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Taschen Basteien the town is best seen; and from the Ziegel Bastei there is a good view of the Oder, which, though rarely picturesque below Breslau, here assumes a pleasing character. Breslau is interesting to passing travellers, not only as a commercial town - bustling, prosperous, and wealthybut also on account of various objects of art and antiquity contained in it.

The Churches, divided between Protestants and Catholics," are exceedingly interesting, from the number of mural monuments and other works in alto-rilievo, which decorate their porches and exterior walls. These sculptures are of the finest style of Nuremberg art. The Cathedral of St. John, built 1170, stands upon the Dom Insel. It is exceedingly curious for its quaint, and not ungraceful architecture of red brick." In the Lady Chapel, which has a square end, is the tomb of the founder, and some fine iron-work and brasses. The Kreutzkirche is built upon a more ancient church, and this substructure is particularly curious. The monument of Duke Henry IV., its founder (1290), with his effigy of terra-cotta, supported by angels and priests, is curious. The bronze relief of Bp. Johann von Breslau (1496) is said to be by Peter Vischer. St. Elizabeth possesses the highest tower in Prussia (364 feet high). It is remarkable for curious monuments of all sorts, pictures, enamels, altars, sculpture, &c. It is not common to see a Protestant church so well furnished. The church of Our Lady on the Sand has aisles higher than the nave, vaulting alternate: it is of good Gothic, 1330-1336. In the large square, called Grosse Ring, stands the antique Rathhaus, a large and quaint structure, very remarkable for its architecture within and without; built, it is supposed, at the beginning of the 14th century, by King John of Bohemia. It is decorated with singular sculptures, in one of which the Devil is wheeling his grandmother in a barrow. In the apartment called Furstensaal the allegiance of the states of Silesia was tendered to its princes, and among

them to Frederick the Great. Behind the Rathhaus is an equestrian statue of Frederic the Great, erected 1847. The Government House, formerly the Palace of Count Hatzfeld, is a fine building; the Palace (Schloss) scarce deserves the name.

The finest streets are the Schmiedebrücke, the Albrechts and Friedrich Wilhelm's Strassen. The Square, named after Blücher, is ornamented with a colossal brouze statue of him, by Rauch. The Tauenziens Platz bears a statue of the general of that name, the brave defender of Breslau against the Austrians, under Loudon, 1760.

The University, transferred hither from Frankfurt on the Oder in 1811, numbers about 700 students. The building, originally an Imperial palace, and afterwards a Jesuits' college, contains one very fine apartment, called Aula Leopoldina. Connected with the University are the following collections:

A Museum of Natural History; the Central Library of 300,000 volumes, open daily from 9 to 12; the Cabinet of Antiquities— the larger portion are German and Sclavonic; the Picture Gallery, made up of 700 paintings, chiefly trash. The Botanic Garden is rich, and well looked after.

The Theatre here is not good.

It is not surprising that Breslau, situated in the centre of the most productive manufacturing province of the Prussian dominions, concentrating also the trade of a large portion of Poland and Russia, by means of the advantages of land and water carriage, which it possesses in the greatest perfection, should enjoy extensive and increasing prosperity. The articles of commerce are various and important. Corn; metals of many sorts from the Silesian mines; cloths, linen, timber, and firewood are the principal. There are nearly 100 distilleries in the town. In addition to this, Breslau is the first market for wool on the continent. Wool-fairs are held here twice a-year, June and October.

In March 1813 the youth of Prussia

here rallied round their king; and here began that patriotic resistance to the French, which led to the liberation of their country, and to the occupation of Paris. Poles are very numerous, and their language so prevalent that many of the shop-boards are inscribed with it. Silesia has a considerable Sclavonic population. It was at one time ruled over by dukes of its own; when their line became extinct it was transferred to Austria, from whom it was conquered (1742) by Frederick the Great.

Railroads-to Freiburg and Schweidnitz 73 Germ. m. (Rte. 84.)—to Berlin-to Cracow (Rte. 85 a.)—to Ratibor and Vienna (Rte. 85 b.).

18 m. E. of Breslau is Oels, chief town of the mediatised principality of Brunswick-Oels, with 6000 inhab., and a château.

At the village of Krieblowitz, 14 miles from Breslau, Marshal Blücher died, in 1819. (See Rte. 84. p. 432.)



35 Pruss. miles = 1631 Eng. miles. To the Saxon frontier the country is very picturesque.

Radeberg Stat. Near here the railway crosses the Röder.


5 Bischofswerda Stat. Inn, Engel. 23 Bautzen (Budissin) Stat. Inns: Goldene Krone, comfortable; Das Lamm, in the suburb. The capital of Upper Lusatia (Ober Lausitz), is very beautifully situated on the Spree, and has 12,000 inhab., who carry on flourishing manufactures of cloth and cotton. parish Church of St. Peter is shared between Catholics and Protestants. The Estates of the province hold their meetings in the Landhäuser. A vast modern-Gothic Rathhaus has lately been built. Close to the town lies the old castle of Ortenburg, formerly the residence of the Margraves of Meissen, ancestors of the Saxon Royal Family. In the neighbourhood was fought the battle of Bautzen, May 1813, when Napoleon compelled the allies to retire,

after dreadful slaughter on both sides, and very little advantage on his. On the following day, May 22, at the entrance of the village of Merkersdorf, near Reichenbach, Duroc, the most faithful and attached friend perhaps that he ever had, was killed by a cannon ball, at the close of a skirmish. After quitting Bautzen, the steeple of Hochkirch, seen on the right, marks the scene of one of the most bloody battles of the Seven Years' War. It was fought in 1746, by night. Marshal Keith, one of Frederick's best generals, by birth a Scotchman, who was killed in it, is buried within the church of the village; a monument was erected to him by his brother, the Earl Mareschal. About 30 miles N. of Bautzen is Muskau, once the seat of Prince Pückler Muskau, who wrote a coxcombical book about England. The park is laid out in the English style, with considerable taste. Muskau is now the property of Prince Frederick of the Netherlands.

2 Löbau Stat. (Inn, Lamm, tolerable); a town of 2500 inhab. In the ancient Rathhaus, the deputies of the 6 towns of Lusatia met, during 5 centuries, from 1310 to 1814. Besides the German churches, there is a Wendish church here; 50,000 of the inhabitants of Lusatia are Wends, of Sclavonic origin, differing from the Germans even in the present day in speech, dress, and manners.

A railway runs from Löbau by Herrnhut to Zittau. Length 33 Germ. m. Herrnhut lies about 6 Eng. miles S. of Löbau. (See Route 84 a.)

The first place within the frontier of Prussia is

Reichenbach Stat. Inn, Schwan. 3 Görlitz Stat. Inns: Goldener Baum; Brauner Hirsch. A flourish. ing little town, which belonged to Saxony previous to 1815; it is well situated on the Neisse, with 15,700 inhab. Its houses, like the towns to the eastward and those of Italy, are furnished with arcades. Much cloth and linen are made here.

The Ch. of

St. Peter and St. Paul (15th century), is one of the largest in Saxony, and has 5 aisles; the windows of the Ñ. side, as


well as the triplé altar end, are handsome. The ribs of the vaulting spring from the shafts of the columns without the intervention of capitals. subterranean chapel, hewn in the rock beneath, is curious. The Kreuzkirche, outside the town, on the road to Muskau, is a very curious representation of the buildings and localities of the Holy Sepulchre, not comprehended in a church, but scattered about a field. It was built (1480-89) by a burgomaster of Görlitz, who travelled to Jerusalem with an architect and a painter, to copy exactly the original. His portrait may be seen in the church, an elegant building. There is a curious house opposite the inn, covered with Scripture carvings. Some picturesque towers about the town are best seen on the side of Lauban. About 3 m. off, in the valley of the Neisse, rises the picturesque hill of Landskrone, surmounted by basalt, and command. ing a fine view. General von Winterfeldt, another favourite officer of Frederick the Great, fell in battle against the Austrians on the Holzberg, near Görlitz: a monument marks the spot.

From Görlitz an excursion may be made into Bohemia, to the Baths of Liebwerda, distant about 18 m. S. E., romantically situated, and provided with good accommodation, though retired and not much frequented. The waters resemble those of Spa. There are some beautiful valleys around it, and in the neighbourhood the convent of Haindorf, and the old Castle of Friedland, from which the celebrated Wallenstein received his title of Duke. It was presented to him, with its dependent estates, by the Emperor Ferdinand, as a compensation for the property he had sacrificed in his cause. It now belongs to the Count Clam Gallas; and still contains some relics of Wallenstein, his portrait, and his sword, with collections of armour, pictures, &c. The Upper Castle was built by Wallenstein. The dungeons beneath the thick round tower are horrible. - Inn, am Schloss, good.

The ascent of the Tafelfichte, 3400 feet high, may be made from Lieb

werda, from which it is about 4 miles distant. 14 miles S. of Friedland is Reichenberg (p. 434.). Penzig Stat.

31 Kohlfurt Stat. Here this railway joins that from Berlin to Breslau, and for the rest of the way see Rte. 81. (p. 423).





The range of mountains separating Silesia from Bohemia, is called Riesengebirge (Giant Mountains); the chief of this chain is the Schneekoppe (Snow-head), the highest mountain in Germany north of the Danube, being 4983 feet above the sea. The outline of the chain. is rather swelling than bold, but within its valleys are scenes of great beauty, enhanced in the eyes of the Germans of the north by being contrasted with the wearisome flatness and monotony of their own country. It must be understood that the scenery of the Riesengebirge will bear no comparison with that of the Alps, either in elevation, grandeur, or beauty. Its beauties are limited to a pleasing variety of hill and dale, wood and water, rich verdure and fertility of soil, numerous towns and villages planted in romantic valleys by the sides of rivers, inhabited by an industrious population and enlivened by prosperous manufactures. These features give to the country an agreeable aspect; and, in conjunction with its Mineral Baths, render it annually the resort of a multitude of strangers.

The best approaches to the Riesengebirge are from Bunzlau, on the Berlin and Breslau Railway, Route 81.,

*Corrections and additional information

respecting the Riesengebirge are particularly requested by the editor from any travellers personally acquainted with that district.

or from Breslau by the railway to Freiburg, Route 84.

The following are some of the most interesting points proceeding from W. to E., and passing from the Saxon and Prussian into the Austrian territory. The Moravian colony of Herrnhut (p. 433.), though not within the Riesengebirge, lies at a short distance from their W. extremity. The Baths of Liebewerda, and Wallenstein's castle of Friedland, under the Tafelfichte (p. 427.), one of the highest of the range of the Riesengebirge, may be visited by making short detours from the high road.

The tour of the Riesengebirge properly begins at Hirschberg and Warmbrunn (p. 429.), which are the most central points for making excursions, and the best head-quarters, as affording tolerable accommodation. Owing to the changeableness of the weather, the ascent of the Schneekoppe, which is usually made from Hirschberg or Schmiedeberg, very often does not repay the trouble. The river Elbe rises from the S. base of this mountain, at the head of a beautiful valley. The country between Hirschberg, Schmiedeberg, and Landeshut, is the Paradise of Silesia.

No one should quit the Giant Mountains without exploring the Labyrinth of Adersbach (p. 431.), the most singular spot in the district, but lying within the Bohemian frontier. It may be visited from Landeshut, or Waldenburg; the nearest towns to it are Liebau and Trautenau. Between Schmiedeberg and Breslau rises the Zobten, an isolated mountain; the advanced guard, as it were, of the Riesengebirge towards the north; commanding a very extensive view.

The Riesengebirge are the theatre of the exploits of the mischievous spirit called Rübezahl, whose name is well translated into English by that of Number Nip (i. e. turnip numberer). There is hardly a mountain or a glen in the country without its legend of this popular demon.

There are very good Inns at the towns of this district; and in remote

spots on the mountains the traveller, not over fastidious, may be tolerably well accommodated, without any luxury, in the buildings called Baude (Scot. Bothie), resembling somewhat the chalets of the Alps. Guides are appointed by the local authorities in the Prussian territory, and receive 1 dol. a-day, for which they carry the baggage. In Austria they are not licensed, nor is their charge fixed. Detailed information respecting the most remarkable spots in the Riesengebirge is given in this and the following Routes.

The traveller coming from Berlin or Dresden should proceed by the rail. ways described in Routes 81 and 82., as far as the Bunzlau Stat. From thence an excellent macadamised road runs S. to Löwenberg; the country displays at every step increasing natural beauties; a dense population, and a fertile soil. A constant intermixture of wood and verdure, hill and dale, give a peculiar charm to the landscape. 2 Löwenberg-Inns: H. du Roi; Weisses Ross. A town of 4000 inhab. on the high road from Dresden to Breslau, and in a beautiful situation. At Neuland, in the vicinity, are considerable quarries of gypsum and of millstones. When about four-fifths of the stage are accomplished, a slight eminence over which the road passes displays to the view of the traveller the fertile and populous valley of Hirschberg, bounded by the distant range of the Giant Mountains, "a ravishing prospect in any country." The Schneekoppe is seen rising in the centre.

4 Hirschberg. Inns: In the town Deutsches Haus, good; Weisses Ross, outside the town and close to the Post; Drei Berge, good, but noisy. This, the principal town of the district, is beautifully situated at the foot of the mountain, at the junction of 2 small streams, the Bober and Zacken, 1000 feet above the sea, and has about 7000 inhab. Its flourishing linen manufacture is reduced from what it was in the middle of the last century, though a large quantity is still made here; and this is considered the central point of this

branch of industry. The market-place is surrounded by arcades like some of the Italian towns. The chief buildings are, the Gothic Catholic Church, and the Protestant Church, which has some curious monuments in its cemetery. The Kavalierberg, S. of the town, and a low fir-clad eminence called Mount Helicon, are 2 agreeable places of resort in the neighbourhood.


At a distance of about 4 m. S. W. from Hirschberg, lies Warmbrunn. Inns: Schwartzer Adler, good, but dear, S.; Hotel de Prusse, good, extensive assortment of wines, among which some Hungarian wines are good. Anker; Schwartzes Ross. Das lange Haus near the springs contains good accommodations. This is a pretty, re. tired, quiet watering-place, lying in one of the most romantic valleys of the Riesengebirge. The visitors usually amount to between 2000 and 3000 annually. July and August are considered the height of the season. The company is not so aristocratic as that which frequents the baths of Töplitz and Carlsbad. Good Prussian society is to be found; and the owner, Count Schaffgotsch, is strenuous in his efforts to improve the place, and is anxious that it should become more known to English travellers. lukewarm sulphureous springs resemble those of Aix; in temperature they vary from 97° to 99° Fah. They are considered efficacious in cases of gout and rheumatism, &c., and owe their virtues to the presence of sulphur and alkaline salts; their odour is fetid, and not agreeable. The principal Public Baths are Das Gräfliche Bad (the Count's bath), and the Propster Bad (Prior's bath); they are capable of containing 30 or 40 persons, and it is not uncommon to see them full of bathers of both sexes. In order to accommodate the great number of bathers, they are divided into classes. The first class bathe first, paying 2 dollars a-week; the 2d pay 1 th. 10 sg., and follow them; and the 3d, chiefly poor people, come last, and pay very little. In order to enter them, a ticket of admittance must be obtained from the master of the

ceremonies. There are also private baths. The Russian Baths are the newest and best fitted up; and are provided with vapour baths, in the Russian fashion. Warmbrunn originally belonged to the Convent of Grassau, but is now the property of Count Schaffgotsch. The building called Gallerie, or Gesellschaftshaus, comprises a ball, or assembly-room, and dining-room; where the best daily table-d'hôte is to be found. The adjoining gardens and park of Count Schaffgotsch, and the allée of poplars, afford agreeable walks to invalids and water-drinkers. Gaming of every sort is strictly forbidden, under penalty of a heavy fine. There is a library of standard works open to the public, and a pretty little Theatre. Very beautiful glass of various colours, manufactured in Silesia, and numerous halfprecious stones, found in the vicinity, and cut by lapidaries on the spot, may be purchased here, and will serve as memorials of the Riesengebirge, to friends at home.

Warmbrunn is, from its centrical situation, the best point for making excursions among the Riesengebirge. There are public conveyances daily in summer hence to Hirschberg. The Postwagen goes twice a-day in & hour, fare 5 sqr.

At Brückenberg, on the way to the Schneekoppe, is an old Wooden Church, which has been transported hither from Norway bit by bit, and is a curious specimen of a style peculiar to Scandinavia, every part being of timber, and is also worth visiting on account of its situation.

The small river Zacken is remarkable for a phenomenon not satisfactorily explained. At times its waters suddenly disappear, and cease to flow for several hours; after which they again burst, forth, and assume their usual level.

The most agreeable walk in the neighbourhood is to the Kienast, an ancient castle now in ruins, having been destroyed by lightning. It is perched on a rock detached from the main body of the mountains, and its walls rise grandly from the brink of

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