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Taschen Basteien the town is best them to Frederick the Great. Beseen; and from the Ziegel Bastei there hind the Rathhaus is an equestrian is a good view of the Oder, which, statue of Frederic the Great, erected though rarely picturesque below Bres- 1847. The Government House, formerly lau, here assumes a pleasing character. the Palace of Count Hatzfeld, is a fine

Breslau is interesting to passing tra- building; the Palace (Schloss) scarce vellers, not only as a commercial town deserves the name.

bustling, prosperous, and wealthy- The finest streets are the Schmiedebut also on account of various objects brücke, the Albrechts and Friedrich of art and antiquity contained in it. Wilhelm's Strassen. The Square,

The Churches, divided between Pro- | named after Blücher, is ornamented testants and Catholics, “ are exceed with a colossal brouze statue of him, ingly interesting, from the number of by Rauch. The Tauenziens Platz mural monuments and other works in bears a statue of the general of that alto-rilievo, which decorate their porches name, the brave defender of Breslau and exterior walls. These sculptures against the Austrians, under Loudon, are of the finest style of Nuremberg 1760. art. The Cathedral of St. John, built The University, transferred hither 1170, stands upon the Dom Insel. It from Frankfurt on the Oder in 1811, is exceedingly curious for its quaint, numbers about 700 students. The and not ungraceful architecture of red building, originally an Imperial palace, brick.” In the Lady Chapel, which and afterwards a Jesuits' college, conhas a square end, is the tomb of the tains one very fine apartment, called founder, and some fine iron-work. and Aula Leopoldina. Connected with brasses, The Kreutzkirche is built the University are the following colupon a more ancient church, and this lections:substructure is particularly curious. A Museum of Natural History; the The monument of Duke Henry IV., Central Library of 300,000 volumes, its founder (1290), with his effigy of open daily from 9 to 12; the Cabinet terra-cotta, supported by angels and of Antiquities -- the larger portion are priests, is curious. The bronze relief German and Sclavonic; the Picture of Bp. Johann von Breslau (1496) is Gallery, made up of 700 paintings, said to be by Peter Vischer. St. Eliza- chiefly trash. The Botanic Garden is beth possesses the highest tower in rich, and well looked after. Prussia (364 feet high). It is remark- The Theatre here is not good. able for curious monuments of all sorts, It is not surprising that Breslau, pictures, enamels, altars, sculpture, &c. situated in the centre of the most pro. It is not common to see a Protestant ductive manufacturing province of the church so well furnished. The church Prussian dominions, concentrating also of Our Lady on the Sand has aisles the trade of a large portion of Poland higher than the nave, vaulting alter- and Russia, by means of the advannate: it is of good Gothic, 1330–1336. tages of land and water carriage, which

In the large square, called Grosse it possesses in the greatest perfection, Ring, stands the antique Rathhaus, a should enjoy extensive and increasing large and quaint structure, very re- prosperity. The articles of commerce markable for its architecture within are various and important.

Corn; and without; built, it is supposed, at metals of many sorts from the Silesian the beginning of the 14th century, by mines; cloths, linen, timber, and fireKing John of Bohemia. It is deco- wood are the principal. There are rated with singular sculptures, in one nearly 100 distilleries in the town. In of which the Devil is wheeling his addition to this, Breslau is the first grandmother in a barrow. In the market for wool on the continent. apartment called Furstensaal the al- Wool-fairs are held here twice a-year, legiance of the states of Silesia was June and October. tendered to its princes, and among

In March 1813 the youth of Prussia


here rallied round their king; and here , after dreadful slaughter on both sides, began that patriotic resistance to the and very little advantage on his. On French, which led to the liberation of the following day, May 22, at the entheir country, and to the occupation of trance of the village of Merkersdorf, near Paris. Poles are very numerous, and Reichenbach, Duroc, the most faithful their language so prevalent that many and attached friend perhaps that he of the shop-boards are inscribed with ever had, was killed by a cannon ball, it. Silesia has a considerable Sclavonic at the close of a skirmish.

After quitpopulation. It was at one time ruled ting Bautzen, the steeple of Hochkirch, over by dukes of its own; when their seen on the right, marks the scene line became extinct it was transferred of one of the most bloody battles of the to Austria, from whom it was conquered | Seven Years' War. It was fought in (1742) by Frederick the Great. 1746, by night. Marshal Keith, one

Railroads—to Freiburg and Schweid- of Frederick's best generals, by birth a nitz 7} Germ. m. (Rte. 84.)—to Ber Scotchman, who was killed in it, is lin— to Cracow (Rte. 85 a.)- to Ra buried within the church of the village; tibor and Vienna (Rte. 85 b.).

a monument was erected to him by his 18 m. E. of Breslau is Oels, chief brother, the Earl Mareschal. About town of the mediatised principality of 30 miles N. of Bautzen is Muskau, once Brunswick-Oels, with 6000 inhab., and the seat of Prince Pückler Muskau, a château.

who wrote a coxcombical book about At the village of Krieblowitz, 14 England. The park is laid out in the miles from Breslau, Marshal Blücher English style, with considerable taste. died, in 1819. (See Rte. 84. p. 432.) Muskau is now the property of Prince

Frederick of the Netherlands.

24 Löbau Stat. (Inn, Lamm, toleROUTE 82. rable); a town of 2500 inbab.

In the ancient Rathhaus, the deputies of the 6 towns of Lusatia met, during 5 cen

turies, from 1310 to 1814. Besides 35 Pruss. miles = 163. Eng. miles. To the German churches, there is a Wen. the Saxon frontier the country is very dish church here ;, 50,000 of the inpicturesque.

habitants of Lusatia are Wends, of Radeberg Stat. Near here the rail- Sclavonic origin, differing from the way crosses the Röder.

Germans even in the present day in 5 Bischofswerda Stat. Inn, Engel. speech, dress, and manners.

23 Bautzen (Budissin) Stat. Inns : A railway runs from Löbau by Goldene Krone, comfortable ; Das Herrnhut to Zittau. Length 3 Germ. Lamm, in the suburb. The capital of m. Herrnhut lies about 6 Eng. miles Upper Lusatia (Ober Lausitz), is very S. of Löbau. (See Route 84 a.) beautifully situated on the Spree, and has The first place within the frontier 12,000 inhab., who carry on flourishing of Prussia is manufactures of cloth and cotton. The Reichenbach Stat. Inn, Schwan. parish Church of St. Peter is shared be- 31 Görlitz Stat. Inns: Goldener tween Catholics and Protestants. The Baum ; Brauner Hirsch. A flourishEstates of the province hold their meet- ing little town, which belonged to ings in the Landhäuser. A vast mo- Saxony previous to 1815; it is well dern-Gothic Rathhaus has lately been situated on the Neisse, with 15,700 built. Close to the town lies the old inhab. Its houses, like the towns to castle of Ortenburg, formerly the resi- the eastward and those of Italy, are dence of the Margraves of Meissen, furnished with arcades. Much cloth ancestors of the Saxon Royal Family. and linen are made here, The Ch. of In the neighbourhood was fought the St. Peter and St. Paul (15th century), battle of Bautzen, May 1813, when Na is one of the largest in Saxony, and has poleon compelled the allies to retire, 5 aisles ; the windows of the N. side, as




well as the triple altar end, are hand- / werda, from which it is about 4 miles

The ribs of the vaulting spring distant. 14 miles S. of Friedland is from the shafts of the columns without Reichenberg (p. 434.). the intervention of capitals. The

Penzig Stat. subterranean chapel, hewn in the rock 34 Kohlfurt Stat. Here this rail. beneath, is curious.

The Kreuzkirche, way joins that from Berlin to Breslau, outside the town, on the road to and for the rest of the way see Rte. 81. Muskau, is a very curious repre- (p. 423.). sentation of the buildings and locali- Breslau TERMINUS (p. 427.). ties of the Holy Sepulchre, not comprehended in a church, but scattered about a field. It was built (1480–89)

ROUTE 83. by a burgomaster of Görlitz, who travelled to Jerusalem with an architect

THE RIESENGEBIRGE. * and a painter, to copy exactly the

BUNZLAU TO HIRSCHBERG, WARMBRUNN original. His portrait may be seen in

AND LANDSHUT, EXCURSION TO ADERSthe church, an elegant building. There is a curious house opposite the inn, covered with Scripture carvings. Some The range of mountains separating picturesque towers about the town are Silesia from Bohemia, is called Riebest seen on the side of Lauban. About sengebirge (Giant Mountains); the 3 m. off, in the valley of the Neisse, chief of this chain is the Schneekoppe rises the picturesque hill of Landskrone, (Snow.head), the highest mountain in surmounted by basalt, and command Germany north of the Danube, being ing a fine view. General von Winter- 4983 feet above the sea. The outline feldt, another favourite officer of Fre- of the chain. is rather swelling than derick the Great, fell in battle against bold, but within its valleys are scenes the Austrians on the Holzberg, near of great beauty, enhanced in the eyes Görlitz: a monument marks the spot. of the Germans of the north by being

From Görlitz an excursion may be contrasted with the wearisome flatness made into Bohemia, to the Baths of and monotony of their own country. Liebwerda, distant about 18 m. S. E., ro- It must be understood that the scenery mantically situated, and provided with of the Riesengebirge will bear no comgood accommodation, though retired parison with ihat of the Alps, either in and not much frequented. The waters elevation, grandeur, or beauty. Its resemble those of Spa. There are some beauties are limited to a pleasing vabeautiful valleys around it, and in the riety of hill and dale, wood and water, neighbourhood the convent of Haindorf, rich verdure and fertility of soil, nuand the old Castle of Friedland, from merous towns and villages planted in which the celebrated Wallenstein re- romantic valleys by the sides of rivers, ceived his title of Duke. It was pre- inhabited by an industrious population sented to him, with its dependent and enlivened by prosperous manufacestates, by the Emperor Ferdinand, as tures. These features give to the a compensation for the property he country an agreeable aspect; and, in had sacrificed in his cause. It now be- conjunction with its Mineral Baths, longs to the Count Clam Gallas; and render it annually the resort of a mulstill contains some relics of Wallen- titude of strangers. stein, his portrait, and his sword, with The best approaches to the Riesencollections of armour, pictures, &c. gebirge are from Bunzlau, on the BerThe Upper Castle was built by Wal- lin and Breslau Railway, Route 81., lenstein. The dungeons beneath the thick round tower are horrible. - Inn, am Schloss, good.

* Corrections and additional information The ascent of the Tafelfichte, 3400 respecting the Riesengebirge are particularly feet high, may be made from Lieb- requested by the editor from any travellers or from Breslau by the railway to spots on the mountains the traveller, Freiburg, Route 84.

personally acquainted with that district.

not orer fastidious, may be tolerably The following are some of the most well accommodated, without any luxinteresting points proceeding from W. ury, in the buildings called Baude to E., and passing from the Saxon and (Scot. Bothie), resembling somewhat Prussian into the Austrian territory. the chalets of the Alps. Guides are The Moravian colony of Herrnhut appointed by the local authorities in (p. 433.), though not within the Rie- the Prussian territory, and receive 1} sengebirge, lies at a short distance from dol. a-day, for which they carry the their W. extremity.

The Baths of baggage. In Austria they are not Liebewerda, and Wallenstein's castle of licensed, nor is their charge fixed. DeFriedland, under the Tafelfichte (p. tailed information respecting the most 427.), one of the highest of the range remarkable spots in the Riesengebirge of the Riesengebirge, may be visited is given in this and the following by making short detours from the high Routes. road.

The traveller coming from Berlin or The tour of the Riesengebirge pro- Dresden should proceed by the rail. perly begins at Hirschberg and Warm- ways described in Routes 81 and 82., brunn (p. 429.), which are the most as far as the Bunzlau Stat. From central points for making excursions, thence an excellent macadamised road and the best head-quarters, as affording runs S. to Löwenberg; the country tolerable accommodation. Owing to displays at every step increasing natural the changeableness of the weather, the beauties; a dense population, and a ascent of the Schneekoppe, which is fertile soil. A constant intermixture usually made from Hirschberg or of wood and verdure, hill and dale, Schmiedeberg, very often does not re- give a peculiar charm to the landscape. pay the trouble. The river Elbe rises 21 Löwenberg. — Inns : H. du Roi; from the S. base of this mountain, at Weisses Ross. A town of 4000 inhab. the head of a beautiful valley. The on the high road from Dresden to country between Hirschberg, Schmiede- | Breslau, and in a beautiful situation. berg, and Landeshut, is the Paradise of At Neuland, in the vicinity, are conSilesia.

siderable quarries of gypsum and of No one should quit the Giant Moun- millstones. When about four-fifths of tains without exploring the Labyrinth the stage are accomplished, a slight of Adersbach (p. 431.), the most sin- eminence over which the road passes gular spot in the district, but lying displays to the view of the traveller the within the Bohemian frontier. It may fertile and populous valley of Hirschbe visited from Landeshut, or Walden- berg, bounded by the distant range of burg; the nearest towns to it are Liebau the Giant Mountains, “a ravishing and Trautenau. Between Schmiede- prospect in any country.” The Schneeberg and Breslau rises the Zobten, an koppe is seen rising in the centre. isolated mountain; the advanced guard, 4 Hirschberg. - Inns : In the town as it were, of the Riesengebirge towards Deutsches Haus, good; Weisses Ross, the north; commanding a very exten- outside the town and close to the Post; sive view.

Drei Berge, good, but noisy. This, the The Riesengebirge are the theatre principal town of the district, is beauti. of the exploits of the mischievous spirit fully situated at the foot of the mountain, called Rübezahl, whose name is well at the junction of 2 small streams, the translated into English by that of Bober and Zacken, 1000 feet above the Number Nip (i. e. turnip numberer). sea, and has about 7000 inhab. Its There is hardly a mountain or a glen fourishing linen manufacture is rein the country without its legend of duced from what it was in the middle this popular demon.

of the last century, though a large There are very good Inns at the quantity is still made here; and this is towns of this district; and in remote considered the central point of this

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branch of industry. The market-place ceremonies. There are also private is surrounded by arcades like some of baths. The Russian Baths are the the Italian towns. The chief buildings newest and best fitted up; and are pro. are, the Gothic Catholic Church, and vided with vapour baths, in the Russian the Protestant Church, which has some fashion. Warmbrunn originally becurious monuments in its cemetery. longed to the Convent of Grassau, but

The Kavalierberg, S. of the town, and is now the property of Count Schaffa low fir-clad eminence called Mount gotsch. The building called Gallerie, Helicon, are 2 agreeable places of resort or Gesellschaftshaus, comprises a ball, in the neighbourhood.

or assembly-room, and dining-room ; At a distance of about 4 m. S. W. from where the best daily table-d'hôte is to Hirschberg, lies Warmbrunn. Inns : be found. The adjoining gardens and Schwartzer Adler, good, but dear, S.; .park of Count Schaffgotsch, and the Hotel de Prusse, good, extensive as- allée of poplars, afford agreeable walks sortment of wines, among which some to invalids and water-drinkers. Gaming Hungarian wines are good. Anker ; of every sort is strictly forbidden, under Schwartzes Ross. Das lange Haus penalty of a heavy fine. There is a near the springs contains good ac- library of standard works open to the commodations. This is a pretty, re public, and a pretty little Theatre. Very tired, quiet watering place, lying in beautiful glass of various colours, manuone of the most romantic valleys of factured in Silesia, and numerous halfthe Riesengebirge. The visitors usually preeious stones, found in the vicinity, amount to between 2000 and 3000 and cut by lapidaries on the spot, may annually. July and August are con- be purchased here, and will serve as sidered the height of the season. The memorials of the Riesengebirge, to company is not so aristocratic as that friends at home. which frequents the baths of Tö- Warmbrunn is, from its centrical plitz and Carlsbad.

Good Prussian situation, the best point for making society is to be found; and the owner, excursions among the Riesengebirge. Count Schaffgotsch, is strenuous in his There are public conveyances daily in efforts to improve the place, and is summer hence to Hirschberg. The anxious that it should become more Postwagen goes twice a-day in hour, known to English travellers.

The fare 5 sqr. lukewarm sulphureous springs resemble At Brückenberg, on the way to the those of Aix; in temperature they vary Schneekoppe, is an old Wooden Church, from 97° to 99° Fah. They are con- which has been transported hither from sidered efficacious in cases of gout and Norway bit by bit, and is a curious rheumatism, &c., and owe their virtues specimen of a style peculiar to Scandito the presence of sulphur and alkaline navia, every part being of timber, and salts; their odour is fetid, and not is also worth visiting on account of its agreeable. The principal Public Baths situation. are Das Gräfliche Bad (the Count's The small river Zacken is remarkbath), and the Propster Bad (Prior's able for a phenomenon not satisfactorily bath); they are capable of containing explained. At times its waters sud30 or 40 persons, and it is not un- denly disappear, and cease to flow for common to see them full of bathers of several hours; after which they again both sexes.

In order to accommodate burst. forth, and assume their usual the great number of bathers, they are level. divided into classes. The first class The most agreeable walk in the bathe first, paying 2 dollars a-week; neighbourhood is to the Kienast, an the 2d pay 1 th. 10 sg., and follow them; ancient castle now in ruins, having and the 3d, chiefly poor people, come been destroyed by lightning. It is last, and pay very little. In order to perched on a rock detached from the enter them, a ticket of admittance must main body of the mountains, and its be obtained from the master of the walls rise grandly from the brink of

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