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and fertile. The Zobtenberg is conspicuous on the right; it is about 10 miles distant from 3 Jordansmühle. 21 Nimptsch. Inns Schwartzer Bär; Weisser Schwann. A prettily situated town of 1600 inhab. The old castle is seen on the right in entering. Many bloody contests took place here during the Hussite wars. Beyond Zützendorf the road passes the neighbourhood of the Chrysoprase Mines of Kosemitz (now disused), and of Schrebsdorf. Near Protzen there is a mine of opal.

2 Frankenstein. - Inns: Deutsches Haus; Schwartzer Adler. A town of 6000 inhab. 7 m. W. is the mountain fortress of Silberberg; it may be called the Gibraltar of Prussia, in so far as its defences, bastions, casemates, &c., are almost entirely hewn out of the solid rock. They were constructed by Frederick the Great, to guard the passage from Bohemia, at an expense of 4 millions of Prussian dollars.

The Catholic Church, in the marketplace of the little town of Wartha (through which the road passes), contains a miracle-working statue of the Virgin, to whose shrine, in some years, 40,000 pilgrims repair to offer up their vows and prayers. A steep road, marked by chapels, leads up to the chapel on the Wartberg, at a height of 1772 feet above the sea; the view from thence is fine. The banks of the river Neisse are very picturesque; near the town it forces a passage through the rocky gorge called Warthapass. After a steep ascent and descent, the road enters Glatz over a wooden bridge, between the ancient and modern fortress. A fine view over the basin-shaped valley forming the county of Glatz, and of Bohemian mountains beyond.

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3 Glatz. Inns: Weisses Ross; Krone; both in the suburb. A strong fortress on the Neisse, having about 9000 inhab., garrison included. A permission from the commandant is necessary to view the works. The statue of St. John Nepomuk was placed upon the donjon, by order of Frederick the Great, after he had taken the fortress.

Baron Trenck escaped from its dungeons by jumping from the ramparts.

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15 m. S. E. of Glatz are the baths of Landeck, in a picturesque country, with an excellent trout stream running throught it. Inns: Weisser Löwe; Schlössel; Goldene Krone. ters are tepid, sulphurous. The town is a mile distant from the Baths; it is a good station for visiting the Sudetic mountains. 36 m. beyond Landeck, through Jawornik (a bad road), is the Water- Cure Establishment of Vincent Priessnitz at Gräfenburg, a village in the Austrian territory, 18 m. Neisse.


3 Reinerz.-Inns: Goldene Krone; Schwartzer Bär. A small town of 2100 inhab., surrounded by mountains. About a mile off, in a secluded valley, are some mineral Baths, much frequented in summer. A few miles N. of Reinerz rises the Heuscheuer, or Heuscheune (Hay-barn, so called from its shape). "A vast assemblage of detached masses of rock, many of them formed into the most curious shapes, from the sculpturing of nature, and named after various objects, to which they bear a very exact resemblance. The most perfect likenesses are those of a 'bear,' a 'camel,' a 'seal' (Seehund), a Moor's head,' and a 'laughing profile,'

all natural productions." J. E. R. The highest point is the Grossvaters Stuhl (Grandfather's Chair)-2800 feet above the sea: from it the Carpathians are visible. The key of this very curious mountain is kept at Carlsberg, a little village on the W. side of it.

Not far from this is the village of Alberndorf, remarkable for containing a much frequented Pilgrimage Church, with several minor chapels and stations, ornamented with figures of saints, and rude paintings representing the history of Christ. In the printed descriptions of this town it is called a second Jerusalem; and in order to make out a resemblance to the real Jerusalem it has twelve gates; while a stream running through it is called Brook Kedron; and the pool of Bethesda, the house of St. Anne, and the palace of the

High Priest, all have their representatives within the walls. The traveller puts up or is taken in at the Judgment-hall of Pilate!

The last Prussian village is Lewin; beyond it is the Austrian custom-house. About 4 m. from Lewin, off the road, lies Cudowa, whose mineral springs furnish a chalybeate, very strongly impregnated with carbonic acid gas. There are 2 lodging-houses and an assembly-room on the spot. The inhabitants of the village are chiefly descendants of Bohemian Hussites.

3 Nachod. - Inn, Lamm. The first town in Bohemia; it has 2200 inhab., chiefly weavers. Its Castle is said by some to be the birth-place of the renowned Wallenstein; it belonged to his brother-in-law, Terzki, and at their death was confiscated, and bestowed upon the traitor Piccolomini. It commands a fine view of the whole range of the Riesengebirge. Nachod is a good starting point to explore these mountains.


2 Jaromierz, on the Elbe. this, on the left bank of the river, stands the fortress of Josephstadt.— Inn, bey Wesseley, very good.

2 Königgrätz.- Inn, Das Goldene Lamm. Another frontier fortress, with large barracks for a garrison, and 7500 inhab.; lies on the Elbe. The Cathedral, and the Church and Convent, which formerly belonged to the Jesuits, are the most remarkable buildings. Much cloth is inade here.

Königgrätz is only 34 Germ. m. distant from the Pardubitz station on the Prague and Vienna Railway, whence

trains run in 4 hours to


ROUTE 85 a.


34 Germ. m. = 160 Eng. m. Trains in about 9 hrs.

This railway, as far as the Prussian and Austrian frontier, is called the Upper Silesian Railway (Oberschlesische Eisenbahn).

Breslau, Route 81.

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Ohlau Stat. Inn, Goldene Krone. On the 1. bank of the Oder, has a palace and a picture gallery.

2 Brieg. Inn, Goldenes Kreutz. On the 1. bank of the Oder, with 12,000 inhab. The palace here was formerly the residence of the Dukes of Brieg. A little to the westward is the battle-field of Mollwitz, where Frederick the Great defeated the Austrians, 10 Apr. 1741.

From Brieg a branch railway runs to the town of Neisse, a distance of 6 Germ. m. The stations are 3 Grottkau, 31 Neisse. 4 Germ. m. south of this on the post road is Freiwaldau. Inn, Silber Krone, near which is the celebrated Water-Cure Establishment of Gräfenburg, under Priessnitz.

1 Lossen Stat.

1 Löwen Stat. After leaving this the railroad crosses the Neisse and the Oder, just before reaching

3 Oppeln Stat. Inns: Schwartzer Adler, good; Sächsischer Hof. The capital of Upper Silesia, with 6800 inhab. ; formerly the residence of the Dukes of Silesia.

23 Gogolin Stat. About 1 Germ. m. beyond this station, and at about the same distance from the railroad, is the Annaberg, on the summit of which stands a building formerly a Franciscan convent, containing a miraculous image. It is a greatly frequented place of pilgrimage, especially on St. Anna's Day.

The railroad crosses the river Klodnitz and its canal to

23 Kandrzin Stat. On the opposite bank of the Oder, which is crossed by a wooden bridge, lies the town and fortress of Kosel, 2900 inhab. At this station the railway which connects the Upper Silesian Railway with the Prague and Vienna Railway turns off southwards to Ratibor. (See Route 85 b.) The railway to Cracow runs eastward up the valley of the Klodnitz to Rudzienietz Stat.



Gleiwitz Stat. A town of 9000 inhab. on the Klodnitz, in the mining district of Upper Silesia. There are considerable iron works in the town

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and in the neighbourhood, also many iron mines.

The railway passes on the 1. Za.

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2 Königshütte (King's foundry) Stat. at both which places there are large iron works. The steel-iron works at Königshütte are celebrated as one of the best arranged in Germany, for smelting iron ore by means of coke.

3 Myslowitz Stat. Beyond this the railway crosses the river Schwarze Przemsa, which was the boundary of Silesia and the territory of the republic of Cracow, and now divides Silesia from the Austrian dominions.

81 Cracow.-Inns : Hotel de Russie; H. de la Rose; König v. Ungarn; 37,000 inhab. Since 1846 this has been an Austrian city belonging to the province of Galicia. Up to that time it was a free town, and the last remnant of the once great kingdom of Poland. (See, for description of Cracow, HANDBOOK OF SOUTH GERMANY.)

ROUTE 85 b.


Proceed by the Upper Silesian Railway (Oberschlesische Bahn) as far as

the Kandrzin or Kosel Stat. (16 Germ. m. 4 hrs.), as in Route 85 a. At Kandrzin a railway, which between this and the Austrian frontier is called the Wilhelm's Bahn, branches off to the S. Its length is 7 Germ. m., which is traversed in 11 hr. Those parts of Silesia and Moravia which are traversed by the railway are very pretty. 2 (Germ. m. from Kandrzin) Hammer Stat.

2 Ratibor Stat. Inn, Prinz von Preussen. A town of 6000 inhab., on the Oder, which here becomes navigable. Persons wishing to divide the journey between Breslau and Vienna, will do well to make Ratibor their sleeping quarters. The Prince of Prussia there is a very comfortable hotel.

From Breslau to Ratibor will

occupy about 6 hours, from Ratibor to Vienna 12 or 13.

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SAXONY has now adopted the same currency as Prussia, and the other States of the Zollverein (§ 48.), of which the dollar is the unit. See § 48.

Accounts must be kept in Neugroschen = silver groschen of Prussia, of which 30 make a thaler; but in private transactions, especially in inns and shops, the old mode of reckoning by gute groschen (24 to the dollar) is still in use, though prohibited by law.

Silver Coins

2 thaler (4 mark silver)

1 do. ( do.)

—— of a dollar

See § 48. p. 237.

Kassen Scheine. - Notes of Saxony are in use as well as those of Prussia. The Leipzig and Dresden Railroad Company has also been allowed to issue paper money, but it is not taken at the public offices, nor at theatres.

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The posting tariff is now the same as in Prussia (§ 49. p. 237.). 12 Neugroschen per horse each German mile, and 15 N. gr. for a courier's horse. The long miles of Saxony are also abandoned for the Prussian mile.



Post road from Frankfurt to Eisenach, 23 Germ. m. =107 Eng. m.

Railway from Eisenach to Leipzig, by Halle, Eisenach to Halle 25 Germ. m.=1164 Eng. m.

Between Frankfurt and Leipzig the road passes through the territories of 7 different states. About 4 m. from Frankfurt it enters the Electorate of Hesse Cassel.

residence by the Emp. Frederick Barbarossa. The ruins of his Palace, built about 1144, still exist on an island in the Kinzig, in the lower part of the town, but are fast going to decay. The style of its architecture is that called by the Germans Byzantine, and shows, indeed, traces of an Eastern origin. The walls are of the most massive masonry. The chapel and the Imperiul Hall (Reichssaal) where Barbarossa administered justice, deserve particular notice. On one side is a range of small round arches, supported by short pillars with foliated capitals; on the other is the throne of Barbarossa, with singular bracketed columns, and ornaments resembling basket-work on the wall.

The Cathedral also is interesting in an architectural point of view, as it was built 1210-1220, and shows the transition from the round into the

The Elector has a château near Hanau, called Phillipsruhe, on the banks of the Main, about a mile to the right of the road. The Baths of Wilhelmsbad, occupying a deserted château in the midst of neglected gardens, lie at nearly the same distance on the left. They are resorted to by the Frank-pointed style of Gothic, and proves the furters; their chief attractions are the walks in the wood. A railway is being constructed between Frankfurt and Hanau.

2 Hanau. - Inns: Post; Riese, comfortable though small, but dear. This is the most considerable town of Hesse after Cassel, having 14,800 inhab.; it is situated near the junction of the Kinzig with the Main. It was defended by Ramsay, a Scotchman, for 9 months, against the Imperialists in the 30 Years' War. On quitting the town, the road passes the battle-field of October 30 and 31. 1813, where Napoleon, retreating from Leipzig with the wreck of his army, cut his way through the Bavarians and Austrians. The loss of the allies exceeded that of the French; it would have been greater, but for the manoeuvre of a miller, who, observing the German infantry hard pressed by a body of French cavalry, suddenly let the water into his millstream, between the two parties, and thus secured the retreat of his own friends.

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late introduction into Germany of the pointed style. It has many peculiarities, as a twisted spire, a cupola, a mixture of round and pointed arches, wood-work, and old triptychs, a stone screen, with altar towards the nave. The doorways and capitals of the columns are richly ornamented, and the windows are filled with fine stained glass. The remains of St. Peter's Church present an early example of the round arched style.

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The greater part of the next stage lies through a corner of Bavaria. 24 Saalmünster. Inn: Post. Dollars and groschen here take the place of florins and kreutzers (§ 55.), and the posting is paid for in them.

2 Schlüchtern.- Inn: Zur Goldene Sonne.

[14 miles to the E., lie the Baths of Brückenau, a much frequented watering-place. (See HANDBOOK, SOUTH GERMANY. Route 169.) The road thither is improved, but is very hilly. The stage of 3 Germ. m. takes 3 hours; or 11 hours from Frankfurt.] 2 Neuhof.

13 Fulda. Inns Kurfürst (Elecneat and tor), very fair; Post, a comfortable little inn, kept by obliging

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