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people. A town of 10,000 inhab., on | the Fulda. The principal buildings are, the Cathedral, a handsome modern edifice, containing the shrine of St. Boniface, in which was once deposited the body of the saint, a much revered relic, now reduced to a fragment of his skull. Here are two old figures of Charlemagne and of a Scottish princess on horseback, said to have been converted and brought over to Germany by St. Boniface; also in the sacristy, his crozier of ivory, and the dagger with which he was murdered by the Frisians.
The Palace was formerly the residence of the prince-bishops, to whom Fulda belonged. A statue of St. Boniface has been erected in the open space before it. St. Michael, is a very curious round church, of high antiquity, founded 822. The existing crypt, probably of that age, is supported in the centre by a stunted column, with a rude Ionic capital; a circular passage surrounds it. The tower and Langhaus were built in 1092. Most of the monasteries have been turned to secular purposes.
The old porcelain figures of Fulda are much esteemed.
2 Hünfeld. Near the end of this stage the road quits Hesse Cassel, and enters Saxe Weimar. 2 Buttlar. Inn, Post; neat and good. Fine views of the broken ridge of the Rhön-gebirge from this. 13 Vach. Here are two round towers, similar to those of Ireland; one of them is perfect, and has a conical top, which, however, differs in form from those of the Irish towers.
2 Marksuhl. The road now enters upon a portion of the Thuringerwald (Thuringian forest); a great portion of the country is covered with unbroken wood. On descending the last hill, to enter Eisenach, the castle of the Wartburg, Luther's prison, is seen on the summit of a hill on the right.
2 Eisenach. Inns Rauten-kranz (Rue Garland); Halbe Mond. This is the principal town of the Thuringerwald; it is clean, thriving, and industrious; popu. 10,000; and is prettily
situated, encircled by wooded hills. Sebastian Bach was born here. The oldest buildings are the Nicolaikirche, a tower and gate, the arch of which resembles Roman work.
A good carriage road, to be surmounted in a half hour's walk, of continued ascent, leads to the Castle of Wartburg, the ancient residence of the Landgraves of Thuringia, but more remarkable as the asylum of Luther, for the space of 10 months, from May 4. 1521, to March 6. 1522. It was while returning from the Diet of Worms, where he had so nobly stood forth in defence of his faith, unmoved by threats or cajoling, and had thereby incurred the papal excommunication, that on reaching the borders of the Thuringian forest, he was waylaid by a party of armed and vizored knights, his attendants dispersed, and himself made prisoner. So secretly was the capture effected, that no one knew for a time what had become of him; even Luther himself, it is believed, at the moment of his seizure, was not aware that the whole was merely the device of his friend, the Elector of Saxony, adopted with the view of rescuing him from the dangers which at that moment threatened his life. He was silently conveyed away to the Wartburg, where he passed for a young nobleman, wearing a suitable dress, allowing his mus taches to grow, and taking the name of Junker Georg (Squire George). During the time which he spent in this solitude, which he often calls his "Patmos," he wrote several works, and completed a large portion of his translation of the Bible.
The Wartburg, whose oldest portion, recently brought to light, including a long range of Romanesque arcades, dates from the 12th century, is by no means a picturesque castle, but it is finely situated, overlooking a wide range of wild forest-clad hills. The chamber which Luther inhabited is pointed out. His bedstead and chair have been carried away in chips by visitors as relics. His table has been prevented sharing the same fate by a strong iron band. He has himself described in his writ
In another division of the castle is a very curious Armoury, in which are several beautiful suits of the 16th and 17th centuries, and some attributed to the 13th or 14th. Many of the suits are assigned to great persons, such as Pope Julius II. and Henry II. of France, both finely worked; that of "Frederick with the bitten cheek" (so called because his mother, in the anguish of parting with him when a child, bit his cheek till the blood came), and of Lewis the leaper. Here are shown the armour of Kunz of Kaufungen, a robber knight of gigantic stature, who stole away two of the Saxon princes, and was beheaded at Freiberg; two suits, said to have been worn by Cunegunda and Agnes, Saxon princesses and heroines; the Constable > de Bourbon's armour, which he wore at the moment of his death, while in the act of scaling the walls of Rome; that of Feige von Bomsen; and of many dukes and landgraves of Thuringia. The Wartburg was the residence of the pious St. Elizabeth of Thuringia, who, being discovered by her stingy husband distributing victuals to the poor from her apron, and being asked what she had there, replied, "Flowers." The husband, thinking to detect her in a falsehood, tore open the garment, and lo! flowers fell out. By a miracle, to cover the pious fraud, and reward the lady's charity, the bread and cheese had been turned into roses and lilies! In 1207, the Minnesängers (Northern Troubadours) assembled on the Wartburg to hold a trial of skill. In 1817, 500 riotous students collected here from different German universities, chiefly from Jena, with several professors, and made some seditious and revolutionary speeches, which led to several arrests. The old castle has
Gotha, the chief town of the duchy, and, alternately with Coburg, the residence of the Duke of Saxe-Coburg, has a population of 13,000 souls.
The Palace, called Friedenstein, is a large, but not a handsome building, conspicuous at a distance, surrounded by terraces, commanding fine views. It contains, 1st, a Picture Gallery, not of first-rate excellence, but including good Cranachs, and Dutch pictures, particularly a female portrait by Van der Helst; Rembrandt's Mother; Rubens' Wife, and 2 Van Goyens. Two little Saxon princes, supposed to be Ernst and Albert; a screen of A. Durer's school, and some good small specimens of ancient Florentine painting; a portrait of Agnes von Mansfeld; Pope Pius VII., by Camuccini, and Charles IX. firing on the Huguenots, by the Belgian Wappers.
The cabinet of engravings is large and excellent. In the Kunstkammer may be seen the swords of Charlemagne and Sobieski; the prayer-book of James I. and Anne of Denmark, bound by Cellini; a ring of Mary Stuart; Louis XIV.'s head on an amethyst; fine gold-mounted nautili, and some capital figures executed in wood. Among the gems is a Medusa's head in sardonyx, &c. 2d, a Library of 150,000 vols., including the collection of 2000 MSS. made in the East
by Seetzen, many of them very valuable. 3d, a Museum of Natural History, interesting: the specimens of cheirotherium, mammoth, and amber are fine. 4th, Coins and Medals, very extensive and complete; one of the finest collections of the kind in Europe. 5th, a Japanese and Chinese Museum, contains many curiosities seldom seen in Europe; such as rare Chinese and Japanese books, articles of furniture, weapons, &c. A tariff of the fees to be paid for seeing the different collections in the Schloss is hung up at the inns, and should be consulted before visiting it. Notice should also be sent from the inn to the several keepers, to secure their attendance.
The Almanach de Gotha is the title of a pocket-book printed here, which gives the names, ages, and pedigrees of all the reigning princes of Europe and their families.
Berghaus's maps and charts, published by Perthes, are very excellent.
A porcelain manufactory, formerly in some estimation, is carried on here.
The Gardens and Terraces belonging to the palace, and the Boulevards round the town, are agreeable promenades. There are many pleasant excursions in the neighbourhood, but its beauties are perhaps somewhat exaggerated by the natives. A visit to Reinhardsbrunn (9 m.), a ducal country seat, in the form of a Gothic château, erected on the site of an ancient Benedictine abbey, destroyed in the Peasants' War, 1525, is particularly recommended to strangers who can spare 5 or 6 hours to such a détour. Several curious old monuments of Saxon princes are placed in the Chapel. The country about it resembles a beautiful park. The Inselsberg, 24 hours' walk from this, commands from its top a finer view than any other mountain of the Thuringian range. Schnepfenthal, the celebrated institution for education (Erziehung's Anstalt) of Mr. Salzmann, is on the road. At Siebleben, about a quarter of a mile out of the town, on the way to Erfurt, Grimm, author of the "Correspondence," is buried. On the summit of a hill to the right is seen the
Observatory of Seeburg, formerly the residence of Baron Zach, the astronomer. At Dietendorf, a few miles off, there is a Moravian colony.
The Hamster rat increases at times to such an enormous extent in the Thuringer Wald as to become a plague. In 1817-18, 200,000 were taken in the neighbourhood of Gotha.
On the right of the road to Erfurt may be discovered the three castles called the Drei Gleichen. They are of great antiquity, and belonged to different owners, but were all struck with lightning in 1250. Mühlberg is a total ruin, except its donjon tower. Gleichen is in a better state of preservation, the roof remaining in part: the Wachsburg is still entire and inhabited. They are situated in the most beautiful part of Thuringia.
Beyond this, about half-way between Gotha and Erfurt, we cross the boundary of Prussia. At a little distance from the walls of Erfurt, the strong citadel of Cyriaksberg is passed.
Erfurt Stat. Inns: Zum Kaiser; Weisses Ross. This town was at one time capital of Thuringia; it now belongs to Prussia, and is a fortress of second class, very important from its situation on the great high road of central Europe. The fort Petersburg within the walls, and the citadel of Cyriaksberg without, contribute to its strength. It is a dull and inanimate town, exhibiting marks of decay, and its population has shrunk to 28,000; not more than half of what it once possessed. It has a garrison of 4000 men.
The Dom (Cathedral), well situated, and originally a fine Gothic structure, has been seriously injured by war; but the King of Prussia has expended considerable sums in repairing it. The choir dates from 1353, the nave from 1472. The 3 stately towers are of the 12th century. It possesses a famous bell, called Gloriosa, weighing 275 cwt. The N. portal resembles the W. porch of Ratisbon, and is much admired. The altars on the 1. as you enter are very elegant. Notice should be taken of a bronze bas-relief, attached to the
monument of Canon Henning Göden, |
There is one object of particular interest here: it is Luther's Cell in the Augustine convent. The building is now converted into an Orphan House (Waisenhaus), but his apartment is served as nearly as possible in its original condition, and contains his portrait, Bible, and other relics. He entered the convent as a monk, July 17. 1505, in consequence of a vow made 14 days before, on the death of a friend who was struck by lightning at his side. Here he spent several years of his life: at the altar in the chapel he read his first mass, and here, perhaps in this very cell, he first studied the Bible, of which he never saw a copy until he was 20 years old, when he picked one up, by accident, in a corner of the library.
In the neighbouring church, the Erfurt Parliament held its meetings,
Schropp's models of Gothic buildings, &c., are worth seeing.
The University of Erfurt was suppressed in 1816, and of the numerous convents which existed here till very recently one only remains, the Ursuline Nunnery. It is worth visiting, as an interesting specimen of a monastic establishment. The sisters employ themselves in teaching a school.
From the 14th to the 16th century,
Erfurt was a staple place of the trade of a great part of Europe. The great commercial highway between the Baltic and the Hanse Towns on the one hand, and Italy and Venice on the other, lay through Augsburg, Nuremberg, Erfurt, and Brunswick, to Lübec and Danzig.
A congress of sovereigns was assembled at Erfurt, 1807, by Napoleon. Shortly after leaving Erfurt the railroad quits the Prussian dominions, and enters Saxe Weimar. Erbprinz,
WEIMAR Stat. - Inns: improved; Elephant, not good; Russischer Hof, best. Weimar situated on the Ilm, is the residence of the Grand Duke of Saxe Weimar, and capital of his dominions; it has 13,000 inhab. To a stranger it will probably appear a dull and provincial looking town. It has no trade to give it activity; nor can the presence of a court supply this want. It has also lost its claim to its former appellation of The Athens of the North since the deaths of Schiller, Göthe, Wieland, Herder, and other men of genius and learning, who, though not natives of the duchy, resided here by invitation of the former Grand Duke, and conferred a lustre on his court and capital.
There are few sights at Weimar to detain a traveller. The chief buildings are the Stadtkirche (town church). The altar-piece of the Crucifixion, by Lucas Cranach, contains portraits of the artist himself near the cross, and of his friends Luther and Melancthon. 44 members of the Ducal Family of Saxe Weimar are interred here. The most illustrious among them is the Grand Duke Bernard, the brave general of the Thirty Years' War, the ally of Gustavus Adolphus, and second to him only among all the Protestant leaders.
His grave has no other distinction than a simple brass plate. A tablet in the pavement bearing the name of Herder, marks the spot where that eminent writer is buried.
In the Cemetery of the Schloss Kirche, or Church of St. James, is the tomb of Lucas Cranach (d. 1553). The mason who carved his epitaph has
written pictor celerrimus, instead of celeberrimus; it can hardly be said by mistake, because both epithets are equally deserved, from the number as well as merits of the works he has left behind. In the same place are the graves of Musæus the poet (d. 1787), and of Bodæus.
The Palace is a handsome building, tastefully furnished, but not otherwise remarkable. A suit of apartments has been decorated by modern artists, Neher, Preller, &c., with frescoes, illustrating the works of Schiller, Göthe, and Wieland. Duke Bernard's armour is kept in one of the rooms; and beside it, in a box, one of his fingers, which was cut off in an encounter with an enemy, and afterwards preserved and carried about by its owner.
Near the palace is the Public Library. Within it are several portraits of eminent persons by L. Cranach and other artists; colossal busts of Schiller, by Dannecker, and of Göthe, by David; busts of Herder and Wieland. There are also a few relics of great men, such as the black gown worn by Luther when a monk; Gustavus Adolphus's leather belt, pierced by the bullet which caused his death at Lützen.
The house of Göthe, 'in which he died (1832), is in the Frauenplatz. The interesting relics of him, and the collections which he left behind, are no longer shown to the public. The furniture was of a very homely description; in his study were a common deal table (at which he wrote, which belonged to Schiller), his desk, and stool. He never had an arm-chair until he was 80. His drawing-room was decorated with casts from the antique; with models and drawings by the old masters. The house of Schiller is also pointed out in the Esplanade.
The Theatre was once under Göthe's and Schiller's management. The performances and music are still tolerable. The audience has the character of a large family party. Females come and go unattended; and ladies need appear in no finer costume than a bonnet and morning dress. The play is generally over by nine.
In the New Churchyard, beyond the Frauenthor, beneath a small chapel, is the Grand Ducal burial-vault. Göthe and Schiller are here interred. The late Duke, Charles Augustus, their patron and friend, intended that their remains should have been deposited on each side of him, but it appeared that courtly etiquette would not permit this proximity, and they have therefore been placed in one corner, at a respectful distance. Hummel the composer is also buried here. The apparatus assorted to, to prevent premature interment, is curious (§ 45.), and should be
The grounds belonging to the Palace are laid out in a Park and Gardens, extending along the pleasant banks of the Ilm. They are much esteemed by the inhabitants as a promenade. Within them is situated the summer residence of Göthe. The park communicates, by an avenue, with the summer villa called Belvedere (2 m.), commanding a fine view, and having a hothouse, conservatory, and fine garden attached to it. Another château of the Grand Duke is prettily situated at Tieffurth. It is worth a visit. It contains an immense quantity of rococo of all descriptions. The kitchen is lined with old Dutch tiles, and the dressers covered with all sorts of game, fruit, fish, &c., in porcelain, delf, and papier maché. Wieland's grave is at Osmanstadt, 5 m. on the way to Jena from Weimar, in the midst of his garden.
Eilwagen daily to Jena, Gera, and Altenburg. About 12 m. E. of Weimar is Jena, remarkable for its University. (See Rte. 94 a.)
There is a direct road from Weimar by Jena and Altenburg to Dresden, passing Freiburg, or to Carlsbad. (Rtes. 91 and 90.). Apolda Stat.
The field of the battle of Auerstädt, or Jena, so disastrous to Prussia, 14 Oct. 1806, lies near Hassenhausen, S. of the railroad, between the Apolda Stat. and Naumburg. A small pillar has been erected by the King of Prussia in a field to the S. of the road, between Eckhardsberge and Naumburg, to mark