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fanciful castle, built by Baron Wrangel, after the 30 Years' War.


The way from Stubbenkammer to Arkona lies along another tongue of land, called Die Schabe, which unites the promontory Jasmund to that of Wittow. At the village of Altenkirchen (Haas's Inn), the poet Kosegarten, who was its pastor, is buried. For 8 successive Sundays, during the season of the herring fishery, the minister preaches upon the shore to the fishermen assembled around him in their boats, from the neighbouring islands. A figure, said to be of the idol Swantewit, is built into the wall of the Church.

4 Arkona, the most northern promontory of the island, partly a chalk cliff, 173 feet above the sea, is surmounted by a lighthouse, which furnishes accommodation to travellers. The view from it extends over the coast of the promontory Jasmund, to the island Hiddensöe, and to the more distant Danish island Moen.

Upon Arkona stands the ancient Fortress of the Wends, who at one period inhabited this island, called Burgring. It is a circular entrenchment, from 30 to 40 yards high, with an opening to the N. W. Within it stood the temple of the god Swantevit, destroyed by the Danes under King Waldemar, who took it by storm 1168, carried off its treasures to Denmark, and introduced Christianity into the island. Saxo Grammaticus, the historian, was present at the capture.

Travellers must now either return by Altenkirchen and Wiek to the Wittow Ferry, and after crossing it, proceed direct to

5 Bergen, or they may prolong their tour by taking boat, and making an excursion to the neighbouring island Hiddensöe, whose inhabitants, a poor. and primitive race, not much raised above the condition of Esquimaux, live chiefly in turf-covered huts, and support themselves by fishing. Many of them spend their whole lives on the spot, and never set foot even on Rügen. There is not a bush on the whole island; for fuel the people have recourse to peat or

cow-dung; yet, with so few attractions, the island is said to be dear to its children, who call it "dat söte länne," the sweet little land.

Bergen (Inn, Golden Anker) is the chief town in Rügen, and has 2600 inhab. To the N. of it rises the hill of Rugard, the highest in Rügen, surmounted by the ruins of the ancient fortress destroyed 1316. From this spot the whole island with its deeply indented shores, may be surveyed, as a map laid open at the spectator's feet.

The distance hence to Stralsund is about 16 miles, including the ferry. From Bergen to Putbus is 6 miles.

Plan for an excursion of 1 day round Rügen, starting from Putbus: to the Jagdschloss, Schmaeler See, Prora and the Schanzenberg, by Lanken and the new wood-road to Stubbenkammer; return by Sagard, the Jasmund ferry, and Bergen, to Putbus. Distance about 45 miles.



61 Pruss. miles =284 Eng. miles. Courier 4 times a week in 37 hours,Personen-post daily in 52 hours. The quickest way at present, owing to the Railroad, is by Stettin; Schnellpost twice a week. (Route 75.) The country is dull and uninteresting all the way to Danzig; the road is macadamised, and good all the way; the inns are for the most part bad, so that those who can bear the fatigue had better sleep in their carriage at night, instead of stopping by the way the journey to Danzig may thus be performed in 48 hours.

2 Dahlwitz. 2 Lichtenau.


21 Müncheberg. Here the post road to Frankfurt on the Oder branches off. 2 Seelow.

2 Küstrin. Inns: Kron Prinz; Adler. A strong fortress and town of 4700 inhab., surrounded by marshes, at the junction of the Warthe with the Oder, over which a bridge 875 ft. long is thrown. Frederick the Great was

confined in the old castle by his imperious and crazy father, and compelled to look on while his friend Katte was executed on the ramparts. The great post road from Berlin to Posen and Warsaw strikes off here to the E. (Rte. 80 a.). 6 m. N. of Küstrin is the village of Zorndorf, where Frederick the Great, with 30,000 Prussians, defeated 50,000 Russians, under Fermor, in 1758. A monument marks the spot where the king stood. The road runs nearly parallel with the Warthe, as far as

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old buildings, is situated on the left bank of the W. arm of the Vistula, or Weichsel, about 3 m. above its influx into the sea. It is traversed by 2 tributaries of that river, the Mottlau and Radaune, and has 62,000 inhab. It is a fortress of the first class, and the principal sea-port of Prussia. It was anciently a leading member of the Hanseatic League, and a free city: it is still a place of great commerce, especially in wheat brought down the Vistula from Poland, and other corn-producing countries, and shipped from hence to all parts of Europe. The exports of wheat are greater than from any other port in the world. Here


extensive distilleries of brandy, which hence gets the name of Danzig. The granaries, of enormous dimensions, capable of holding 500,000 quarters of corn, are situated on an island called Speicher Insel. To avoid the risk of fire, no one lives upon it, nor are lights ever admitted. The timber trade is also very considerable.

The chief object of curiosity is the brick Cathedral (Dom, or Marienkirche), begun in 1343, by Von Waizau, grand master of the Teutonic knights, who sent an architect, Ulric Ritter of Strasburg, to Constantinople, to make drawings of the church of St. Sophia there. The plan of copying that edifice, however, was not carried into execution. The church, as it now stands, was not finished till 1503; it is 358 ft. long. The vaulted roof, supported by 26 slender brick pillars, is 98 ft. above the pavement. Around the interior are 50 chapels, originally founded by the chief citizens as burial-places for themselves and their families, It possesses a fine brass font, cast in 1554, in the Netherlands; and an astronomical clock, which has long ceased to move. was made by an artist named Duringer, who, according to the story, was deprived of his eyesight by the citizens of Danzig, to prevent his making a similar clock for the rival town of Hamburg. The blind artist, a short time before his death, was led, by his desire, to the spot where his masterpiece was placed; and, with a pair of


miserable sinners, who but for their assistance would inevitably be drowned. Notice should be taken of two pictures by Danzig artists, a Last Judgment, by A. Müller, a pupil of Raphael, 1601, and a Madonna and Christ, by Andreas Steck. In front is a fine fountain, ornamented with bronze figures of Neptune drawn by sea-horses. Not far from the Arthushof is the Senate House, built probably in 1311, with a belfry, dating from 1581. The tall brick tower, called Stockthurm (1346), was originally one of the entrances into the town: the turrets were added 1508: it is now a prison.

scissors, cut a single small wire, which | hooks, &c., to haul on board a fev sufficed at once to stop the clock, and no subsequent attempt has succeeded in repairing the injury. Such is the tradition. The great ornament of the Dom is the celebrated Last Judgment, attributed to John Van Eyck (it has also been attributed to M. Wohlgemuth, Hugo van der Goes, and Justus of Ghent, see Kugler, § xvii. note by Sir E. Head), known as the Danzig Picture. It was painted for the Pope, and while on its way to Rome was intercepted by pirates; but was retaken by a Danzig vessel, and deposited in the Cathedral, where it remained till 1807, when the French transported it to Paris. "On its return, after the war, the king of Prussia was very anxious to retain it at Berlin, and offered 40,000 dollars as a compensation; but yielded to the pressing instances of the rightful owners for its restoration." The picture is said to bear about it the date 1367; if so, it cannot be by the Van Eycks, as they were but just born at that time. A crucifix, carved on wood in a very admirable style of art, and with great truth of expression, is the second curiosity of this church. It has been here since the middle of the 15th cent., but the artist's name is unknown. According to the story, he actually crucified one of his apprentices, in order to study more exactly the agonies of a human being dying under such circumstances.

Trinity Church, of red brick, with richly ornamented gable, date 1431, merits attention.

The Long Market abounds in antique buildings; the finest is the Exchange, called Arthushof, an imposing Gothic edifice, built 1379; but altered and enlarged 1552. In its great hall, the vaulted roof of which is supported by 4 slender pillars of granite, the guilds and corporations formerly met. Their laws, in rhyme, are still hung up in it; and its walls are further decorated with carvings, old armour, and pictures; the most singular of which is a representation of the church, under the form of a ship, sailing to heaven full of monks, who are throwing out ropes,

The Grüne Thor, a large building, originally designed as a lodging for the King of Poland, is now converted into a Museum. The collection of implements, dresses, etc., was presented by Sir Joseph Banks. There is a theatre here.

A British consul resides here. One quarter of the town is called Schottland, from a colony of Scotch weavers who settled here in the 14th century.

By means of the gigantic sluice-gates near the Lege Thor, the country around three sides of the town can be laid under water, so as to contribute materially to its defence from an hostile attack. There are besides several strong external forts, as the Hagelsberg and the Bischofsberg; the last has been greatly strengthened of late, and completely commands the town.

Fahrenheit the optician, who invented the thermometer named after him, was born here. Marshal Lefebre, Napoleon's general, was created by him Duke of Danzig, in consequence of his having taken the town in 1807. It was yielded back to the Prussians in. 1813, after an obstinate resistance, maintained by the French under General Rapp for many months, untik the town was reduced, by famine and pestilence, to the lowest depth of distress.

The port of Danzig is Neufahrwasser, at the mouth of the western arm of the Vistula. It is defended by the fort Weichselmunde, has a light-house and

an extensive pier at the entrance of the channel. Steamboats daily, except Sunday, to Königsberg. Schnellposts to Stettin, Königsberg, and Berlin.

At the Convent of Oliva (suppressed 1830), 7 m. N. W. of Danzig, the treaty of peace between Sweden and Poland was signed 1660. The Church and cloisters remain. The Abbot's Castle now belongs to the King, and has fine grounds. The sandy downs are clothed with rich beech woods.


DANZIG TO KÖNIGSBERG. 24 Pruss. m. 1134 Eng. m. Courier-post, 5 times a-week, in 17 hours. In going from Danzig to Königsberg, the preceding route must be retraced as far as 43 Dirschau. The W. arm of the Vistula is here crossed by a bridge of boats, about to be replaced by a permanent bridge, a work of great solidity; and the road then traverses the fertile triangular plain, or Delta, deposited by the river, which is bounded at the further extremity by the eastern arm, called Nogath. The country between the Vistula and Nogath lies below the level of these rivers and of the Baltic, and is protected from inundations solely by dykes and wind-mills, as is the case in Holland. A bridge of boats is thrown across the Nogath, and on its right bank stands

2 Marienburg. Inn, Hochmeister. An ancient town of 5400 inhab., chiefly remarkable as the seat of the once powerful Knights of the Teutonic Order, to whom this country was ceded in the 13th cent. by the King of Poland. After a struggle of 53 years, the knights effectually subdued the pagan and then barbarous Prussians. The germ of the present Prussian empire sprung, in fact, from them; and they appear likewise to have laid the foundation of that military spirit which still animates the nation. The Castle, or Palace of the Grand Masters, an imposing edifice, of brickwork, beautiful in construction, in a style of Gothic peculiar to the vicinity

of the Baltic, was built at different periods; the Alte Schloss, now much decayed, in 1276; the Middle Castle in 1309, at the time when the seat of the Order was removed hither from Venice; and the Niedere Schloss in 1335. In 1457 it was surrendered to the Poles, after having been in the possession of the Order 148 years, and having been governed by 17 Grand Masters. Since 1815 the central building has been rescued from ruin, and admirably restored, by the aid of the archives of the order, now at Königsberg, which have been carefully consulted by the architect. It consists of


three stories, the cellar, ground floor, and master's dwelling. The apart. ments have been richly decorated with painted glass, encaustic tiles, wood panelling. The principal one, the Convent's Remter (Chapter House), in which assemblies of the Order were held, and foreign ambassadors ceived, is supported on three granite pillars. The Meister's Remter is a circular apartment, supported by a single pillar of granite in the centre. The Poles, while besieging Marienburg in 1410, endeavoured to aim a cannonball so as to shoot away this pillar, and overwhelm at one blow beneath the ruins the Grand Master and all his knights, whom they knew, from the information of a deserter, to be at the time assembled in conclave. The ball missed its aim, but lodged in a corner of the chimney, where it still remains. The Church, in a very chaste style, and tolerably perfect, is decorated externally with a figure of the Virgin, in relief, of stucco covered with coloured and gilt mosaic, 26 feet high; it displays considerable skill and knowledge of art. Many of the Grand Masters of the Order repose in vaults beneath the Church, in simple coffins. Many cells of the knightly monks, and their subterranean dungeons, still exist. The building has been rescued from ruin, and partly restored by the taste and munificence of the King. The Buttermilk Tower is so called, because, according to the tradition, the peasants, compelled to build it by forced labour for

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44 Elbing.-Inn, Stadt Berlin. decayed trading town, with a population of 24,000, on the Elbing, a navigable stream emptying itself into the Frische Haff, an extensive lake separated from the Baltic by a narrow strip of land, and receiving a large portion of the waters of the Vistula. The Marienkirche contains some curious sculptures; date, 1500. On quit ting Elbing a good view is obtained of it. Steamers ply to Königsberg daily.

2 Hütte.

12 Frauenburg, a small town on the shore of the Haff. Copernicus, the great astronomer, died here, and is buried in the Cathedral, a handsome building on a height overlooking the town and Haff (erected 1342), containing, besides his tomb, which is a simple tablet bearing a globe, some curiosities, as crucifixes, monstrances, &c. Coper

nicus was a canon of the cathedral, and
lived in one of the houses which sur-
round it. Within the enclosure is a
well, furnished with water by an aque.
duct and hydraulic works, constructed
by him.
The machinery of the pumps
which he erected has long since
appeared, but a model of it is still pre-
served in the cathedral, and is supposed
to have been imitated in the waterworks
at Marly, near Versailles. The tower
which contained it still stands near the
cathedral, and is called Kunst Thurm.
It bears on its southern wall the follow-
ing inscription

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KÖNIGSBERG (Polish, KrolewLatin, Regiomontum; Lithuanian, Karalanczug). Inns: Schönberg's Hotel; Rheinischer Hof; Deutsches Haus; H. du Nord.

Königsberg, once the capital of Prussia Proper, and long the residence of the Electors of Brandenburg, still ranks as third city in the Prussian dominions in extent of population, having 80,000 inhab. It is being strongly refortified, on the plan of detached forts. The Defensions Caserne is finished.

Its Palace (Schloss), a large ugly building, now converted into a government-house, was founded by Ottokar, King of Bohemia, after leading a crusade against the heathen Preussi, 1257. It afterwards became the residence of the Grand Masters of the Teutonic Order. It was the residence of the late King of Prussia and his queen Louisa, when driven by Nadis-poleon's arms from Berlin. Under one wing is a large wine cellar, extending below the ground; over it is the Schlosskirche, in which Frederick Elector of Brandenburg in 1701 placed the crown on his own head, assuming the title of Frederick I. King of Prussia. Above the church is a vast hall, 300 ft. long, 60 broad, and only 19 high, destitute of ornament, called Moskowitzer Saal; so called from the Muscovite ambassadors of the Grand Duke Basilius, who were received here by Margrave Albert. A thick pillar runs through every floor from the cellar upwards, and on breaking into it some years ago, it was found to be hollow, and partly filled with bones of persons executed during the rule of the Order, and whose bodies had been thrown down from above.

"Hic patienter aquæ sursum properaré coactæ,
Ne careat sitiens incola montis ope.
Quod Natura negat, tribuit Copernicus arte;
Unum pro cunctis fama loquatur opus."
Besides supplying the Domberg, or
cathedral hill, he introduced into the
town, by collecting the neighbouring
streams, a current of water sufficient to
turn a corn mill, an advantage which
its inhabitants did not before enjoy.

It is a curious fact, and perhaps not

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