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One of the apartments is termed the Amber Chamber, from being decorated with that mineral.
The Cathedral, in the quarter called Kneiphof, on an island in the Pregel, built 1332, is the finest edifice here, and deserves notice. It is an interesting Gothic building, and contains in the choir the marble monument of Margrave Albert of B. bearing his kneeling effigy. Here are other tombs of many Teutonic Knights, and of Kant, the metaphysician, author of the System of Pure Reason, as it is called, who died here in 1804. The house in which he lived still exists in the Princessinn Strasse; it is now a coffeehouse.
The University, founded 1544 by the Margrave Albert, and called the Albertina, has about 450 students, and a Library of 60,000 volumes deposited in one of the towers of the Cathedral. It contains several manuscripts of Luther, a letter from him to his wife Catherine a Bora, and the safe conduct given to him by the Empr. Charles V.. to enable him to travel to Worms. A bust of Kant, by Schadow, is placed in the Academic Hall. Königsberg is the see of the first Protestant Prussian Archbishop.
The Schloss-Teich is a pretty sheet of water, surrounded by gardens, near the Palace. A bridge leads over it to the Königs-Garten, where a statue of the late king by Kiss is to be set up.
After the fatal battle of Jena, the Prussian royal family escaped to this place; and, on the approach of the French, were driven to take refuge in Memel.
The Observatory obtained renown under the direction of the late Prof. Bessel.
A British Consul resides here. The chief journals of Europe are to be found at the Börsenhalle.
The river Pregel, on which Königs. berg is built, is not sufficiently deep to admit large vessels, which, therefore, unload at Pillau, the sea-port of Königsberg, a flourishing little town of 4000 inhab., on the Baltic, at the entrance of the saltwater lake called
Frische Haff. The trade of Königsberg consists of corn, for receiving which there are vast ranges of warehouses, hemp, flax, linseed, tallow, bristles, wax, &c.; but it has fallen off since the end of the last century, when it had reached the height of prosperity. There is a considerable fishery of sturgeon at Pillau. An extensive trade in amber was formerly carried on at Königsberg; there were at one time 70 amber turners in the town. That substance is still one of its exports; the chief consumption of it being in the Levant, where it is sold for pipe mouth-pieces. Amber is found all along the coast of East and West Prussia. A large quantity is obtained from the sea, which after high winds, especially those blowing from the N., throws up a vast accumulation of sea-weed. The amber fishers stationed on the shore wait till the floating sea-weed approaches near to it. They then send in their people up to their necks in water, provided with nets, by which they draw the weeds to land. The amber is found adhering to, or entangled in them, and is immediately collected and sorted by women and children. In one instance an attempt was made to employ divers to collect it from the bottom, but this failed. Much amber is obtained by digging up the soil even at a considerable distance from the sea. It usually occurs near the surface, but in some instances shafts have been successfully sunk. The spots where it has been found in greatest quantity are Gross Hubenicken, Warnicken, and Grünhof. The trade in amber was first appropriated by the Grand Masters of the Teutonic Order, who often paid the entire expenses of their court out of the revenue derived from this source. It afterwards became a royal monopoly, and was guarded in early times by laws of the utmost severity. Watchmen were stationed all along the coast, and the peasant who concealed or attempted to dispose of any pieces he had found was condemned to be hung up to the nearest tree. Afterwards a range of gallows was set up on the shore in terrorem.
Since the commencement of the present century, the government has let out the right of collecting amber to private contractors for 10,000 dollars yearly, and though these rigorous enactments are now modified, a person who retains a piece of amber found accidentally is liable to be punished for theft. The inhabitants of Königsberg are allowed to bathe only at one particular spot, and cannot wander along the sands without subjecting themselves to be searched by the strand riders set to watch.
Steamers daily to Fillau and Elbing, —to Danzig.
KÖNIGSBERG TO MEMEL BY TILSIT.
291 Pruss. m.=137 Eng. miles. Personenpost daily to Tilsit, to which place the road is macadamised. There is a second and more direct road to Memel along the Strand, a narrow tongue of sand between the Baltic and the Kurische Haff; but, as it is very ill kept, and not provided with post-horses, it is little used. was formerly the most frequented, and, were it not insufferably tedious, with an awkward ferry across the port of Memel at the end, would be worth travelling for its singularity. There
are 3 posts between Königsberg and Memel on the tongue of sand. As it is impossible to make a firm road, the carriage must be driven with one wheel almost in the sea, and it requires 1 or 2 additional horses. The Nehrung, as the sand-bank is called, is like the Dunes of Holland, but it seems difficult to conceive that such broad, high, and steep hills can be all drift sand. The name Kurische Haff is derived from the Kurs, inhabitants of the neighbouring Courland. The traveller obliged to walk by the side of his carriage will have plenty of time to seek for amber."-F. S.
2 Tapiau, a town of 3000 inhab. The castle, built by the Teutonic knights, is now a poor-house.
2 Tilsit (Cronopolis). Inns: Prinz Wilhelm; H. de Russie. town of 12,000 inhab., named from the Tilse, a small stream which falls into the Memel, here crossed by a bridge of boats, 1150 ft. long. Upon a raft, moored a little below it, in the middle of the river, Napoleon, the Empr. Alexander of Russia, and the King of Prussia met, July 9. 1807, to sign the treaty of Tilsit, by which half the territory of Prussia was severed from her.
The new road from Berlin to St. Petersburg avoids Memel altogether, and stretches across at once by Tauroggen to Mittau and Riga, thus saving a distance of 14 Pruss. m.From Tilsit to Memel the road is bad.
3 Posen. Inns H. de Vienne, good and reasonable; H. de Saxe. The capital of the province is a cheer ful town of 38,000 inhab., including 5600 Jews, situated on the river Warte. It is a strong fortress on the frontier of Russia. Very interesting and picturesque fortifications are in progress of construction here. The system adopted differs from that used at Coblentz, and is attributed to Col. Breza, of the Prussian Engineers.
The Ch. of St. Stanislaus is a fine building in the Italian style. The Gothic Dom is distinguished by the
simplicity of its architecture. Golden Chapel has been painted and gilt in the Byzantine style at Count Raczynsky's expense. Two bronze statues of the first kings of Poland, by Here are exRauch, merit notice. amples of engraved brasses on monuThe Rathhaus is a Gothic ments. building, 1512-1520, and above it rises the loftiest tower in the town. A considerable wool-fair is held here in June.
Posen lies on the direct road from Berlin to Warsaw, but for about 40 miles to the Russian frontier there is no chaussée but a deep sand.
A good road leads from Posen to Breslau, 28 Pruss. miles, by Stenszweo.
1250), a fine building, a work of the Templars, simple in plan, is well worth study, and the Rathhaus (16th cent.) deserves notice. In the Johanniskirche are a font and some sculpture at the altar of some interest.
The railway skirts the N. shore of the Madue lake, passing near Alt Damm and the S. shore of the Damm lake to
Stettin (see Route 75.).
BERLIN TO FRANKFURT ON THE ODER AND BRESLAU. RAILWAY.
47 Pruss. miles 222 Eng. m. Terminus in Berlin, near the Stralauer Platz.
1 Cöpenick Stat. on an island in the Spree. The line now skirts the lake called Müggelsee.
13 Erkner Stat. Lime works near this.
3 Fürstenwalde Stat. The Marienkirche, a brick church of the 14th cent., injured by fire, and a modern roof, is worth notice. It has a beautiful Gothic Sacramentshäuschen (date 1510) of sandstone; monuments of several bishops part stone, part brass-before the altar.. Near Rosengarten, the line crosses the watershed between Elbe and Oder.
2 Briesen Stat.
2 Frankfurt on the Oder, Stat. Inns Kaiser von Russland, near the Bahnhof; Adler; Deutsches Haus. A city of 21,000 inhab., no longer fortified. A bridge of wood, loaded with heavy stones to prevent its being washed away by floods, connects the old town on the 1. bank of the Oder, with the suburb on the rt. bank.
The prosperity of the town arises from its situation upon the great Silesian highway, and upon a navigable river communicating by canals with the Vistula and the Elbe, which combine in causing the greater part of the manufactures of Silesia to pass through it; and from three considerable fairs held here annually. It is far
the 2d rank on the left bank of the Oder, 12,000 inhab. The Dom upon an island dates from 1120.]
1 Halbau Stat.
1 Rausche Stat.
bayonet and the butt-end of the musket; 102 French cannon were taken. The fiercest part of the battle raged between Wahlstadt and Eichholz, near which a monument has been erected by the Here the rail- King of Prussia. The convent of Wahlstadt was built to commemorate the triumph of the Christian chivalry of Europe over the barbarous hordes of Asia, in a great battle, fought near the same spot in 1241, between the Duke of Silesia and the army of the Mongul Tartars.
way joins that from Dresden. 24 Siegersdorf Stat. 2 ̃Bunzlau Stat.—Inns: Kron Prinz; Deutsches Haus. A small well-built town, of 5000 inhab., on the Bober, situated on the verge of the most picturesque as well as industrious district of Silesia, which extends as far as the mountains. In the market-place is an Iron Obelisk, by Schinkel and G. Schadow, to the memory of the Russian General Kutusoff, who died here, 28th April, 1813. The father of German poetry, Opitz, was born in a house in the Ring, No. 66. Much pottery is made here. About 2 miles off lies the Moravian colony of Gnadenberg. 3 Hainau Stat. 2 Liegnitz Stat. Inns Rautenkranz, good; Schwarzer Adler. This town, of 11,700 inhab., is handsomely built, and prettily placed on the junction of the Katsbach and Schwarzwasser. The Schloss, though called old, was rebuilt 1834. In the Fürstencapelle, which is poor, are the monuments of the Piast Dukes: the family became extinct 1675, after having given 24 kings to Poland, and 123 dukes to Liegnitz, dating from 775. The building of the Ritter Academie, an institution for the education of the sons of Silesian nobles, is handsome. The New Cemetery for Protestants and Catholics, outside the town, on the right of the road to Breslau, should be visited.
The Katsbach, though a small stream, is memorable in history from the battle named after it, gained over the French in 1813 by Blücher, who received, as a reward for his services, the title of Prince of Wahlstadt, from a small village of that name, with a convent, now suppressed, between Liegnitz and Jauer. It had rained for four days in succession previous to the battle, and continued to rain while it lasted, so that powder was useless; and the victory was gained by the
Lissa. After the famous battle of Lissa (Leuthen), 5th Dec. 1757, in which Frederick the Great, with 30,000 men, defeated the Austrian army of 90,000, he unexpectedly rode on to the castle of Lissa, a small village on the approach to Breslau, which still remained in the hands of the Austrians. A party of Austrian officers were not a little surprised when their conqueror entered the room where they were assembled, modestly inquiring, “ Have you any room for me here, gentlemen?" 1 BRESLAU.-Inns: Goldene Gans (Golden Goose), best and good; Hotel de Silésie; Drei Berge; the White Eagle. Breslau, a fine flourishing town, is the capital of Silesia, and the 2d city in Prussia in point of population, having 98,000 inhabitants (28,600 R. Catholics). It is built on both banks of the Oder, which is crossed by an iron bridge. The fortifications were partly demolished by the French in 1806-7, and since then have been levelled, and converted into Boulevards for the recreation of the inhabitants. They have been tastefully planted, and laid out in gardens and pleasure grounds; the bastions converted into terraces, and the ditch into an ornamental sheet of water; so that the whole forms a delightful belt of verdure, separating the old town from the suburbs. From the Sand and