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Duels take place almost every day, sometimes 4 or 5 per diem, at a house a short distance outside the gates. The beadle of the university, who shows the museum, told the writer, that even his son had fought 27 since his academical studies began. The first week after entering he received a gash on the cheek; and before the wound was healed he was brought home with his nose slit. But what could the beadle do? His son's antagonist, the perpetrator of this, was the son of the Prorector of the University!

The Library, situated in what was once a handsome church, is excellent, and very extensive, having 300,000 printed volumes, and 5000 MSS., and better arranged than that of the British Museum. It is very rich in modern literature and in scientific works.

The Museum of Natural History is not worthy of the university; but the late Prof. Blumenbach bequeathed to it his valuable collection, including human sculls of the natives of all quarters of the globe. Here are some dresses brought from the South Seas by Capt. Cook, and a few paintings.

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The Botanic Garden is very good under Professor Bartlings, and contains a fine collection of Alpine plants. The Göttingen sausages possess some reputation among epicures. Bologna, Oxford, and Cambridge, all university towns, enjoy a similar cele brity.

The excursion to the Hartz is very conveniently made from Göttingen, by way of Nordheim and Osterode. (Route 73.)

23 Nordheim, p. 398.

2 Eimbeck. A town of 5000 inhab., on the Ilme. New church well restored;-old church also good: Rathhaus, date 1593. The vale of the Ilme is pretty and fertile; it leads to Ahlefeld, agreeably situated; handsome tower, with 4 turrets; a bad road to Hildesheim, but through a pretty country.

12 Ammensen. Here is the Brunswick Custom-house, very troublesome to travellers; a narrow strip of territory

united to the Zollverein (§ 30.) cuts off all the S. of Hanover. 14 Alfeld.

14 Bruggen.-Inn, Post.

1 Elze.-Inn, Post; best on the road. 1 Thiedenwiese.

2 HANOVER. (Page 392.)

As a railway connects Hildesheim, which is a very interesting town, with Hanover, the best way is to proceed from Alfeld to Hildesheim direct, 34 Germ. m.

Hildesheim.-Inns, Rheinischer Hof; Wiener Hof. An ancient episcopal city, with 14,000 inhab., and some manufactures.

The Cathedral is a remarkable building; its bronze gates, 16 ft. high, are a curious and valuable specimen of art at the beginning of the 11th century, made for Bishop Bernward 1015; the subject of the bas-reliefs is the First and Second Adam. (See St. Paul's Epistles.) The ch. contains the gilt shrine of St. Godehard, 4 ft. long, date probably 1131; also a bronze font with basreliefs, 6 ft. high, including the cover, and an Irmin Säule, a pillar of coloured alabaster, now surmounted by the cross, in the centre of the Church, looked upon as an idol of the Pagan Saxons. "The roodloft is a fine specimen of cinque-cento work. In a side altar, S. aisle, are some curious enamel figures Byzantine style. The cloister is small, but of great antiquity; a pretty small chapel stands in the centre."-F. S. A wild rose growing on the wall of the crypt is said to be 800 years old.

On the Dom Platz or close stands a brazen pillar, 14 ft. high, bearing, in bas-relief, 28 representations of the events of our Lord's Life and Passion, winding round it like a scroll, from the base upwards, after the manner of those of Trajan's column.

There are several other curious examples of ecclesiastical architecture of the middle ages in the Romanesque style, and assuming the form of the Basilica.

St. Godehard, founded in 1130, built on the same plan as the Dom, is much more curious as being in its original

state. The style is plain, perfect Romanesque; but the capitals are very rich, in high relief, and the N. door is much ornamented. St. Michael's, similar to it, now a Narren-Anstalt and ruinous, but unaltered in other respects, has a fine cloister; the wall of the choir is ornamented with figures of apostles, &c., in relief. The Church on the Moritzberg is very ancient. The Churches of St. Andreas and St. Lambert are also worth a visit. In the very rich Treasury are a silver model of the Tower of the Dom in 1367, the shrine of St. Oswald; a silver cross and chalice, a crucifix 20 inches high, covered with gold plates, set with precious stones, and ornamented with filigree, the work of Bishop Bernward (d. 1122), who was a great promoter of the art; also 2 candelabras of bronze, ornamented with bas-relief. The Rathhaus and Tempelhaus, the Square, Altmarktstrasse, and street behind, abound in curious specimens of old domestic architecture.

The Georg's Stift, a sort of lay Nunnery, its inmates not being bound by vows, was founded 1829 by George IV., for 12 daughters of men who had served the state, eligible without reference to birth or religion.

The picture gallery of Count Stolberg, at Söder, 9 miles distant, may be visited from hence. It has few works of first rate excellence.

There is a good post-road from Hildesheim to Goslar, in the Hartz. (Rte. 73.)

For the railway from Hildesheim to Hanover, see Rtes. 59 and 66.




A railway connects Bremen with the Hanover and Minden railway at the Wunstorf station. The journey from Hanover to Bremen occupies from 3 to 4 hours. The stations between Hanover and Bremen are as follows:Wunstorf Stat., see Rte. 66. Neustadt Stat.

Nienburg Stat.

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The fortifications of this town were razed in 1807 by the French. Verden Stat., on the river Aller, the seat of a bishopric founded by Charlemagne.

Achim Stat.

Bremen Stat. (Rte. 69.)




Preliminary Information.

The Hartz, the most northerly range of mountains in Germany, is about 70 m. long, and 20 to 28 broad; it lies on the confines of Hanover, Brunswick, Anhalt, Bernburg, and Prussia; and is divided among them, though the largest share belongs to Hanover. The Brocken, the loftiest summit, is lower than the highest British mountains, but the Hartz chain rises alone, immediately out of a level plain extending all the way to the Baltic, whose inhabitants, accustomed to an uninterrupted flat, exaggerate both the eleva. tion and the beauties of the only range of hills that falls within their observation. Their scenery would ap pear tame, and their height inconsiderable to one accustomed to the Alps, in comparison with which the Hartz is a mere molehill. This statement is made with the view of counteracting the exaggerated praises of some of the guide-books; indeed, it is hardly worth the while of the hunter after the picturesque, who has seen other parts of Europe, to go far out of his way to explore the Hartz, unless he be, at the same time, a geologist, or interested in mining operations, as these branches of know ledge may be profitably studied here.

The points usually visited are, the Brocken, on account of its view, which is rarely seen, owing to the mists which envelope it, and the constant rain at most seasons; it is also famous for the superstitions connected with it, and for the phenomenon called spectre Inn, Stadt Lon- of the Brocken. The Rosstrappe and

valley of the Bode are more interesting | reach Elbingerode in the evening, and than the Brocken, from their fine and he might even visit the open iron peculiar scenery. Between these two mines of Buchberg the same day. places are the curious caves of Baumans and Bielshöhle, interesting to geologists on account of the fossil bones found in them.

The principal mines are at Clausthal, Andreasberg, and Goslar.

For the Germans this district has a peculiar historical interest, as it is supposed to be the land of Herrmann (Arminius), the formidable antagonist of the Romans, and among its woods and rocks were the fastnesses of the indomitable Cherusci.

Plan for an abbreviated Tour of the Hartz." Persons well acquainted with mountain scenery, and who merely wish to acquire an insight into some more leading peculiarities of this district, may at little expense of time, during their passage through Northern Germany, accomplish this object in the following way :- Starting from Göttingen in the morning by the diligence for Nordheim, and posting to Andreasberg, they may reach that place by two o'clock. The stage from Herzburg (where the Hartz properly commences) to Andreasberg is woody and picturesque. A short time being allowed for dinner, to visit the mouth of Samson's Mine and the stamping works adjoining, abundance of time remains to pursue the agreeable walk which leads to the top of the Brocken, but for which, in part, a guide is desirable, on account of the swampy nature of the ground, The traveller follows during this walk a watercourse called the Rehbergergraben, which conveys a stream to the works of Andreasberg from a place called Oderteich, and passes through one of the most characteristic and picturesque valleys of the Hartz.

"After sleeping at the Brocken an excursion should be made down the valley of the Ilse to the point called Ilsenstein, and the traveller, then retracing his steps for some way, passes across the N. E. shoulders of the Brocken, under the Zetter-klippen to Schierke, where he may dine, and

"Next day should be devoted to a visit to the Rosstrappe. The caves at Rubeland are scarce worth visiting, but thence a guide may be procured to point out the shortest woodland path to the Rosstrappe, 12 miles distant, which displays the greatest variety of charming scenery. The walks round the Rosstrappe might occupy some hours, and the small new bathing establishment might afford accommodation; or two hours' walk will take the traveller to Blankenburg, at the extremity of the Hartz."-Pr. F.


From Brunswick the Hartz is now readily approached by the Hartzburg Railway (Rte. 66.), which terminates at Neustadt, 6 m. from Goslar. Roads in the interior of the Hartz are very bad indeed, especially in wet weather. You plough with the carriage wheels through the sand and mud rather than drive over the country. A good macadamised carriage road runs between Göttingen and Goslar; but between Goslar, Wernigerode, and Halberstadt, it is only tolerable. From Wernigerode to Elbingerode and Blankenburg, the same. From Halberstadt to Quedlinburg and Alexisbad, good. A good macadamised road has been constructed from Clausthal to Andreasberg over the Bruchberg; it extends to Braunlege, Rothehütte, and Elbingerode. A good road leads from Hartzburg and Neustadt to the Torfhause, at the foot of the Brocken, and thence past the Oder Teich to Oderbruch and Königskrug. From Wernigerode to the Brocken there is a carriage road, practicable, however, only for light carriages or horses be yond Ilsenberg. All deviations from these lines, to visit the Brocken, Rosstrappe, &c., must be made in carriages of the country, on horseback, or on foot.

The following excursion may be easily made in 4 days, thus :

1st, from Göttingen to Goslar. 2d, Goslar to the Brocken. 3d, Brocken

to Blankenburg. 4th, to Rosstrappe about it; its houses are chiefly of wood, and Alexisbad.

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23 Osterode. Inns: Englischer Hof; Krone; Kronprinz. A town of 5000 inhab., on the Söse, supported by various manufactures of wool, cotton, &c. It contains enormous corn warehouses, from which, by a provision of the government, the miners of the district and their families are supplied with corn at a fixed low price, even in times of scarcity, and when it rises in other districts. The Hartz itself, from its elevation and barren soil, produces scarcely any grain. There are some curious old monuments in the Church.

A few miles beyond this, the ascent of the Hartz begins; the two stages hence to Goslar are so hilly, that the postmasters' regulations allow them to put on additional horses to carriages. The hills are clothed with dark pine woods; glimpses of the Brocken may be obtained on the right. The goitre is not uncommon among the in

habitants of Lerbach.

1 Clausthal.-Inns: Goldene Krone; Stadt London. This is the principal mining town (Bergstadt) of the Hartz; it has 9070 inhab., and the adjoining town of Zellerfeld 4176, chiefly miners or persons connected with the mines and smelting-houses. It lies in a bare bleak region, on the top and slopes of a hill, 1740 ft. above the sea, an elevation where corn ceases to ripen. There is a desolate look

and even its principal church is of the same material. It was destroyed by fire, 1844. In order to visit the School of Mines, Mint, Mines, and Furnaces, strangers must apply to the chief of the mines, Berghauptman, for a permission (Erlaubnisschein), which is readily granted, and which the landlord of the inn will procure.

The School of Mines (Bergschule), in a corner-house of the market-place, is destined for the gratuitous education of young miners, and is supported by the King of Hanover. It contains an extensive collection of models of mines, and of the machinery and buildings used in mining and smelting, very instructive for those who wish to obtain some knowledge of the processes in use. Also a very good cabinet of the minerals found in the Hartz. Collectors may purchase specimens here.

The Mint (Münze). Here the precious metals produced in the Hanoverian district of the Hartz are assayed and coined to the extent of about 14,000 dollars weekly, and of 600 or 800 gold ducats (chiefly from the Rammelsberg near Goslar) annually. The miners' wages, to the amount of 5000 dollars, are usually paid at the Rathhaus every Saturday, with silver dollars coined during the week. For five days out of the 7, a miner in full employment works 12 hours under ground.

The Mines principally visited are the Caroline and the Dorothea, as they are the cleanest and best ventilated. The entrance to them is about half an hour's walk from the town, at two great blackened buildings, where the stranger, who has secured his permission from the Director of the mines, is provided with a miner's dress, a stiff felt cap, without a brim, to resist knocks on the head, a leather apron tied on behind, and a coarse grey jacket and trowsers; also with guides to attend him, bearing lights. The descent is by a series of ladders; it is dark, damp, and fatigu ing, but not dangerous: the miner clings fast by his hands, and never minds his feet; he holds on by the steps, and not by the side of the ladder,


and this ensures safety. Arrived at the bottom, the visitor sees little except wheels and ropes, by which the ore is raised, and water pumped out; he hears a rattling of machinery, and here and there finds a solitary miner, plying the pickaxe and chisel, to extract the A general idea of the process of mining is best learned from models, above ground. In the mine called Silbersegen is a perpendicular shaft, 176 fathoms deep, with a pump moved by a water column, which draws up the water 688 feet. A subterranean canal, 2339 fathoms long, has been constructed to convey the ore from some of the shafts. The mine called Herzog Georg Wilhelm contains one of the deepest shafts in the Hartz; it reaches down 2000 ft., which is below the level of the Baltic. The mines of Clausthal are drained by a subterranean tunnel, cut through the mountain, 6 miles long, which empties itself at the small town of Grund; it is called Georgstollen.

As the machinery for pumping water out of the mines, as well as for the forges, tilt hammers, and stamping mills, is all put in motion by waterpower, the utmost attention is paid to collecting an adequate supply for this purpose. Every little rill in the neighbourhood of Clausthal is dammed up and formed into a reservoir. There are more than 50 of these ponds to supply the works about Clausthal and Zellerfeld alone; they set in motion 170 water-wheels, and the water is conducted from the reservoirs to the mills in canals or aqueducts, the entire length of which is not less than 125 English miles.

About 2 miles W. of Clausthal is the Silver Smelting Foundry, called Frankenscharner Hütte; the neighbourhood of it is literally a blasted waste, owing to the destructive effects produced upon vegetation by the vapours of lead and arsenic which issue from the smelting houses. The stream puts in motion 13 stamping-mills, where the ore is crushed and washed in readiness for the furnace.

There is a cross-road from Clausthal to Goslar, practicable for a light car

riage with 4 horses, and far more interesting than the post-road, through the Vale of the Oker, one of the most romantic in the Hartz. The finest points are the Studenten and Fichtenklippe. It passes by the smeltinghouses of Schulenberg, and through the village of Oker, 6 or 7 miles lower down, and only 3 miles from Goslar; from Oker to Goslar the road is good.

The post-road passes near some enormous Slate Quarries on approaching Goslar. The rock has been excavated into a cleft of tremendous depth, in order to drain off the water. The mountain on the right is the Rammelsberg. Out of its bowels precious and useful metals, gold, silver, copper, lead, zinc, have been dug for nearly 800 years. So many different minerals are rarely found within so small a space. The mountain is penetrated through and through in all directions by miners' shafts and galleries, and its riches are not yet exhausted. The produce at present, however barely repays the outlay; but the works are continued by the Hanoverian government notwithstanding, on account of the large population depending entirely on the mines for subsistence. The ducats coined from the gold derived from this mine, have the inscription "Ex auro Hercyniæ." The ore is not extracted by blasting, but by the following unusual process. Large stacks of wood are raised within the mine, against the surface of the rock, where it abounds with metal. They are then set on fire, and allowed to burn for 48 hours together, during which time all the openings and passages of the mine are closed, and no one enters it. At the end of that time the rock is found cracked and shattered by the heat to the depth of several feet, so that the ore is easily extracted from it.

2 Goslar. Inns: Kaiser-Worth, a curious old house in the market-place (15th century), once the hall of a Guild, or Corporation; Römischer Kaiser. Goslar was once a free Imperial city of great importance and antiquity, as it certainly existed in the

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