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One of the apartments is termed the | Frische Haff.

The trade of KönigsAmber Chamber, from being decorated berg consists of corn, for receiving with that mineral.

which there are vast ranges of wareThe Cathedral, in the quarter called houses, hemp, fax, linseed, tallow, Kneiphof, on an island in the Pregel, bristles, wax, &c.; but it has fallen built 1332, is the finest edifice here, off since the end of the last cenand deserves notice. It is an inter- tury, when it had reached the height esting Gothic building, and contains in of prosperity. There is a considerable the choir the marble monument of fishery of sturgeon at Pillau. An exMargrave Albert of B. bearing his tensive trade in amber was formerly kneeling effigy. Here are other tombs carried on at Königsberg; there were of many Teutonic Knights, and of at one time 70 amber turners in the Kant, the metaphysician, author of the town. That substance is still one of System of Pure Reason, as it is called, its exports; the chief consumption of who died here in 1804. The house in it being in the Levant, where it is sold which he lived still exists in the Prin- for pipe mouth-pieces. Amber is found cessinn Strasse ; it is now a coffee all along the coast of East and West house.

Prussia. A large quantity is obThe University, founded 1544 by tained from the sea, which after high the Margrave Albert, and called winds, especially those blowing froin the Albertina, has about 450 stu. the N., throws up a vast accumulation dents, and a Librury of 60,000 volumes of sea-weed. The amber fishers sta. deposited in one of the towers of the tioned on the shore wait till the floating Cathedral. It contains several manu- sea-weed approaches near to it. They scripts of Luther, a letter from him to then send in their people up to their his wife Catherine a Bora, and the safe necks in water, provided with nets, by conduct given to him by the Empr. which they draw the weeds to land. Charles V. , to enable him to travel to The amber is found adhering to, or Worms. A bust of Kant, by Scha- entangled in them, and is immediately dow, is placed in the Academic Hall. collected and sorted by women and Königsberg is the see of the first Pro. children. In one instance an attempt testant Prussian "Archbishop.

was made to employ divers to collect The Schloss-Teich is a pretty sheet of it from the bottom, but this failed. water, surrounded by gardens, near the Much amber is obtained by digging up Palace. A bridge leads over it to the the soil even at a considerable distance Königs-Garten, where a statue of the from the sea. It usually occurs near late king by Kiss is to be set up. the surface, but in some instances

After the fatal battle of Jena, the shafts have been successfully sunk. Prussian royal family escaped to this The spots where it has been found in place; and, on the approach of the greatest quantity are Gross HubeFrench, were driven to take refuge in nicken, Warnicken, and Grünhof. The Memel.

trade in amber was first appropriated The Observatory obtained renown by the Grand Masters of the Teutonic under the direction of the late Prof. Order, who often paid the entire exBessel.

penses of their court out of the revenue A British Consul resides here. The derived from this source. It afterchief journals of Europe are to be wards became a royal monopoly, and found at the Börsenhalle.

was guarded in early times by laws of The river Pregel, on which Königs. the utmost severity. Watchmen were berg is built, is not sufficiently deep to stationed all along the coast, and the admit large vessels, which, therefore, peasant who concealed or attempted to unload at Pillart, the sea-port of dispose of any pieces he had found was Königsberg, a flourishing little town of condemned to be hung up to the nearest 4000 inhab., on the Baltic, at the en- tree. Afterwards a range of gallows trance of the saltwater lake called was set up on the shore in terrorem. Since the commencement of the pre- 2 Taplaken. sent century, the government has let S Mehlawischken. out the right of collecting amber to 2 Kelmienen. private contractors for 10,000 dollars 2 Tilsit (Cronopolis). Inns : yearly, and though these rigorous Prinz Wilhelm ; H. de Russie. A enactments are now modified, a person town of 12,000 inhab., named from who retains a piece of amber found the Tilse, a small stream which falls accidentally is liable to be punished into the Memel, here crossed by a for theft. The inhabitants of Königs- bridge of boats, 1150 ft. long. Upon berg are allowed to bathe only at one a raft, moored a little below it, in the particular spot, and cannot wander middle of the river, Napoleon, the along the sands without subjecting Empr. Alexander of Russia, and the themselves to be searched by the strand King of Prussia met, July 9. 1807, to riders set to watch.

sign the treaty of Tilsit, by which Steamers daily to Pillau and Elbing, half the territory of Prussia was se-to Danzig.

vered from her.

The new road from Berlin to St. ROUTE 79,

Petersburg avoids Memel altogether,

and stretches across at once by TauKÖNIGSBERG TO MEMEL BY TILSIT.

roggen to Mittau and Riga, thus

saving a distance of 14 Pruss. m.294 Pruss. m.=137 Eng. miles. From Tilsit to Memel the road is Personenpost daily to Tilsit, to bad. which place the road is macadamised.

3 Szameitkehmen. There is a second and more direct 23 Werdenberg. road to Memel along the Strand, a 1 Norkaiten. narrow tongue of sand between the 2. Prökuls. Baltic and the Kurische Haff; but, as 3 Memel. Inns : H. de Russie; it is very ill kept, and not provided Sonne. This is the most northern with post-horses, it is little used. “It town of Prussia. It lies at the enwas formerly the most frequented, and, trance of the Kurische Haff, and has were it not insufferably tedious, with 9000 inhab. It is the central point of an awkward ferry across the port of the Baltic timber trade, and exports Memel at the end, would be worth | also a vast quantity of raw hides. A travelling for its singularity. There British Consul resides here. are 3 posts between Königsberg and Memel on the tongue of sand. As it is impossible to make a firm road, the

ROUTE 80. carriage must be driven with one

BERLIN TO DANZIG BY BROMBERG. wheel almost in the sea, and it requires 1 or 2 additional horses. The 69 Pruss. m. =324 Eng. miles. Nehrung, as the sand-bank is called, A macadamised road. Schnellpost is like the Dunes of Holland, but it in 65 hours. The same road as Route seems difficult to conceive that such 77. as far as broad, high, and steep hills can be all 30) Ruschendorf. drift sand. The name Kurische Haff 13 Arnsfelde. is derived from the Kurs, inhabitants 23 Schneidemühl. Inn, Goldener of the neighbouring Courland. The Löwe. A town of 3000 inhab. traveller obliged to walk by the side of 21 Grabowo. his carriage will have plenty of time to 2Wirsitz, seek for amber.”_F. S.

3 Nakel.-Inn, the Post. A town 2 Pogauen.

of 2000 inhabitants. 2.Tapiau, a town of 3000 inhab. 4 Bromberg. Inns: H. Moritz; The castle, built by the Teutonic Hotel de Berlin, in the Posener Vorknights, is now a poor-house.

stadt. A town of 8000 inhab., on the

A con


Brahe. The canal which passes this simplicity of its architecture. The town was made by Frederick the Golden Chapel has been painted and Great, and serves to open a commu- gilt in the Byzantine style at Count nication between the Vistula and the Raczynsky's expense. Two bronze Oder.

statues of the first kings of Poland, by Schnellpost daily to Danzig. The Rauch, merit notice.

Here are exroad runs along the ). bank of the amples of engraved brasses on monuVistula, generally within view of it, ments. The Rathhaus is a Gothic and is macadamised.

building, 1512-1520, and above it rises 34 Niewiesczyn.

the loftiest tower in the town. 2 Schwetz. On the rt. bank of the siderable wool-fair is held here in June, Vistula lies Culm, a town of *5000 Posen lies on the direct road from inhab. Truffles abound here.

Berlin to Warsaw, but for about 40 21 Gruppe. On the rt. bank lies miles to the Russian frontier there is the strong fortress of Graudenz, with no chaussée but a deep sand. 9000 inhab. It was not yielded up to A good road leads from Posen to the French.

Breslau, 28 Pruss. miles, by 3 Neuenburg. A road leads from 3. Stenszweo. this across the river to Marienburg. 3 Kosten. 34 Mewe.

Ti Schmiegel. 4 Dirschau (pp. 416. 418.).

34 Lissa. 41 Danzig (p. 418. Rte. 77.).

21 Fraustadt.

3 Glogau. A branch railway hence

to the Frankfurt and Breslau line. See ROUTE 80 a.

Rte. 81.
24 Polkwitz.

2 Lüben. 333 Pruss. m. =about 163 Eng, m. 3 Liegnitz. This is a station on An excellent chaussée. The posting the Berlin and Breslau Railway. For well conducted. Schnellpost daily in the route hence to Breslau, see Rte. 81. 27 hours, 111 Küstrin. Thus far along the

ROUTE 80 b. Danzig road, Route 77: 2 Limritz.


23 Schwerin, a small but good sleep- 26 Germ, m. = - 1211 Eng. m. in ing place.

about 6 hours. 4. Kaehme.

Posen (Route 80 a.). 3 Pinne.

Samter Stat. 3. Gay.

Wronki Stat. The railway here 3 Posen. Inns : H. de Vienne, crosses the river Warte. good and reasonable; H. de Saxe. Mialla Stat. The railway crosses The capital of the province is a cheer- the Netze before reaching ful town of 38,000 inhab., including Drage Stat. 5600 Jews, situated on the river Warte. Woldenberg Stat. This is on the It is a strong fortress on the frontier road from Berlin to Danzig. Rte. 77. of Russia. Very interesting and pic- Augustwalde Stat. The railroad turesque fortifications are in progress proceeds near succession of small of construction here. The system lakes or meres, to adopted differs from that used at Cob. Arnswalde Stat. lentz, and is attributed to Col. Breza, Dölitz Stat. of the Prussian Engineers.

Stargard Stat. A town of 10,000 The Ch. of St. Stanislaus is a fine inhab., on the Ihna, surrounded by building in the Italian style. The perfect ramparts, watch-towers, and Gothic Dom is distinguished by the gates. The Marienkirche (1240

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The battle of Kunersdorf, one of the most memorable of the Seven Years' War, in which Frederick the Great encountered the united forces of Austria and Russia, amounting to 80,000 men, and, though worsted, did not sustain a serious defeat, was fought within 3 m. N. E. of the town, in 1759. The poet Kleist died at Frankfurt of a wound received in that engagement. A monument has been set up to his memory.

1 Krebsjauche Stat.
1 Fürstenberg Stat.


Neuzelle Stat.

2 Guben Stat. A town of 8000 inhab., on the river Neisse, whose banks are here planted with vines.

1 Starzeddel Stat.
13 Sommerfeld Stat.

3 Sorau Stat. A town of 5000 inhab., in a sandy plain. A road leads from here westward to Muskau,

Rte. 82.

1 Hansdorf Stat. [A railway runs from this station to Glogau. Distance 9 Germ. m.

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Stations. 2 Sagan. Inn, Ritter St. Georg. A town of 5500 inhab., on the Bober. The Chateau was begun by Wallenstein; attached to it is a fine garden and park. It now belongs to the Prince of Hohenzollern Hechingen.

2 Sprottou Stat. Inn, Deutsches Haus. A town of 3000 inhab. Beyond, the road runs not far from the Bober. Gloomy fir woods, rarely enlivened by a woodman's hut, a pitch oven, or an iron forge, spread themselves over the district.

1 Cöpenick Stat. on an island in the Spree. The line now skirts the lake called Müggelsee. 12 Erkner Stat.


Lime works near

3 Fürstenwalde Stat. The Marienkirche, a brick church of the 14th cent., injured by fire, and a modern roof, is worth notice. It has a beautiful Gothic Sacramentshäuschen (date 1510) of sandstone; monuments of several bishops-part stone, part brass-before the altar. Near Rosengarten, the line crosses the watershed between Elbe and Oder.

2 Briesen Stat.

2 Frankfurt on the Oder, Stat. Inns: Kaiser von Russland, near the Bahnhof; Adler; Deutsches Haus. A city of 21,000 inhab., no longer fortified. A bridge of wood, loaded with heavy stones to prevent its being washed away by floods, connects the old town on the 1. bank of the Oder, with the suburb on the rt. bank.

The prosperity of the town arises from its situation upon the great Silesian highway, and upon a navigable river communicating by canals with the Vistula and the Elbe, which combine in causing the greater part of the manufactures of Silesia to pass through it; and from three considerable fairs held here annually. It is far

3 Quariz Stat.

2 Glogau Stat. Inns: Deutsches Haus; Schwarzer Adler. A fortress of

the 2d rank on the left bank of the Oder, 12,000 inhab. The Dom upon an island dates from 1120.]

1 Halbau Stat.

1 Rausche Stat.

Kohlfurt Stat.

bayonet and the butt-end of the musket; 102 French cannon were taken. The fiercest part of the battle raged between Wahlstadt and Eichholz, near which a monument has been erected by the Here the rail- King of Prussia. The convent of Wahlstadt was built to commemorate the triumph of the Christian chivalry of Europe over the barbarous hordes of Asia, in a great battle, fought near the same spot in 1241, between the Duke of Silesia and the army of the Mongul Tartars.

way joins that from Dresden. 24 Siegersdorf Stat. 2 ̃Bunzlau Stat.—Inns: Kron Prinz; Deutsches Haus. A small well-built town, of 5000 inhab., on the Bober, situated on the verge of the most picturesque as well as industrious district of Silesia, which extends as far as the mountains. In the market-place is an Iron Obelisk, by Schinkel and G. Schadow, to the memory of the Russian General Kutusoff, who died here, 28th April, 1813. The father of German poetry, Opitz, was born in a house in the Ring, No. 66. Much pottery is made here. About 2 miles off lies the Moravian colony of Gnadenberg. 3 Hainau Stat. 2 Liegnitz Stat. Inns Rautenkranz, good; Schwarzer Adler. This town, of 11,700 inhab., is handsomely built, and prettily placed on the junction of the Katsbach and Schwarzwasser. The Schloss, though called old, was rebuilt 1834. In the Fürstencapelle, which is poor, are the monuments of the Piast Dukes: the family became extinct 1675, after having given 24 kings to Poland, and 123 dukes to Liegnitz, dating from 775. The building of the Ritter Academie, an institution for the education of the sons of Silesian nobles, is handsome. The New Cemetery for Protestants and Catholics, outside the town, on the right of the road to Breslau, should be visited.

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The Katsbach, though a small stream, is memorable in history from the battle named after it, gained over the French in 1813 by Blücher, who received, as a reward for his services, the title of Prince of Wahlstadt, from a small village of that name, with a convent, now suppressed, between Liegnitz and Jauer. It had rained for four days in succession previous to the battle, and continued to rain while it lasted, so that powder was useless; and the victory was gained by the

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Nimkau Stat.

Lissa. After the famous battle of Lissa (Leuthen), 5th Dec. 1757, in which Frederick the Great, with 30,000 men, defeated the Austrian army of 90,000, he unexpectedly rode on to the castle of Lissa, a small village on the approach to Breslau, which still remained in the hands of the Austrians. A party of Austrian officers were not a little surprised when their conqueror entered the room where they were assembled, modestly inquiring, “ Have you any room for me here, gentlemen?" 1 BRESLAU.-Inns: Goldene Gans (Golden Goose), best and good; Hotel de Silésie; Drei Berge; the White Eagle. Breslau, a fine flourishing town, is the capital of Silesia, and the 2d city in Prussia in point of population, having 98,000 inhabitants (28,600 R. Catholics). It is built on both banks of the Oder, which is crossed by an iron bridge. The fortifications were partly demolished by the French in 1806-7, and since then have been levelled, and converted into Boulevards for the recreation of the inhabitants. They have been tastefully planted, and laid out in gardens and pleasure grounds; the bastions converted into terraces, and the ditch into an ornamental sheet of water; so that the whole forms a delightful belt of verdure, separating the old town from the suburbs. From the Sand and

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