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almost perpendicular precipices, so that
The Schneekoppe (snow-head), or Riesenkoppe, the highest summit of the Riesengebirge, 4983 feet above the sea-level, may easily be ascended in 5 or 6 hours from Wambrunn. The ascent, however, from Schmiedeberg is shorter than from Warmbrunn, and the road is good. The traveller who makes the ascent should be prepared, if he intend to pass the night on the mountain, to sleep on hay, and he will act wisely in taking provisions with him, as the accommodation of the baude is far from good. He should also be prepared for mist, rains, and the probability of not seeing the
view in consequence. The road usually taken leads by Seidorf, 1 hour 10 minutes walk, where guides may be found, and chairs, asses, and mules are kept for hire. Thence to the Brod Baude 1 hour 5 minutes; thence to the Brückenberg 15 minutes (see the Norwegian Church); and from it in hour 10 minutes to the Hampelsbaude, a humble inn or chalet, (where very tolerable refreshment may be had), only 20 minutes' walk from the summit. Those who choose to pass the night on the mountain, for the sake of seeing the sun rise, will find better accommodation in the Grenzbaude (called also Böhmische baude). The top of the mountain is crowned by a small chapel, now converted into an inn, standing on the frontier line of Austria and Prussia. The prospect is extensive when the state of the weather allows it to be visible. On the side of Silesia the slope is most abrupt, but the scenery is rich and populous; on the S. towards Bohemia, it is wild, and descends more gradually in a series of terraces intersected by the rugged glen of the Riesen or Aupengrund, 2000 feet below. Breslau, 45 m. off, is sometimes seen from hence, it is said. The want of water, however, is a great drawback in the landscape. In descending, the traveller may vary his walk by proceeding from the Hampelsbaude across the Rübezahl's (Number Nip's) skittle-ground, in 14 hour, to the Gräber Steine; 5 minutes walk from St. Anne's Chapel, where the forester's house affords good refreshment, and return thence to Warmbrunn in 13 hour.
The sources of the Elbe are situated under the S. roots of the Schneekoppe, which lies right S. from Hirschberg. The Weisswasser is regarded as the proper source of the Elbe, and its fountain head is a strong spring, which never fails, rising close to the Wiesenbaude, 4380 feet above the sea in the Weisse Wiese. Another stream from the valley called the Nawarer Wiese unites with it in the Elbegrund. These are troublesome to reach, surrounded by marshy ground; but the vale of the Elbe is very picturesque. The pedes
trian has the choice of descending from the Schneekoppe into Bohemia, and proceeding at once to Adersbach, and its wonderful rocks-S. E. by Klein Aupa to Schatzlar (about 4 hours), where the Burgomaster's inn is good and near which the Bober rises from a well in the forest. Thence to Adersbach is a walk of 6 hours, a beautiful and gratifying excursion. Or if he prefer it, there are paths direct from the Schneekoppe to Schmiedeberg; the time occupied in walking thither is about five hours.
The post-road from Hirschberg thither passes near the mine of felspar, which supplies material for the Berlin china. Half way between Hirschberg and Schmiedeberg lies Erdmannsdorf, (Inn. das Schweitze Haus, close to the Schloss and Church), seat of the late General Gneisenau, now the property of the King of Prussia, who has recently given an asylum, and allotted land here to about 400 Tyrolese Protestants, who were driven out of their native valley, the Zillerthal, on account of their faith, by the intolerance of the Romish priesthood. The houses forming the colony are built by the Tyrolese themselves, in their own peculiar and picturesque architecture. Persons visiting Erdmannsdorf and it is well worth visiting-will do well to do so from Warmbrunn, and not from Hirschberg. The distance is nearly the same both waysa walk of 1 hour-but the former road is very agreeable, passing through the pretty village of Stohnsdorf, while the latter is a dead flat, and rather uninteresting.
Fischbach is the beautiful seat of the Prince Wm. of Prussia, in a charming situation, about 4 miles E. of Erdmannsdorf. Upon the neighbouring Marianne's rock is a colossal lion (cross), of cast iron. Further on, near Schmeideberg, about 1 mile to the right of the road, is the Ruheberg, a country-house of Prince Radzevil.
2 Schmiedeberg.—Inns: Schwartzes Ross, good; Goldene Sterne; Deutsches Haus. A manufacturing town, in a pleasant situation, with 3500 inhab., owing its prosperity chiefly to its ex
tensive iron furnaces, mines, &c., with a market place surrounded by an arcade. The road hence to Landeshut is the highest in Prussia practicable for carriages, rising 2233 feet. It passes through a delightful country, and there are very fine views from near the summit, towards Schmiedeberg and the Schneckoppe on one side, and towards Landeshut on the other. At the summit, to the northward, and within a quarter of an hour's walk from the road, is the Friesenstein, a group of rocks 2888 ft. above the sea level. The view is magnificent.
24 Landeshut. - Inns Schwartzer Rabe, good; Goldener Löwe. Romantically situated at the foot of the Riesengebirge, on the Bober; has 3500 inhab., considerable bleaching-grounds, and manufactures of linen. The convent of Grüssau, with its ancient church and chapel, are worth seeing.
The Rock Labyrinth of Adersbach is situated within the frontier of Bohemia, about 19 m. from Landeshut, 17 from Waldenberg, and 12 from Trautenau. The Prussian Custom-house, on the road to it, is at Liebau; the Austrian, at Königshain. The road from Liebau is very bad, and only narrow axles can traverse it at all.
Adersbach. Inn, Traiteur Haus; good and clean, but small; delicious mountain trout may be had here. The Rocks of Adersbuch are a most wonderful assemblage of masses of sandstone, extending in all directions over a space 3 m. broad and 6 or 8 long, separated into fragments of various sizes by openings, gulfs, and fissures. They resemble those of the Heuscheuer (p. 435.) and Saxon Switzerland, but far surpass them in size and number. You walk, as it were, in a narrow street, with immense smooth walls on each side of you, opening here and there into squares, whence is obtained a view of the countless number of giant rocks which surround you on all sides. This locality does not present the extraordinary natural figures existing at the Heuscheuer: the wonder of Adersbach consists in the vast size and number of rocks here clustered together; and it
with a branch to Schweidnitz.
14 m. from Breslau, and a few miles to the rt. of the road, is Krieblowitz, where Marshal Blücher lived and died (1819). He is buried in the open air by the roadside, under the shade of 3 lime trees. A huge block of granite was dislodged from the top of the Zobten to serve as a monument. Beyond this to the E. is seen the Zobtenberg, an isolated mountain, rising out of the plain, and commanding a wide prospect over Silesia.
Ingramsdorf Stat. Königszelt Stat. Here is the junction of the branch railway which runs to
is very annoying to have the attention diverted every moment from the contemplation of them, by the pertinacity with which the guide is determined to acquaint you with the names of various rocks, none of which bear the least resemblance to the objects after which they are called, except, perhaps, the Burgomaster,' which is curious." -T. E. R. Among the rocks there is a remarkably fine waterfall, seen from the recesses of a grotto, affording picturesque effects of light and shade. By moonlight the aspect of the rocks is highly romantic. In number the rocks amount to many thousands; and often rise to a height of more than 200 ft., the highest being 280 ft. So numerous and intricate are the passages among them, that they form a complete labyrinth, among which there is danger of losing one's way without a guide. There can be little doubt that the whole was at one time a continuous and solid stratum of sandstone, and that it owes its present form to the passage over it of floods or currents of running water, which, having found their way into the crevices and clefts, have gradually worn down the softer parts into gutters and channels. The rocks, like those of the Saxon Switzerland, belong to the formation called by the Germans Quadersandstein, corresponding with the Green Sand of Eng-tiful land. Adersbach is certainly a curiosity without parallel in Europe, and well deserves to be visited. The whole is imperial property, and the guide, who is to be found at the inn, at the entrance to the rocks, is entitled to a fee of 3 groschen.
Landeshut is in the road between Breslau and Prague, described in Rte. 84.
BRESLAU TO SCHWEIDNITZ, LANDESHUT,
A Railroad, 73 Germ. m. long, is opened between Breslau and Freiburg;
Schweidnitz. - Inns: Krone; Scepter. A beautifully situated town on the Weistritz, with 10,000 inhab. was formerly a strong fortress; but the greater part of its works were demolished by the French in 1806. The parish ch., a Gothic building (date 1330), is surmounted by a tower, 320 ft. high. The Castle, formerly the residence of the Piast Dukes, has now become a poorhouse. The town itself is dull, but the traveller will find good cause to tarry until he has explored its beau
environs. The most pleasing excursion is that to the Castle of Fürstenstein, a modern edifice, perched on the summit of a wooded hill. It was built about 40 years ago, on the site of an older castle, and in imitation of a feudal residence of the middle ages, by the Count of Hochberg, but has been recently purchased by the King of Prussia. It has an armoury, in which is preserved the camp bed of Frederick the Great; and a few family portraits decorate its walls. Its towers command an admirable panorama of the surrounding country. Directly opposite rises another Castle, which, though called New, is as old as the 13th century, and has stood sieges from Hussites and Swedes. It is now converted into a dwelling, and surrounded with terraced gardens. The valley which
separates the two castles is exceedingly 1601, in the small town of Neu Benabeautiful. tek, not far from
Freiburg.-Inn, Rother Hirsch. A town of 2000 inhab., under the Fürstenstein.
The battle of Striegau, 9 miles to the northward, gained by Frederick the Great, in 1745, was fought near this; in the vicinity was his fortified camp of Bunzelwitz.
5 m. from Freiburg are the Baths of Salzbrunn (Inn, Preussische Krone), a dull village, scarcely worth stopping at; and 6 m. S. of Freiberg is Waldenberg, a good station for visiting the rocks of Adersbach, about 17 m. distant. (See p. 431.) Eilwagen to Hirschberg, by Bolkenhain, 6 Germ. m., once daily by Landeshut, 7 Germ. m., twice daily, in summer. The road from Freiburg to Landeshut is hilly. Reichenau.
2 Landeshut, p. 431. The Austrian and Prussian frontier is crossed beyond Liebau, where the Prussian customhouse stands. The Austrian customhouse is at Königshain.
4 Trautenau. Inn, Weisses Ross, best, but not very good. The first town in the Austrian territory; popu. 2400. It was the birthplace (1360) of John Zisca, the Hussite leader, "Captain in the hope of God," as he called himself. Much linen is made here. Adersbach is about 12 m. off, in a direct line (p. 431.).
2 Arnau (or Nieder Oels) has 2300 inhab., chiefly weavers. It lies on the Elbe, which takes its rise about 25 m. N. of this (p. 430.), among the roots of the Schneekoppe. A pleasant excursion may be made to the source, following its banks, and passing the pretty town of Hohenelbe (Inn, Schwartzer Adler, middling), and the cascades of Elbfall and Weisswasser.
2 Neu Paka; the Post. 2 Gitschin. Inn, Goldener Löwe. The castle was built by Wallenstein,
DRESDEN TO ZITTAU AND REICHENBERG
The railroad from Dresden to Breslau (Route 82.) is followed as far as
Löbau Stat. (p. 426), where branch railroad, 32 Germ. m. long, strikes off S. to Herrnhut and Zittau.
Herrnhut (Inn, Gemeinlogie; very good) is the mother colony of the sect of Moravians, or Herrnhuters. It was established by fugitives, driven from Austria in consequence of the persecution of the Jesuits, 1721-25. They were received by Count Zinzendorf, a Saxon nobleman, who granted them an asylum and lands on this spot; and is considered as their founder. Near the highway, in the midst of a wood intersected by pleasant walks, a monument marks the place where he caused the first tree to be felled in 1722, to clear ground for the settlement, the country being then a vast forest. The community derives its name of "Herrnhuter," i. e. "the Lord's watch," from a passage in the 84th Psalm, "Den Thur huten in meines Gottes Hause," -"to watch the door in the house of my God." It is now a flourishing little formal town, of 1400 inhab., distinguished by the order, stillness, and cleanliness which prevail in it; situated in the midst of a somewhat tame country of undulating hills, now nearly cleared of wood. It is the seat of a
bishop, and the central point of the government and commerce of the sect, which, in 1832, numbered 42 settlements in different parts of the world. The Moravians profess the doctrines of the Confession of Augsburg; but, excepting their love for music and toleration of dancing, they bear some resemblance to the Quakers, especially in the plainness of their dress. The female costume is distinguished by variously coloured ribbons. The girls wear deep red; unmarried women pink; married, blue; and widows, grey or white. The meeting-house, the sale-rooms for the articles manufactured here, and the Cemetery of the community on the Hutberg, all deserve to be visited. The Cemetery is a very interesting spot, commanding a lovely prospect. It is surrounded by a tall hedge of hornbeam, and intersected by avenues of the same, between which are laid the flat gravestones, quite plain, and bearing merely the name, and dates of birth and death. Those of the Zinzendorf family, in the centre, alone are distinguished from the rest by their larger dimensions. That of the founder bears an inscription commemorating his bounty. Above the Friedhof rises the Hutberg, or watchhill, a sort of cliff or group of rocks, surmounted by a temple or look-out house, commanding a fine panorama, -a wide prospect over the town, the estate bequeathed by Count Zinzendorf to the colony, Berchtoldsdorf, containing the house where he died, and in the distance the hill called the Saxon Crown.
The Museum of natural history, col. lected by Moravian missionaries in the most distant corners of the earth, is interesting. The Herrnhuters are an industrious community: the linen manufacture of Saxony may be said to owe its development to them.
Zittau. - Inns: Sonne, good; Säxischer Hof. "A fine and prosperous manufacturing town of 8000 inhab., situated on the river Neisse. It is the centre of the linen trade of Saxony; and in its immediate vicinity cotton and woollen manufactures are extensively carried on. A splendid new Rathhaus has been built. From its proximity to
the Bohemian frontier it enjoys a considerable traffic with that country. The mountains which here form the Saxon boundary rise to a commanding height, and, although 25 m. distant, are a prominent object in the view from the Saxon Switzerland. In the town itself the most attractive object is the Church of St. John, in the Byzantine style.” -J. E. T
South of Zittau, on the road to Gabel, are the ruins of the extensive monastery of Oybin, situated on a hill above Žittau. Here is a beautiful chapel in the best pointed style, partly cut in the rock; but now a ruin. It stands in a cave or recess in the face of the cliff, and commands an extensive view over forest and valley. The ruins are easily found, as they are visible from Zittau, and may be reached by a fair walker in about 2 hours.
From Zittau excursions may be made to Wallenstein's castle Friedland (p. 427.), and to the Baths of Liebwerda. Higher up the valley of the Neisse, within Bohemia, lies
33 Reichenberg (Inn, Goldener Löwe; middling), the most rising manufacturing town in Bohemia, second to Prague alone in population, having 12,000 inhab. Its manufacture of linen is very flourishing and of great importance.
This town is on the high road between Görlitz and Prague, and is 7 Germ. m. distant from Jung Buntzlau, on the road from Breslau to Prague, described in Rte. 84. The stages are, 2 Liebenau, 3 Münchengrätz, 2 Jung-Bunzlau.
BRESLAU TO GLATZ AND PRAGUE BY THE HEUSCHEUER.
27 Pruss. miles =1253 Eng. miles to the Pardubitz station on the Prague and Vienna railway. Schnellpost daily, in 12 hrs. to Glatz, and in 32 to Prague. by railway from Pardubitz.
N. B. An Austrian signature of the traveller's passport is indispensable before he can enter Bohemia.
2 Domslau. The country is pretty