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the windows round the inner court are 22 masks, admirably carved in stone by Schlüter, representing the human face in the agonies of death. On the ground-floor are cannon and artillery of various kinds, such as 2 leather guns, used by the Great Gustavus in the 30 years' war; a field-piece named die Schöne Taube (beautiful dove); a damasked cannon; 2 Turkish pieces. On the first floor are ranged 100,000 stand of arms. These apartments form a kind of Military Museum. Specimens of the arms and accoutrements used in every army in Europe are deposited here. There are fire-arms, from those used at the first invention of gunpowder, to the most perfect made in the present day. Many ancient weapons and suits of armour-one suit belonged to Francis I.; 7 bunches of the keys of captured fortresses-some taken from the French. A standard, and the key of Adrianople, taken from the Turks by the Russians in the last war, and presented by their emperor. Against the walls and pillars are hung nearly 1000 stand of colours, chiefly French, and bearing the dates and emblems of the Revolution. They were captured by the Prussians in Paris, 1815. In consequence of the plunder of the arsenal during the riots of March, 1848, some of the interesting objects formerly to be seen here may be missing. Admission, by tickets, which may be had of the Commandant opposite the Zeughaus, and which the valet de place will procure.
The Palace of Prince Carl, 9. Wilhelms-Platz, fitted up by Schinkel, contains a very choice and valuable collection of armour. A shield of beaten silver, with raised groups in the style of B. Cellini, and the Kaiserstuhl, an armchair of bronze, from the Dom in Goslar, deserve mention.
The Palace of Prince Albert, 102, Wilhelms Strasse, also arranged by Schinkel, is a handsome building, and it is shown to strangers.
The Palace of Prinz Wilhelm of Prussia, brother to the king and heir presumptive, Unter den Linden, close to the library, contains some elegant apart
Count Raczynski's Gallery has been purchased by the king, and placed in a new building, on the Exercier-Platz, outside the Brandenburg Gate. It contains interesting specimens of modern German art: the finished Sketch of Kaulbach's Battle of the Huns; a Sposalizio, by Overbeck; Sohn's Two Leonoras; Leopold Robert's last work, &c.; Cornelius's Christ in Limbo. The house of Cornelius, built for him by the king, is near this.
In the Schloss Bellevue, 14 m. outside the Brandenburg Gate, is a collection of modern paintings belonging to the King, which is shown Tues. and Fri., 10-1 and 2—6.
Consul Wagner, 5, Brüder-str. has a very fine collection of paintings of modern German schools, which he readily allows to be seen.
The Iron Foundry (Eisengiesserei), outside of the Oranienburg-gate. great variety of articles, as busts, statues, bas-reliefs, copies of pictures, monumental slabs, joists, beams, and rafters for houses, and even bells, are cast here.
At the time when the final struggle commenced between Prussia and Napoleon, the patriotism of the Prussian ladies was particularly conspicuous. With the noblest generosity they sent their jewels and trinkets to the royal treasury to assist in furnishing funds for the expense of the campaign. Rings, crosses, and other ornaments of cast iron, made in this manufactory, were given in return to all those who had made this sacrifice. They bore the inscription "Ich gab Gold um Eisen (1 gave gold for iron), and such Spartan jewels are, at this day, much treasured by the possessors and their families.
The black varnish with which the iron ware is covered, to prevent rust, is made of amber dissolved, and mixed with lamp black.
The China Manufactory was founded by Frederick the Great; the painting is very good, but the porcelain is rather thick and heavy. The quality of the clay is not good, but great pains are taken to purify it by passing it through a number of vats.
The Taub- Stummen-Institut, Institution for instructing the deaf and dumb, situated in the Linien Strasse, Nos. 81 and 82, is a very interesting establishment.
The Academy of Fine Arts, Unter den Linden, was placed by Frederick the Great above the Royal Stables; hence some one proposed to inscribe over the door "Musis et Mulis." An exhibition of modern works takes place here annually between September and December.
The Gewerbe Schule, School for Trade, is an establishment of a kind only recently introduced into Great Britain: it is a school for instructing gratuitously promising young artisans in drawing, modelling, and other branches of the fine arts calculated to be of practical use in their trade, with a view of improving the designs of articles of furniture and patterns in stuffs of all sorts, and the like.
The Architectural Academy (BauSchule) S. of the Schloss-brücke, established under the direction of Schinkel, is one of the most original constructions of that gifted architect, now no more. It is of red brick, and the external ornaments are of the same material, i. e. of terra cotta, or clay moulded and baked. Within may be seen some paintings and sculpture by Schinkel, for he was also distinguished in the sister
The Studios of some of the Berlin artists deserve to be visited, particularly those of the sculptors Rauch and Tieck in the Lager Haus, and the painter Krüger.
Theatres. 1. Italian Opera House, rebuilt 1845, after a fire, is a building of great splendour near the Linden. In it, German and Italian operas, the national drama, and tragedy and comedy, are performed, generally 3 or 4 times a-week alternately with the Schauspielhaus, though in winter the Opera is open every day it holds 2000 spectators. The Box-office of the Opera House is not in that building, but in the lower story of the Schauspielhaus, where tickets are given out for both theatres. Opera begins at 6.
2. New Play House (Schauspielhaus) built by Schinkel, in 1819, lies between the two churches in the Gens d'Armes Platz. It is decorated with a good deal of sculpture, by Rauch and Tieck, representing mythological subjects.— The performances consist of German and French plays alternately; an excellent French company resides here permanently. "It is a great treat to see a Greek tragedy, such as the Antigone of Sophocles, performed here; the stage and theatre being fitted up as nearly as possible in the ancient Grecian classic style."-De S.. The stage is on the second floor of the building, so that it is necessary to go up stairs even into the pit; adjoining it, is the Concert Room, holding 1200 persons, much admired for its architectural proportions, and the taste of its decorations. Besides Concerts, a certain number of Subscription Balls take place here in winter. The king and royal family are often present. gins at 6.
3. Königstädtisches Theater, near the Königsbrucke. Begins at 6.
Music. See § 42.
The Sing Academie is a private association of from 200 to 300 amateurs, male and female, of the respectable and upper classes, who meet together to practise, every week during the whole year, and give annually several delightful concerts, to which the public are admitted in the tasteful Grecian Building of the Academy, designed by Ottmar, behind the Grand Guardhouse. The performance of sacred vocal music is probably not carried to greater perfection in any part of Europe; the strength of the chorus, and the perfect precision and unity of so many voices is very striking. This institution has been imitated in the Exeter Hall Association in London,
The Coliseum, Alte Jacob's Strasse, No. 51, is a very handsome Ball-room, designed principally for the Bourgeoisie to dance in, but often visited by the upper classes, as lookers on.
The Winter Gardens are coffeehouses under glass; conservatories filled with exotic plants, provided with
tables for refreshments, and newspapers. They are splendid and popular establishments, where excellent dinners, music, &c. are provided. The best is Kroll's, in the Thiergarten, answering to the Volksgarten in Vienna, where evening concerts are given. The ices are good. There is a table d'hôte on Sundays, at 15 Sgr. a head.
Restaurateurs, where dinner and supper are served à la carte. The best are Mielentz's (formerly Jagor's), No. 28, and Meinhardt's, or Café Royal (very superior cuisine), No. 33, Unter den Linden. (Meinhardt's is now a very good hotel, with an excellent table d'hôte.) Tietz, 25, U. d. Linden. Stagge (Café Belvedere), near the Catholic Ch. Café de la Gaité, Charlotten Strasse, 60. Peculiar delicacies of the Berlin cuisine are the Sandra, or pikeperch, a very delicate fresh-water fish, Teltower Rüben (very small and sweet turnips, resembling parsnips in shape, from Teltow, a neighbouring village). 3 or 4 is the fashionable hour of dinner in Berlin.
The Merchant's Club is over the Exchange, to which a banker will introduce you to read the papers. An introduction from the English minister will procure admission to the Club of Nobles. Newspapers of all countries may be seen at the Zeitungs Halle Oberwall Strasse, No, 12. and 13.
The Confectioners' shops (Conditoreien), corresponding nearly with the cafés of Paris, supplying ice, coffee, newspapers, &c., become the general lounge and resort about 1 or 2 o'clock, it being a usual practice here to take a cup of chocolate in the middle of the day. The best are Stehelys, 36, Charlotten Strasse, behind the Schauspielhaus, where French, German, and English Journals, including the Times and Galignani, are taken in. Josti, 1. Stechbahn (good bon bons); — Kranzler, 25, U. d. Linden (capital ice); Fuchs, 8, U. d. Linden, superbly fitted up by Schinkel and Stüler; Spargnapani, U. d. Linden, 50; Koblank, 44.
The lower classes resort to the wine and beer-houses (Bierlokale), which, in splendour, may vie with the gin palaces
of London, and are nearly as much crowded, and as injurious to public health and morals. The best are (where men sup after the theatre),- for Berlin Weissbier, Volpi, Stechbahn, 3, and Mohren Strasse, 37 a.; Klausing, Zimmer Strasse, 80;-for Bavarian beer, Happold, Grün Strasse, 1; Wallmüller, Jäger Strasse, 33.
"The porters of Berlin are a peculiar race, celebrated all over Germany. They are called ' Eckensteher,' from their habit of collecting at the Corners (Ecken) of the streets (like their Highland brethren in Edinburgh). They have a badge on their arm, and are readily known by their original humour. They bandy sharp words, in their peculiar Berlin dialect, with great effect. Nante Strumpf, the Sam Weller of Berlin, has been made the representative of this class." Howitt.
The best shops are in the Unter den Linden, Schloss Platz, Breite Strasse, in the Bau-schule, and between the Schloss and the Opera House, Königs Strasse, and Behren Strasse. Among the articles peculiar to Berlin, and best worth purchasing, are the trinkets, ornaments, busts, bas-reliefs, &c. of cast iron; the pictures in transparent China (Lithophanies). Gropius Bazaar, Georgen Strasse, No. 12, is worth a visit.
Pistor and Martins, the best makers of philosophical instruments, 34, Mauer Strasse, sell admirable microscopes.
Schropp, map-seller, 24, Jäger Strasse, publishes good maps, a geological map of Europe, a chart of the moon, and many others of great excellence and use to travellers.
Railroads' Termini to Potzdam, Magdeburg, and Hanover, outside the Potzdam Gate; - -to Leipzig and Dresden, outside the Anhalt Gate; Hamburg, outside the New Gate; to Stettin, outside the Oranienburg Gate; -to Frankfurt on the Oder and Breslau, near the Stralauer Platz.
Schnellposts to Danzig, Königsberg, Posen, Rostock. The office (Meldezimmer, § 33, 46.), in the inner court of the Post-office, Königs St., No. 60,
and Spandauer St., 19-22, is open from 7 A.M. to 8 P.M.
Environs. The gates of the city were originally named after the places to which they led, but the great lines of high roads have been so much changed, that it is not now the Halle Gate, but the Potzdam Gate, which leads to Halle, nor the Hamburg Gate which leads thither, but the Brandenburg Gate; and to proceed into Silesia you issue out of the Frankfurt, not the Silesian Gate.
At Tegel, 7 m. beyond the Oranienburg Gate, is the seat of the late Wm. von Humboldt. In the garden is a monument to his wife, a statue of Hope upon a pillar, the work of Thorwaldsen. In the churchyard outside of the Oranienburg Gate, are buried Fichte, Hegel, and Schinkel.
About 1 mile outside of the Potzdam Gate, near the village of Schöne berg, is the Botanic Garden. The conservatories and palmhouses are on a large scale. Palms are seen growing in them to a height of nearly 30 ft. It is open to the public on Friday. Strangers may obtain admission at other times.
Outside the Halle Gate, in the BelleAlliance-Platz, rises the Friedens Denkmal, a pillar of granite, surmounted by Victory, by Rauch, erected 1840, to commemorate the Peace which had then lasted 25 years.
About a mile beyond the Halle Gate is a low sandhill called the Kreutzberg, almost the only eminence near Berlin, and commanding a tolerable view of it. It is named from a Gothic Cross of cast iron upon its summit, called Volks Denkmal (People's Monument), erected by the late king, as a memorial of Prussia's recovery of independence from the French, and thus inscribed: "The King to his peo ple, who at his call nobly offered life and property to their country; a monument to the fallen; an acknowledgment to the living; an example to posterity." Schinkel designed it, and Rauch and Tieck executed the statues of Prussian warriors in the niches, and the bas-reliefs representing the principal
victories gained by the Prussians-as Gross Görschen, Leipsig, Katzbach, Paris, Belle Alliance. The whole was cast in the Royal Iron Foundry.
Upon the slope of the Kreutzberg is Tivoli, a sort of Vauxhall Garden, including a Russian Mountain, down which visitors descend in cars. There is a ball-room for waltzing, and numerous boxes, in which the crowd may be seen taking refreshments.
Immediately beyond the Brandenburg Gate commences the Park ( Thiergarten), an extensive plantation, interspersed with flower beds, with open spaces here and there, and ponds, coffee-houses, &c., among them, and dull, except when thronged with people on a fine Sunday afternoon. A statue of the lake king was erected in Aug. 1849, near the Louisen Insel, a site which that prince converted from a wilderness into a park. Half an hour's drive beyond the Brandenburg Gate, behind the Hofjägers, is the Zoological Garden, containing the Royal Menagerie, once at the Pfauen Insel. It resembles that in the Regent's Park. It is open daily; admission 5 Sgr. N. B. "Man hüte sich vor Taschendieben", beware of pick-pockets!
Two excursions should on no account be omitted-one to Charlottenburg, which will not take more than 3 hours,-the other to Potzdam, about 19 m. Railroad trains go thither 6 times a-day. Rte. 62.
Excursion to Charlottenburg. The road thither about 3 m. long, passes through the Brandenburg Gate, and forms a long straight avenue through the Thiergarten, bordered as it approaches Charlottenburg, by many country houses of the citizens.
CHARLOTTENBURG itself is a small village on the Spree, made up chiefly of villas and taverns, the summer residence of the rich, and the summer resort of the humbler classes from Berlin. The Palace (Schloss) "was built by Frederick I., who married an English princess, Sophia Charlotte, daughter of George I., which will account for the English aspect of its interior. Many rooms are furnished with taste and
magnificence. Here are several good pieces of sculpture, as a head of our Saviour by Rauch."— - Ld. F. The Gardens behind it are exceedingly pretty, and are at all times open to the public. The entrance to them is through the Orangery, at the extremity of which is the Theatre, where the Berlin company performs generally twice a-week, in summer. The gardens are the great resort of Sunday strollers from Berlin. They are prettily laid out, varied by the windings of the Spree, and by sheets of water, abounding in curp of large size and great age. Visitors are in the habit of feeding them with crumbs, and collect them together by the ringing of a bell, at the sound of which the fish may be seen in shoals, popping their noses out of the water.
The object of greatest interest at Charlottenburg is the monument of Louisa Queen of Prussia, the most beautiful and amiable, and at the same time unfortunate princess of her day. She is buried within a small Doric temple, at the extremity of a shady walk, in a retired part of the garden. The Castellan residing in the palace keeps the key, and will show the monument to strangers. It is allowed to be the master-piece of the sculptor, Rauch. The figure of the queen reposes on a marble sarcophagus. It is a form and face of the most exquisite beauty, but, at the same time, a most perfect resemblance. "The expression is not that of dull cold death, but of undisturbed repose. The hands are modestly folded on the breast; the attitude is easy, graceful, and natural. Only the countenance and part of the neck are bare, the rest of the figure is shrouded in an ample and extremely well-wrought drapery. The great charm of the figure is the decent, simple, tranquil air, without any striving after effect. I observed no inscription -no pompous catalogue of her titlesno parading eulogy of her virtues ; the Prussian eagle alone, at the foot of the sarcophagus, announces that she belonged to the house of Hohenzollern, and the 7 withered garlands which still hang above her, were the first offerings
of her children at the grave of their mother.". - Russell. The late king is buried here by the side of his queen. A recumbent statue of him "with his martial cloak around him," by Rauch, is placed beside that of his queen.
On St. Bartholomew's day (Aug. 24.) a popular festival takes place at Stralow, a small village on the left bank of the Spree, and right of the lake of Rummelsburg. It is called the Fishery (Fischzug), and originated in the practice of dragging the waters with nets on that day 3 times; 1st, for the benefit of the magistrates; 2dly, for the minister; 3dly, for the elders of the village. It is a favourite excursion with the Berliners to proceed by water to the scene of action, where a great fair is held on the river banks, and to dine on fish.
In the course of the autumn, generally in September, a Grand Review of the garrison takes place in the neighbourhood of Berlin: 20,000 troops are sometimes collected, and the manoeuvres last several days. "To see the reviews to advantage a uniform is desirable, though not absolutely necessary. A good horse warranted to stand fire may be hired for a louis a day; with these you may ride on the ground and join the staff, which sometimes amounts to 500 officers of all nations. The reviews are generally held on the ground near the Kreutzberg. The field manoeuvres usually take place between Charlottenburg, Spandau, and Potzdam. They last several days, the regiments bivouacking at night. The operations begin each day about 9. Ladies in carriages are enabled to see the whole by the good arrangement of the gendarmerie. A carriage with a pair of horses may be hired for the day at 5 thalers (15s.)."-T. R. S.
BERLIN TO MAGDEBURG, BY POTZDAM AND BRANDENBURG, RAILWAY.
18 Pruss. m.=851 Eng. m. Trains to Potzdam six times a day, in 45 minutes.