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be premised that few of them are above mediocrity as works of art, and that a large part of them are much indebted to modern restorers. There is, how ever, at least one exception. The Boy praying is one of the finest antique bronze statues in existence; it was found in the bed of the Tiber (140)— Apollo restraining Hercules from carrying away the Delphic tripod, a basrelief. (81).—A Venus (113).-Daughter of Niobe (217).—A Wrestler (129). A Bacchante (130). The procession of Bacchus and Ariadne (146). Bust of Julius Cæsar; it used to stand on the table of Frederick the Great (295); - a hero or Mercury, found at Syra, 1831, the head and arms modern ;- Bust of Pericles (396); -Canova's Hebe-are almost the only others worth notice. There is a catalogue costing 7 Sgr.
In side apartments (open Tues. and Fri.), leading out of the Sculpture Gallery, are the collection of China-of Majolica, from the year 1519-together with works in baked clay, glazed: among them is a large altarpiece by Luca della Robbia, a beautiful high relief of clay gilt, representing the Trinity; and some painted glass. In the Antiquarium is the golden shrine of St. Patroclus, brought from Soest, of very beautiful workmanship (date 1313?), also a richly embossed silver dish, of cinque cento work, possibly by Benvenuto Cellini.
3. The Picture Gallery, on the upper story of the building, is divided into numerous small compartments, by partitions or screens extending from between the piers of the windows nearly to the opposite walls.
The collection is composed of, 1st, a selection from the paintings formerly in the Royal Palaces of Berlin, Sans Souci, and Charlottenburg, which the late king allowed to be removed to the Prussian National Gallery. They are marked in the Catalogue K. S. The Giustiniani collection (marked G. S.), from Venice, and the pictures of Mr. Solly, an English merchant (marked S. S.), both of which have been purchased by the Government.
The Berlin Gallery ranks below the Galleries of Munich and Dresden in works of first-rate excellence, but it has good specimens of a great number of masters, especially of the early German and Italian schools. For those who are desirous of studying the history and progress of the art, from the Byzantine schools through those of Florence and Sienna, to its period of excellence, and thence to trace its gradual decay, there can be no better opportunity than is here afforded them.
The Director Waagen has prepared an admirable catalogue, with a short introduction to explain the origin and character of each school. His arrangement, combining the chronological order with the classification according to schools, is very good. The 1st division contains the Italian, French, and Spanish schools: the 2nd. the Dutch, Flemish and German.
The gallery is divided into 37 cabinets or compartments, each distinguished by a number over the entrance. In the 4th cabinet on the left of the entrance begin the Italian schools; on the one next to it, i. e. the 5th from the entrance, begin the Flemish schools. These two cabinets therefore may be considered as points of departure. the spectator continue on to the left, he will pass in succession through the cabinets devoted to Flemish art, commencing with the Van Eyck's, and ending with the followers of Rembrandt and Rubens; if he take an opposite direction, to the right, he will find in regular order the works of the schools of Venice, Lombardy, Rome, Bologna, &c.
The gallery is by no means deficient in fine works of the great Italian masters, but it is particularly rich in the Flemish and Dutch schools. Among the pictures which appear most deserving of attention are the following:
Italian School. Andrea Mantegna ; 24. Angels weeping over Christ. Titian; 75 a. portrait of his daughter Lavinia. Correggio; 107. Leda and the Swan-109. Io and the Cloud, a repetition of that at Vienna, but inferior to it, as the flesh seems to have faded, and the
shadows to have become black. These 2 pictures formed the gems of the gallery of the Regent Duke of Orléans; his son, from prudish motives, cut out the heads of Io and Leda, and burnt them, and cut the picture of Leda to pieces; luckily they were preserved, and purchased by Frederick the Great, for Sans Souci. The existing heads are insertions; that of Io was painted by Prudhon, a French artist. The Leda was most injuriously retouched by the French, who removed the picture to Paris, but has been recently restored to its original condition, and a new head painted for it by a German artist. Pinturicchio; 212. the Adoration of the Magi. There is an interesting altar-piece by Raphael's father, Giovanni Santi. 215. The little child with folded arms opposite to St. John is supposed to represent Raphael at the age of 3 years. Raphael; 256. Virgin and Child, called Madonna di Casa Colonna; in his best manner. Another Holy Family, with the Adoration of Magi, called Madonna Ancajani, from a family of that name at Spoleto, its former owners, is the largest picture by Raphael in Germany, after the San Sisto at Dresden; but unluckily it is half destroyed; in many places the colour is so far gone as to show the outline and contour of the figure, and the various layers of colouring in proportion as they are worn away. Instead of re touching the defective parts, by which the original composition would have been entirely obliterated, a finished copy has been made by a skilful artist, to give an idea of what the picture was when perfect. (The original, 100. a. in the 3d division, is in a side room, of which the door is locked, but the attendant of the gallery will open it on application.) Fra. Bartolomeo; 257. the Assumption of the Virgin. Francesco Francia; 269. the Virgin in Glory worshipped by six Saints. Giacomo Francia; 297. The Virgin and Child, with St. John the Baptist, The Magdalen, S. Agnes, S. Dominic, and S. Francis. Sabbattini du Bologna; 314. the Virgin on a throne with three Saints.
Ludovico Caracci; 377. Christ feeding the 5000. Guido Reni; 383. the Hermits Paul and Anthony discoursing.
Spanish School.-Murillo; 403 a. St. Anthony of Padua embracing the Infant Christ.
Michel Angelo Caravaggio; 404. Christ in the Garden. Sassoferrato; 415. Joseph and the Infant Christ. Carlo Dolce; 418. St. John the Evangelist. Luca Giordano; 432. the Judgment of Paris.
French School. Nicolas Poussin ; 416. Landscape, with the story of Juno and Argus. 462. the Education of Jupiter. Lesueur; 463. St. Bruno.
Flemish and Dutch Schools. - John and Hubert Van Eyck; 12 paintings which formed the side wings or shutters of the famous, altar-piece known as "The Worship of the spotless Lamb," in the church of St. Bavon at Ghent, where the central portion still remains. (See p. 135.) They are decidedly the finest works which the Berlin Museum possesses. They represent, 1. The Just Judges; the man on the white horse is the painter Hubert Van Eyck; the figure in black, looking round, is his brother John. 2. The Soldiers of Christ: here are introduced portraits of Charlemagne and St. Lewis. 3. and 4. Angels singing and playing. 5. The Holy Hermits. 6. The Holy Pilgrims. At the back of the above 6 pictures are painted the 6 following. (Once every day the shutters are reversed by the guardians of the museum; so that those which were exposed in the morning are turned to the wall in the afternoon, and visitors have an opportunity of seeing both). 7. John the Baptist. 8. Portrait of Jodocus Vyts, Burgomaster of Ghent, for whom the picture was painted; the expression of piety and devotion in the countenance is most truthfully depicted. 9. and 10. The Annunciation, the Angel Gabriel and the Virgin. 11. Elizabeth, wife of Jodocus Vyts. 12. St. John the Evangelist. These admirable pictures were finished 1432.—Roger v. d. Weyde. 19. The Crucifixion: nothing. can exceed the softness and minute finish of the female faces, while the expression of grief in the Virgin and Mag
Balthazar Denner; 491 a. a portrait of a man, elaborately executed, was purchased for 10,000 dollars (about 1500l. ).
The third division of the gallery is occupied with works of the earliest period of art, which may be regarded as the antiquities of painting, and are interesting, almost exclusively in an historical point of view, as illustrating the progress of the art. They consist of Byzantine, Italian, and early German and Flemish works.
In the rear of the Museum, and connected with it by a covered bridge carried over the street upon columns, is the New Museum, designed by Stüler. The ground floor is to con
whose architecture accords with the objects they contain. Here are placed the collection of Egyptian antiquities formerly in the Palace of Monbijou (see p.353.). These rooms are decorated with faithful imitations of genuine examples of Egyptian decoration, copied on the spot. In this part of the museum is an Egyptian hypæethral atrium, with colonnades at the sides.
dalen is most true to nature. — Hans Memling, a series of paintings obtained from a convent in Mechlin. 19 a. The Birth of Christ.—The Sybil of Tibur announcing the Birth of Christ to Au. gustus.-The three Kings adoring the Saviour. 19 b. Elijah fed by Angels. Quentin Matsys; 20. Virgin and Child. Lucas Cranach; 56. The Fountain of youth. 62. portrait of Melancthon; 64. Portrait of Luther, with mustachios, as the Junker (Squire) George, taken while he was concealed in the castle of the Wartburg: interesting. Christopher Amberger; 67, Portrait of the geographer Sebastian Münster. -Hans Holbein; 75. portrait of George Gyzen, a merchant of London. Rubens; 267. The Daughter of the painter.-tain ethnological antiquities, in rooms 273. The Resurrection of Lazarus. 286. St. Cecilia. — 294. Helena Forman, his 2d wife. Van Dyk; 270. Portrait of Prince Thomas of Carignan. -276. Portrait of a Daughter of Charles I. in a blue dress, with a white lace apron, beautifully painted. Had Sir Joshua known this picture, the Blue Boy of Gainsborough need not have been painted. 283. St. John Baptist and St. John Evangelist. -307. The Three Penitent Sinners, the Magdalen, the Prodigal Son, and King David, before the Virgin and Child.. 339. Portraits of the Children of Charles I. with a Dog. Teniers; 269. Peasants in an alehouse. 334. The Temptation of St. Anthony, a very humorous picture there is a great deal of whim and drollery in the devils. Under the figure of the Saint, Teniers has portrayed himself; the younger woman is his wife, with a little bit of a devil's tail peeping from under her gown; the old woman was his mother-in-law, a more decided devil, with horns and claws. - Rembrandt; 299. Portrait of Duke Adolph of Gueldres, shaking his clinched fist at his father -a masterpiece of the artist: a powerful representation of uncurbed passion. Jacob Ruisdael; 353. a sea-piece, with Amsterdam in the distance.-Jan Both; 356. a landscape with a hunting party. De Heem; 439. a flower and fruit piece. Frans Snyders; 440, a bear hunt.
The rooms on the first floor are to contain a valuable and extensive collection of casts.
The second floor will contain the collections of engravings and drawings.
The principal staircase is to be decorated with a series of colossal statues and frescoes,—the latter by Kaulbach. It has a magnificent timber roof.
The Royal Library (entrance in the Opern-Platz), a tasteless building, which owes its shape, it is said, to a whim of Frederick the Great, who desired the architect to take a chest of drawers for his model, contains about 500,000 vols. and nearly 5000 MSS. It is shown to strangers on application to the Librarian, Wed. and Sat., 10— 12. Among its curiosities are - Luther's Hebrew Bible, the copy from which he made his translation, with marginal notes in his own hand. MS. of his translation of the Psalms, with his corrections in red ink. The Bible and Prayer-book which Charles I. carried to the scaffold, and gave
before his death to Bishop Juxon: Gutemberg's Bible of 42 lines in a page, (on parchment, date 1450-55,) the first book on which moveable type was used. A consular diptych of ivory with reliefs, date 416, one of the earliest known. The Codex Wittekindii, a MS. of the 4 gospels, given, it is said, by Charlemagne to Wittekind (?); | it is of the 9th or 10th century, and the ivory carvings in the binding are in the style called Byzantine. Several Ivories (diptychs) of the earliest Christian times, and of Roman work. An album, with 6 beautiful miniature portraits by Luke Cranach; among them are his friends Luther, Melancthon, and the Elector John Frederick of Saxony. 36 vols. of engraved portraits of distinguished men of various times and countries, accompanied by autographs in alphabetical order. Two hemi. spheres of metal, with which Otto Guericke made the experiments which led him to discover the air-pump, are also preserved here. When he had exhausted the air between them, he found that the force of 30 horses was unable to separate them.
Zoological Collection is open Tuesdays and Fridays from 12 to 2; tickets are given out the day previous by the Director of the Museum. This collection is one of the richest and most extensive in Europe, especially in the department of Ornithology; it includes the birds collected by Pallas and Wildenow, and the fishes of Bloch. The best specimens are those from Mexico, the Red Sea, and the Cape. The whole is exceedingly well arranged and named for the convenience of students.
The Minerals are shown at the same hours, by tickets given by the director who resides in the house. Among the curiosities of this collection are - a piece of amber weighing 13 lbs. 15 oz., the largest known, and worth 10,000 dollars; it was found in a field, at a place called Schlappacken, 20 Germ. m. from the Baltic. Malachite from Russia. Topazes of two distinct colours, yellow and amethystine. A mass of platina, weighing 1088 grains, and a splendid fiery opal, both brought from South America by Alex. von Humboldt. A large portion of the collections made by him during his travels in Li-America and Asia are deposited here.
The Public Reading-room of the brary, where books may be consulted, is open daily. Inhabitants of Berlin, and even resident strangers properly recommended, are allowed to take books home with them under certain restrictions. There is a private readingroom on the ground-floor, in which the new books and principal journals of Europe are deposited. Admission can be obtained by a ticket from one of the head Librarians, which is only given to persons known to them. daily from 10 to 12.
It is open
The University (Unt. den Linden) established in 1809, possesses a high reputation from the talent of its teach ers and a better system of discipline than Jena and Heidelberg. It ranks among the first academical establishments in Germany, especially as a medical school, and is the most numerously attended (after that of Vienna), the students amounting to 1500.
The Museum of Natural History is within the l. wing of the building. The
The Anatomical Museum in the rt. wing will be highly appreciated by the medical student; it is one of the best in Europe, particularly rich in preparations of human and comparative anatomy. It is shown Wednesdays and Saturdays, from 4 till 6 in summer, 2 to 4 in winter, by tickets.
The Botanic Garden, belonging to the University, outside of the town, is described p. 358.
The Egyptian Museum was formerly in a wing of the Palace of Monbijou, occupied by Peter the Great while at Berlin, much to the loss of the reigning queen, to whom it belonged, as the filthy and violent habits of her Russian guest greatly injured it. It is now removed to the new Museum. The collection of Egyptian antiquities now placed there was formed by M. Passalacqua and General Minutoli, and is one of the most curious in Europe. To this have been added the valuable collections made by Lepsius, in Egypt.
Admission is given to the public every Thurs, from 10-4. Strangers and men of science can obtain access at other times on applying to the Directors.
An actual temple removed from Philo has been set up here; the parts wanting being restored; the pillars are coloured as at first, and within are statues of gods and kings, Rhamses, &c. Three tombs also from the pyramids, brought away by Lepsius, have been rebuilt. In addition to mummies, scarabæi, statues of Apis, coins, &c. which may be found in other cabinets, there exists here a collection of arms, implements used in various arts; utensils of all sorts, &c., highly illustrative of the whole household economy of the Egyp. tian nation, as it existed some thousand years ago, all in such perfect preservation as to give a wonderful insight into the state of arts, and habits, condition and civilization of the Egyptians at that remote period.
Specimens of the produce of a great many trades are here to be seen. Garments nearly as fine as muslin; a pair of braces! said, by Champollion, to have belonged to an Egyptian monarch; sandals; a medicine chest filled with drugs, in alabaster phials, is also supposed to have belonged to a king.
By the side of the figures of the various Egyptian deities are placed the symbols belonging to each, worn, it is supposed, as amulets on the person. Among them is a beetle, with the head of a sphinx. An assortment of the various kinds of cloth and linen found upon the mummies shows great perfection in the art of spinning and weaving.
The objects for the decoration of the person include mirrors of brass, pins of brass and ivory, necklaces, one of which was borrowed by the Duchess of Berry to wear at a Parisian fancy ball. Specimens are shown of the various balsams and asphaltum used in embalming. I is a curious fact that mummies are now imported into Europe for the use of apothecaries and painters, on accourt of the bitumen they contain. The instruments used in embalming, — the Ethiopian knives of sharpened flint, and the brass hooks with which the
brain was extracted through the nostrils, are perhaps peculiar to this collection. It would be tedious to give more than a slight enumeration of other objects, such as arms, spears, bows and arrows, &c. ; a plough; a spindle; distaff, and comb for flax; measures of rope and wood divided by knots or notches; a painter's palette and paintbox, with sliding lid. 7 different colours are preserved here. Herodotus mentions only 4. Part are placed in
small shells, as is the modern practice. Writing materials; architect's appa ratus; dice; weights; sandals, and shoes of leather and palm-leaves; fishing nets, with floats formed of calabashes; musical instruments; the flute and sistrum; mummies of the sacred animals worshipped by the Egyptians, as cats, fish, serpents, young crocodiles, frogs, ibises, lizards, all embalmed and wrapped in cloths; a human monster, without brain or spine, embalmed. It has been described by Geoffroy St. Hilaire. Perhaps the most curious objects in the whole collection are the contents of the tomb of an Egyptian high-priest, discovered and opened by Passalacqua in the Necropolis of Thebes. The body was enclosed in a triple coffin. By the side of it were deposited the sacred wand or priest's rod, the skull and legbones of an ox, branches of sycamore, and 2 models of Egyptian vessels (such as navigated the Nile 3000 years ago), neatly finished, and completely rigged, having on board a dead body, and a party of mourners accompanying it to the tomb.
"In a wing of Monbijou is a collection of Barbarous German Antiquities, celts, arrow heads, arms, &c., and a large bronze idol of the Sun, (Thor?) found at Collin, which is probably rather Sclavonic than Teutonic. A catalogue is much wanted."-F. S.
In Monbijou is also the Royal Cabinet of Drawings and Engravings, containing cartoons of Raphael, and a fac-simile of the original architectural drawing for the Dom of Cologne.
The Arsenal (Zeughaus), esteemed a building of almost faultless architecture, was erected in 1695. Above