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Counts of Stolberg. The Schlosskirche considered the oldest works of sculpture here probably dates from 960.

in N. Germany. The once beautiful Gernrode.

See the Church, a very Aurora Maria, Countess of Königscurious and ancient Romanesque one, mark, who was prioress of the nunnery, with choirs at both E. and W. ends, although mistress of Augustus the and crypts; that under the E. choir Strong, King of Saxony, and mother of dates from 960. A curious side chapel Marshal Saxe, is buried in a vault is covered with bas-reliefs of the 12th beneath. The sexton does not scruple century. About 5 m. from this place to open her coffin at the demand of the is the Rosstrappe, one of the most curious, and to display a body now interesting points in the Hartz. (p.403.) reduced to the condition of a brown A detour from the road of 2 days mummy. The Emperor Henry the would suffice to enable a traveller to Fowler, his Empress Matilda, the see it, and to ascend the Brocken. founder of the nunnery, and many The latter part of the excursion is abbesses of the monastery, were also only advisable when the weather is buried here, in front of the high settled.

altar. 21 Quedlinburg. Inns : Deutsches In the Sacristy are 2 reliquaries, Haus; Schwarzer Bär. A dull coun. ornamented with rude ivory carvings try town, formerly belonging to Saxony, of the 9th or 10th cent., bequests of now Prussian, of 12,200 inhab., on the Henry I. ; the beard-comb of Henry Bode. It was originally a free Impe- the Fowler. Here also are some curirial city of much consequence. Many ous tapestries of the 12th century. The German Emperors of the Saxon line crypt of St. Wiperti is probably of the resided here, in the 13th century, and 10th cent. several councils of the church were held The poet Klopstock was born here, in the town. It is still surrounded by in a small house at the foot of the turreted walls.

castle hill, in the Schlossplatz recognisThe Castle, on an eminence above able by the 2 pillars which support its the town, was the residence of the porch. A monument has been erected to Abbesses of Quedlinburg, who were him in the garden called Bruhl. In Princesses of the Empire, independent the Rathhaus is preserved, among other of all spiritual sovereigns save the musty curiosities, the oaken cage in Pope, having a vote in the Diet and a which the citizens of Quedlinburg seat on the bench of Rhenish bishops. imprisoned a Count of Reinstein in They were generally members of royal 1336, for nearly 2 years, on account of or noble families. The town itself, numerous acts of tyranny and oppresmany convents and nunneries, and very sive exactions which he had committed extensive domains belonged to the Ab- against them. Not satisfied with this bess, and she numbered among her barbarous punishment, they were on vassals many nobles of high rank. At the point of executing him, when the the Reformation the Abbesses adopted emperor demanded that his life should the Lutheran faith, lost their feudal be spared, on condition of his paying a sovereignty, and the greatest part of fine of 3000 dollars, and adding seven their estates, while the number of nuns new towers to the town walls. was reduced to 5. The right of pre

2 Halberstadt. Inns : Hotel von sentation belonged to the King of Preussen; good. Prinz Eugen.

A Prussia down to 1802, when the con- very ancient city of 18,000 inhabs., on vent was sequestrated.

It is now

of the Holzemme. The falling to decay, stripped of its splen- Cathedral, Dom, is a very remarkable dour, and in part converted into a Gothic edifice, chiefly in the pointed school.

style, erected between 1235 and 1491, The Schlosskirche is a very curious except the lower part of the west Luilding of the 10th or 11th century. front, which is older. The bishop's he arabesques on the outside are throne, rich in pointed ornaments, a

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fine window over the altar, a roodloft Descending the Weser from Münden,
(1510); the monument of the Mar- by steamer,
grave Frederick of Brandenburg, the rt. The wooded hills of the Bram-
carved work of the Bishop's Throne, wald.
and an altar-piece by John Raphon 1. Reinhardswald.
von Einbach, all deserve notice. The 1. Veckerhagen. 1800 inhab. Here
Church of Unsere Liebe Frau (our was formerly a castle of the Electors
Lady), in the Byzantine style (date of Hesse, now Chemical Works: in
1005—1147), recently restored, bas a the neighbourhood are iron mines.
series of bas-reliefs, of that age, and some The Weser makes a great bend round
wall-paintings which are curious, Man- | the ruins of the castle of Bamburg, rt.,
sion-house, and a Theatre. There are

which remain long in sight.
some curiously ornamented old timber It. Bursfelde, here was a Benedic-
framed houses here on the Markt. tine abbey of the 13th cent., now an
Rathskeller and Schuh-hof. Near the estate of the King of Hanover. The
Ruthhaus is a statue of Roland (see church is the best preserved monument
p. 384.), and opposite is the Bischofshof, of Byzantine architecture in Germany,
now turned to other uses. The best rt. Lippoldsberge. 650 inhab. A
view of the town is from the Spiegel- fierce engagement took place here be-
schen-berg. An excursion may be con- tween the Saxons and the Francs under
veniently made from hence to the the Archbp. of Mayence.
Rosstrappe, in the Hartz. (Route 73.) rt. Bodenfelde, both these are pic.

Railway from Halberstadt to Mag- turesque villages. The banks of the deburg, 7* Germ. m.

river are here covered with a thick forest, 14 Nienhagen Stat.

part of the romantic scenery of the 1 Gr. Oschersleben Stat.

Solnick : the river forces its way among For the rest of the line to Magde- high rocks. burg see Route 66.

1. Karlshafen. Inn: Schwan. 1600 inhab. at the junction of the Diemel

with the Weser, in a picturesque situaROUTE 74 A.

tion, with cliffs of red sandstone. A railway was opened this year (1849) between Cassel and this town, which is in

tended to form a great commercial place, Steamers of a company called the There are large magazines built by the Weser Steam Navigation Co. have Landgrave Charles in 1700; and the since 1844 navigated the Weserbe- French Huguenots were hospitably retween Hannoverisch Münden, and Breceived by him in 1699 and settled here. men. The navigation is sometimes (Rte. 71.) In the neighbourhood, interrupted in summer by want of higher up the river, are two settlewater. The distance by the river from ments, named by them in the style of Münden to Hameln is 18 Germ. m.; the Puritans, Gottestreue, and Gewiss. from thence to Minden 9 Germ. m. enruhe, (Truth of God and Rest of Steamers start daily, descending in 2 Conscience). The inhabitants still predays: ascending in 3, halting for the serve their French features. night at Minden and Hameln. Fare A little below Karlshafen, the Prus6 Thalers. 2d class 3 Thl. The sce- sian territory begins on the l. bank. nery down to Minden is pleasing, with 1. Heerstelle. A stronghold of many points of interest; below Minden Charlemagne, where in 797, during the banks of the river are flat and un. his campaign against the Saxons, he reinteresting. The Weser has a course ceived the ambassadors of the Avars, of 62 Germ. m.= 300 Engl. m., and of Arragon and Castile. It is fall of 397 ft. to the North Sea.

named after the cradle of his family, Cassel to. Münden 2 Germ. m. by -Héristal, on the Meuse. No trace of the post-road. (See Rte. 72.)

the original castle remains. Its site was

DESCENT OF THE WESER.

CASSEL TO

BREMEN

with a

name.

subsequently occupied by a palace of of the Teufelsmühle (the Devil's mill), the Bp. of Paderborn, which was de mentioned in legends of the 13th cent. stroyed in the 30 Years' War. In its rt. Bodenwerder. A small Hanoplace a modern Gothic château lists its verian town on an island with a boat roof above picturesque groups of trees. bridge. The red sandstone displays Below is the village of the same itself in a peculiar manner on the rt.

bank. 1. Beverungen, a Prussian village 1. Kemnade, with a flying bridge. It marked by an old prison tower. was the site of a nunnery founded in

rt. Lauenförde, a Hanoverian vil- 1025. The old ch. contains the tombs lage.

of inany noble families. 1. Blankenau. Formerly a fortress 1. Hehlen. The stately château, of the Abbot of Corvey, built in the surmounted by 4 towers, was built in 13th cent., afterwards a stronghold of 1560, by Count Schulenberg, in whose the robber knight of Falkenberg. Now family it still remains. It was one of a Prussian public office. Opposite is this family, who as Field Marshal in the village of

the service of the republic of Venice, rt. Meinbrexen, in Brunswick. so bravely defended Corfu in 1716

1. Godelheim, at the foot of the against the Turks. Turkish arms and Brunsberg : here are mineral springs. horse-tail standards, his trophies, are Opposite is

still preserved here. rt. Fürstenberg A castle of the rt. Hagenossen, with a mansion, Duke of Brunswick, upon a spur of formerly belonging to the Counts of the Solling. Since 1753 it has been a Eberstein. china manufactory.

1. Grohnde has a monument of a rt. Bofzen.

battle between Duke Wm. of Bruns1. Höxter. Rte. 68.

wick, and the Bp. of Hildesheim, 9. 1. Corvey. This vast monastic edi- April, 1422. fice, with its numerous courts, and sur- 1. Ohr, has a new church, inscribed mounted by the twin spires of its abbey Der Geist ist frey, und ohne Zwang ch. : once the most eminent Benedic. die Glaube.” From the top of the tine convent in Germany, is now the Ohrberg, above the village, there is a residence of the Prince of Hohenlohe- beautiful view towards the high land Schillingfurst, Prince of Corvey. See about Pyrmont. Rte. 68.

rt. Hameln. Rte. 71. Coaches rt. Holzminden, a town of Bruns- hence to Pyrmont (3 Germ, m.), and wick at the N. extremity of an offset to Hanover. of the Sollinger-wald hills. It has con- rt. Fischbeck, in a fertile country : siderable iron and steel works, mills for here is an ancient church and nunnery, cutting paving stones, an article of founded 954, now a school for young export to Bremen, and a celebrated ladies of noble families. school or gymnasium dedicated “ Deo rt. Oldendorf. Inns : Stadt Cassel, et literis." Near the town are the Rathskeller. 1400 inhab., a town of ruins of Eberstein, a famous stronghold the Elector of Hesse. 1 m. E. rises the of the counts of that name.

Hohenstein, a table rock 1075 ft. high, - 1. Heinsen, below this the Weser with precipitous sides. N. W. from makes a great bend to

Oldendorf is the castle of Schaumburg, 1. Polle: here are the ruins of a built 1030, the family seat of the castle destroyed in the 30 Years' War. Counts of that name. In one part of It had been the principal castle of the the castle is a gate called “the gate of counts of Eberstein.

Heaven," so called from the beautiful rt. Dolme. A singular cliff goes by view suddenly opened to the visitor. the name of the Pastor von Dolme. A cliff, called Paschenburg, 1200 ft. Opposite l., in a narrow gorge, a small high, hangs over the castle.

An hotel, stream descends and turns the wheel much resorted to, is found on this

elevated spot, the residence of the Below Minden down to Bremen, the ranger of the surrounding forests. shores of the river are flat.

1. Rinteln, Inns : Stadt Bremen, 1. Todtenhausen, scene of the battle Rathskeller. 4000 inhab., capital of of Minden, 9 Aug. 1759. Rte. 66. the Hessian county of Schauenburg, 1. Petershagen : the former residence with a stone bridge over the Weser. of the Bp. of Minden. Until 1809 there was an university 1. Schlüsselburg, with an ancient here. A beautiful road leads hence to house, containing public offices, forthe watering place of Eilsen; to the merly an episcopal stronghold. Ludnerclippe, 3 m. off, a cliff, from 1. Stolzenau : Inn, D. of York. which there is a fine view; and to the First Hanoverian place on the lower Arensburg, a castle belonging to the Weser, a pretty village, with an old Prince of Schaumburg-Lippe, with a castle, formerly the residence of the collection of antiquities, a picture Counts of Hoya : afterwards an occagallery, and furnished in the style of sional resort of George II. of Eng. the middle ages.

It is shown to land. strangers.

1. Liebenau, also a castle of the 1. Möllenbeck, formerly a convent, Counts Hoya. containing a gothic church.

rt. Nienburg, a station on the Bre1. Varenholz, with a castle, dating men and Hanover railroad. Rte. 72 a. from 1595, picturesquely situated on rt. Drackenburg, here the Smalkaldic the slope of a bill.

League defeated the Imperialists, 23 1. Vlotho, a Prussian town of 2200 May, 1547. inhab., with considerable trade.

1. Hoya. Inn, Stadt Hanover. 2000 1. Rheme, containing salt works be- inhab. An iron bridge here crosses Bonging to the Prussian government. the Weser. In the neighbourhood is The brine is raised from an Artesian well the Holy Mount, covered with trees, 2000 feet deep, and at its natural heat where, from time immemorial, vast possesses medicinal properties. Here numbers of herons have built nests. the Minden and Cologne railroad crosses rt. At a distance above the junction the Weser.

of the Aller with the Weser, is seen 1. Wedigenstein,

ruined the town of Verden, with its cathedral. Saxon castle, the residence of the Saxon

Rte. 72 a. Duke Wittekind, the successful op- rt. Arbergen is the birthplace of ponent of Charlemagne. rt. the range Olbers the astronomer, and Heeren of the Süntel; and 1. that of the Weden- the historian, berg, approach and form Weserscharte BREMEN. Rte. 69.

the Porta Westphalica, through which the Weser enters the plain of

ROUTE 74 e. N. Germany. The hills immediately above the pass are called, l. Witte

WITTENBERGE TO MAGDEBURG. kindsberg, on the rt. Jacobsberg. On

RAILWAY the former, 780 ft. high, is a tower 60 ft., dedicated 1830, “ to the admirers This railway saves the long cirof nature," and not far off from it is cuit to Berlin, to those travellers beSt. Margaret's chapel, built in the 14th tween Hamburg and Leipzig, or Bacentury: Jacobsberg was formerly varia, who do not wish to visit Berlin. called Mt. Anthony, but the present It leaves the Hamburg and Berlin name was given by Frederic the Great, Railway at the Wittenberge Station, from one of his old soldiers who settled see Route 61. Trains reach Maghere as a vintager, and supplied the deburg from this Station in about 4 king (with excellent grapes. At the hours. The line immediately crosses foot of the Jacobsberg is rt. Haus- the Elbe. berge.

Seehausen Stat. 1. Minden. See Rte. 66.

Osterburg Stat.

with a

Goldbeck Stat.

Winckelman was born here 1717 ; d. Stendal Stat. This town of 6300 1768. inhabitants was formerly a fortress, and Demker Stat. residence of the Markgraves of Bran- Mahlwinkel Stat. denburg. It has a fine Cathedral, Rogätz Stat. with coloured windows, executed 1480, Wolmirstädt Stat. Here are the ard a Rolandsaüle (p. 384.). In the ruins of an ancient castle, and near here, 14th century it contained 20,000 in- at Sommereschenburg, is a monument habitants, and was one of the most to F. M. Gneisenau, who died 1831. flourishing of the Hanse towns. Magdeburg Stat. see Route 66.

N. Germ.

T

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