the building called Fürstenhaus The spring furnishes one of the strongest chalybeate waters in Germany, more used for bathing than drinking. benstein affords the usual amusements of a watering-place- daily music on the walks, balls, concerts, gamingtables, and theatrical performances dur


Trains from Cassel to Eisenach in 4 ing the season. A little way behind


the baths is the Erdfall, a deep recess

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in the mountain side, piled round with masses of rock, somewhat resembling a colossal Cyclopean wall, overgrown at the top with trees, so as to form an agreeable retreat in hot weather. Pleasant walks lead from thence along the heights to the Old Castle of Liebenstein, the cradle of the family of Saxe Meiningen. It is founded on the rock, and parts of its foundation walls fill up the chasms in the limestone. Its towers command a delightful view over the forests of Thuringia, along the vale of the Werra, and as far as the Rhöngebirge.

with timber framework, and, like those of Chester and Shrewsbury, have a highly picturesque character. Most of its inhabitants are smiths, and follow their trade in shops on the ground floor. In the market-place stand the Gothic Church and the two chief inns, Adler and Krone; the latter comfortable. In it the famous Protestant League of Schmalkald was signed, 1531. In the Sannersche Haus, the articles of the League were drawn up by Luther, Melanchthon, Agricola, and other divines.

That confederation was of the highest consequence to the cause of the Reformation, and proved so discouraging to its opponents, that no one dared mention Schmalkald in the presence of the Emperor Charles V. On a height above the town rises the old Electoral castle, Wilhelmsburg. The valley in which Schmalkald stands may be regarded as one great smithy; its inhabitants are chiefly workmen in metal, cutlers, makers of gimlets, &c. The iron ore is supplied from numerous mines in the vicinity. Below the town are extensive salt-works.

About 3 miles from Liebenstein is the Duke of Saxe Meiningen's château Altenstein, very finely situated on the brow of a hill, with a grassplat and fountain in front, and surrounded by a beautiful park. A crucifix is planted on a projecting rock, marking, according to tradition, the spot from which St. Boniface, the apostle of Germany, preached Christianity to the pagan inhabitants of the country. Half an hour's walk from the castle, in the midst of the forest, but not far from the road, stood until 1841, when it was blown down, "Luther's Buche” (Luther's Beech), so called from the tradition that it was beneath it that the bold Reformer, on his return from Ha Worms, after the Papal bull had been uttered against him, was surprised by a party of armed men in masks, who mounted him on their horses, and carried him away a prisoner to the castle of Wartburg. This surprise was concerted by his friend and patron the Elector Frederick the Wise of Saxony. It was a magnificent tree, 6 ft. in diameter, overtopping all the rest of the forest.



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At Glücksbrunn, a village half way between Liebenstein and Altenstein, is one of the most remarkable of the Caverns in which the limestone (dolomite) of this district abounds.

A good road leads from Liebenstein to Schmalkalden, about 10 m. distant. This ancient and unaltered town, of 5400 inhab., still preserves its double row of antique ramparts, and its fosse. Its houses are mostly built of wood,

To return to the high road from Eisenach. The road from Gumpelstadt descends into the pretty valley of the Werra, which divides two of the boldest mountain ridges in central Germany, the Thuringerwald and the Hohe Rhon. The land is fertile, and much tobacco is cultivated.

2 Barchfeld, on the right bank of the Werra.

2 Schwallungen. 2 Meiningen. Inns: Sächsischer Hof; Hirsch. A town of 6000 inhab., built in the form of a harp, on the rt. bank of the Werra, encircled by wooded hills. It is the capital of the Duchy of Saxe Meiningen, and residence of the Duke, the brother of the late Queen Dowager of England. The principal building is the Palace, containing various collections of art and natural history. There is an agreeable Park and gardens attached to it, and within these a modern Gothic Chapel with painted The Jews form glass from Munich.

an important quota of the community, fine armour and arms of all ages, and and have recently built a handsome some Turkish trophies, won by the new quarter. Prince of Coburg, Austrian field marshal.

The Church is ancient, but defaced by pews and galleries: behind the altar are some curious monuments of knights, and in the sacristy some specimens of church plate, vestments, &c.

A road strikes off from Meiningen to Kissingen, by Mellrichstadt (2 G. m.) through part of the forest to Neustadt (2 G. m.), an old walled town on the Franconian Saal, overhung by the interesting and extensive remains of the castle of Salzburg. Here is a neat clean Inn. Münnerstadt (1 G.m.) to Kissingen (11⁄2 G. m.). See HANDBOOK S. GERMANY.

2 Themar.. - Inn, Post.

1 Hildburghausen. - Inns: Sachsisches Haus, fair; Englisches Haus. The Palace was, down to 1826, the residence of the Dukes of Saxe Hild. burghausen, until the extinction of the line of Gotha, when they removed to Altenburg, and Hildburghausen was united to Meiningen. The town contains about 4000 inhab. —many Jews. It is a lifeless place; the older quarter is of considerable antiquity.

13 Rodach.


2 Coburg. - Inns: Grüner Baum; (Poste), dirty; Schwan no better. This is one of the residence towns of the Duke of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha; other being Gotha. Population about 9500 inhab. This is remarkable for its clean and opulent looking houses. In the market-place are some picturesque old houses. The Palace called Ehrenburg, the town residence of the Duke, built 1549, is a Gothic edifice, forming 3 sides of a quadrangle, with a turretted entrance. It contains a collection of engravings, which are not shown, and has some handsome apartments. There are some fine specimens of marqueterie in the doors, and Coburg is to this day celebrated for that manufacture.

In the Theatre, German operas and plays are acted on alternate nights; the establishment belongs to the Duke, and is extremely well conducted. In the Arsenal (zeughaus) there is some

The ancient Castle of the Dukes of Coburg is situated on a commanding eminence overhanging the town; the views from it extend over the Thuringerwald as far as the Franconian Swit zerland. It is partly converted into a Prison and a House of Correction; but some of the chambers remain in their original condition. The rooms occupied by Luther, the bedstead he slept upon during his concealment here, and the pulpit from which he preached in the curious old Chapel, are shown. The "horn room" is panelled with oak inlaid with woods of different kinds, and enclosing mosaic pictures. Another room contains portraits of persons engaged in the Seven Years' War. There is much valuable armour here, that deserves to be arranged. The Castle was besieged by Wallenstein in the Thirty Years' War. He made the town of Coburg his head-quarters for some time. Outside the walls may still be seen the remains of the chains to which the limbs of a traitor, who attempted to betray the place, were hung in full view of the besieging army. Wallenstein was at length compelled to raise the siege.

Among the many country-houses belonging to the Duke, the hunting-seats of Rosenau and Kalenberg most deserve notice for the elegant style in which they are fitted up, and the beauty of their situation. The parks and forest around them abound in game of every description. At Rosenau, 4 m. from Coburg, Prince Albert was born. It is an old manor-house surrounded by trees. An avenue 2 miles long leads to it.

Postwagen run between Coburg and the Lichtenfels station on the Hot and Nuremberg railway, several times a day, each way, in 12 hrs., in connection with the trains. The distance is 2 German miles. The road on leaving Coburg descends the valley of the Itz, on its left bank, as far as Unter Sieman, which is nearly half way, and then

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33 Heiligenstadt. sischer Hof; Deutsches Haus. (See Route 67. p. 375.) This was formerly capital of the district called Eichsfeld. 2 Dingelstadt. 24 Mühlhausen. Inns: Schwan; König von Preussen. An ancient walled town of 12,000 inhab., pleasantly situated in the midst of a very fertile country on the Unstrut. It was anciently a free city of the empire. The Hauptkirche in the Oberstadt is the finest church. Münzer, the fanatic preacher, who excited the Thuringian peasants to revolt in 1524-25, made Mühlhausen his head-quarters, and collected around him a misguided host of 30,000 men, expelling the legitimate magistrates. His undisciplined bands, however, were soon dispersed in the battle of Frankenhausen; he himself was brought hither a prisoner, and, after being tortured, was publicly executed. In his mad harangues he equally abused le Luther and the Pope.

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2 Langensalza.-Inns: Mohr; Sonne. An industrious manufacturing town, with a population of 7000.

About 2 m. out of the town is a saline sulphureous spring of some reputation, supplying Baths, much resorted to in summer.

2 GOTHA. In Route 86. 2 Ohrdruff. Inn, Anker (Post). A considerable town of the Thuringerwald, containing 3500 inhab. The road now begins to ascend the highest ridge of the Thuringian mountains, by easy traverses, admirably constructed.

Lodge. The forest here may almost be called primæval; the pines often attain the height of 280 ft. It yields a yearly revenue of 100,000l. in building-timber alone. Game of every description abounds; the red deer are of an enormous size; and that elsewhere rare bird the bustard occurs here in great numbers. Between 700 and 800 stags are killed in a year; and 20 or 30 of these noble animals may be seen from the road in passing in the evening. The Duke is allowed to have the finest chasse in Germany."— W.

At the little town of Zella a road strikes off on the rt. by Benhausen (2 G. m.) to Meiningen (21⁄2 G. m.) See Route 92.

Soon after leaving Oberhoff the road attains its highest elevation. The view here is truly magnificent, over a great extent of this noble forest, the dark abyss of its valleys, and its mountains clad with pines, except their often craggy summits. From this point we descend to

2 Suhl. · Inns: Deutsches Haus, best; Krone. The principal town of the Prussian county of Henneberg, situated in the valley of the Lauter, at the base of the Domberg, a peak of which, the Ottilienstein, commands a fine view. Population 7118, chiefly weavers of linen or woollen, or gunsmiths. Suhl has long been celebrated for its firearms, and for centuries was the only manufactory of them in Germany. 2 Schleusingen.—Inn, Grüner Baum. Route 94 b.

13 Hildburghausen.
12 Rodach.

In Rte. 92.

This road is important as a line of communication between N. and S. Germany; and there is much traffic of merchandise upon it. It enters the territory of Bavaria about half way between Coburg and

2 Lichtenfels (Inns: Krone, dear and dirty; Kreutz), a town of 2000 inhab., on the Main, carrying on some trade in timber floated down that river.

The railroad from Leipzig to Nu2 Oberhoff; "a solitary post-house remburg passes by Lichtenfels to Bamand Inn, close to the Duke's Huntingberg, and runs for some distance on the

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