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the finest cities in Europe. Some of, the most splendid buildings are concentrated in a very small space between the Palace (Schloss) and the Brandenburg gate, or very near it. Few European capitals can show so much architectural splendour as is seen in the colossal Palace, the beautiful colonnade of the new Museum, the chaste Guardhouse, the great Opera, and the University opposite. These, with the Arsenal, by some considered a most perfect specimen of architecture (?) in the city, and the Academy of Arts, are all within a stone's throw of one another, and the greater part may be seen by turning round on one's heel, while the 2 churches and theatre in the Gens d'Armes Platz are not many paces off.

Most of these buildings are situated in the street named Unter den Linden, from a double avenue of Lime Trees, which form a shady walk in its centre, while on each side of it runs a carriage road. It is the principal and most frequented street in this city. The view along it is terminated by the magnificent Brandenburg Gate.

The Brandenburg Gate is said to have been designed as an imitation of the Propylæum at Athens, but on a larger scale. The car of victory on the top was carried to Paris as a trophy by Napoleon, but it was recovered by the Prussians after the battle of Waterloo, who bestowed upon the goddess, after her return, the eagle and iron cross which she now bears. A French authority (Malte Brun) describes it thus: "Le quadrige de cuivre qui fut enlevé par les Français lors de la première campagne de Prusse, et qui a été à Paris depuis 1806 jusqu'à 1814, ne décora jamais aucun des monumens de cette capitale; - chef-d'œuvre de patience plutôt que de l'art, il fut exécuté par un chaudronnier de Berlin; ce n'est point un ouvrage de ciselure, mais un simple relevé en bosse sur du cuivre laminé."

The Prussians have exhibited their gratitude and respect to the memory of the worthies of their country, in the statues of them erected in the streets

and squares of the capital. Those to whom this honour has been paid are, without exception, military heroes. The Government is rendering only tardy justice to the greatest of them all, Frederick the Great, to whom an equestrian statue in bronze, modelled by Rauch, is about to be erected in the Unter den Linden, opposite Prince William's Palace and the University. It will be probably the grandest monument in Europe; the colossal equestrian statue of old Fritz, in his own proper costume on horseback, (the horse 16 ft. high,) will be raised on a pedestal, and at its corners will be statues as large as life, also equestrian, of his 4 greatest generals; the intervals being filled up with groups of his other comrades in arms. The model of this monument may be seen in Rauch's studio. On the long bridge leading from the Königstrasse to the Schloss Platz, is the equestrian statue of the Great Elector Fred. Wm., in bronze, designed by Schlüter, and possessing considerable merit as a work of art.

Opposite the Grand Guardhouse (Haupt-wache) stands the bronze statue of Blücher, a spirited figure, well executed; the pedestal is decorated with good bas-reliefs. Facing him, on each side of the Guardhouse, are the marble statues of Generals Bulow von Dennewitz and Scharnhorst, the reformer of the Prussian army after the battle of Jena, and the founder of the present military system of Prussia. These 3 statues are by the sculptor Rauch.

The cannon and mortars behind the Guardhouse were brought from Paris, 1816; the mortars were cast in France, to be employed in the siege of Cadiz, and are the fellows of the one in St. James's Park. The cannon originally came from Lübeck, and was carried off by the French in 1806.

In the square called Wilhelms Platz, near the Potzdam Gate, are the statues of six heroes of the Seven Years' war, the Prince of Anhalt Dessau, Generals Ziethen, Schwerin, Winterfeldt, Keith, and Seidlitz. They are for the most part of little merit as works of art, and the classical togas and armour

in which some of them are dressed out are incongruous and in bad taste.

The Churches are not the objects which will attract the most notice in Berlin. In St. Nicholas, a Gothic edifice of different periods, in the old town, is the tomb of Puffendorf, who died here in 1690. He was historiographer, privy counsellor, and judge at the court of Frederick William, Elector of Brandenburg.

The Cathedral (Dom) between the Palace and the Exchange, built 1747, is ugly in its exterior, and within has hardly the air of a church. It is the burial-place of the Royal Family, and contains the remains of the Great Elector and of Frederick I., king of Prussia, in gilded coffins. The bronze effigy of the Elector John Cicero, cast by a Burgundian artist, in 1540,--that of the Elector Joachim, made by one Adam Vischer of Nuremberg,-and a mosaic of St. Peter, given by Pope Pius VII. to the late king, on one side of the altar, deserve notice. Contiguous to the Dom, a cloister has been constructed as a royal burialplace, on the plan of the Campo Santo, at Pisa, and has been adorned with frescoes by Cornelius.

The two churches in the Gens d'Armes Platz are admired for their architecture. The Catholic Church of St. Hedewig is a poor imitation of the Pantheon. The Garnison Kirche is attended by the soldiers of the garrison: the music is good. It contains paintings by Rhode, of no great merit, and very inappropriate to a church, representing the death of some of the generals of the Seven Years' war. Against the walls are hung tablets bearing the list of names of those who fell in the war of liberation, 1813-15: a similar memorial will be fonnd in almost every parish church in Prussia, with the simple inscription, "They died for their King and Fatherland." The Church of Friedrichswerder is a modern Gothic structure, designed by Schinkel. It is of brick, and the mouldings, window tracery, cornices, corbels, and other ornaments usually cut out of stone, are of clay moulded and burnt

into brick, an important application or revival of the use of that material to the purpose of ornamental architecture. Palace. At the gate on the side of the Lustgarten stand casts in bronze of the horses and grooms from the Monte Cavallo, Rome, gifts of the Empr. of Russia. The Berliners have nicknamed them Gehemmte Fortschritt, and Beförderte Rückschritt.

The Royal Palace, or Schloss, is indebted to its vast size for the marked air of grandeur which its exterior possesses. Within it is sumptuously furnished; the state apartments are shown by the castellan, who lives in the 2nd court on the 2nd floor. In the Rittersaal (Knights' Hall), a splendid apartment, is the throne and a sideboard covered with massive old plate of gold and silver. In the White Hall, recently fitted up at great cost (£120,000.), decorated with the statues of the 12 Brandenburg Electors, and the 8 Prussian provinces, the 1st meeting of the Prussian Parliament was held, April, 1847. The most interesting rooms are those which were inhabited by Frederick the Great, at the corner of the building facing the Schloss Platz, and nearest to the long bridge on the first floor. The best paintings have been removed by the king's permission to the Museum among those that remain are Charles I. and his Queen Henrietta, by Vandyk - Marriage of St. Catherine, by Giulio Romano-Virtue quitting the Earth, Mars and Venus, by Rubens-Napoleon crossing the Great St. Bernard, by David and in the White Hall a portrait of the late King of Prussia, by Sir Thos. Lawrence, a present from Geo. IV. Queen Victoria, by Hayter. There are some good works of the modern German school: Leonore (Bürger's), by Lessing; Jeremiah, Bendeman, &c.

In former times, according to vulgar belief, this building was haunted by a ghost called the White Lady, who appeared only to announce the death of a member of the royal family.

In the attic story of this palace, on the side towards the Lustgarten, is the Kunstkammer (Chamber of Art). Its

collections (about to be removed to the New Museum, when it is finished,) are well worth seeing; they are showed on Tues., Wed., Thurs., and Friday, from 10-4 in summer, 10-3 in winter, by tickets, and as only 30 are issued each day, it is advisable to apply for them early-the day before-to the castellan of the museum. 66 By sending your card to the directors, you will be allowed to join a party without waiting for your turn, which may not be for a fortnight."-J. M. One room is occupied by a collection illustrative of the manners and customs of different parts of the world, especially of savage nations; such are a cloak of feathers, presented by Tamehameha, king of the Sandwich Islands, with a complimentary letter to the late king of Prussia, in return for which he received the full uniform of the 2d Regt. of Prussian Guards -a model of a Chinese lady's foot, to show the manner in which they are pinched and contracted-a filigree silver case, like a claw, nearly three inches lóng, worn by ladies of rank in China, to protect their finger-nails, which it is the fashion to let grow to that length -coloured pieces of paper used instead of napkins at dinner- —a variety of Chinese dresses, among them the military uniform of a captain-a lasso from S. America a cigar smoked by the ladies of Lima, 1 foot long and thick in proportion large disks of wood inserted by the Botocudos Indians in their ears and under-lips-tatooed head of a New Zealander weapons brought from Africa by Ehrenberg the traveller -an Australian necklace of human teeth staves covered with Runic inscriptions carved on them, and a Runic almanac cut on 12 tablets of woodthe costumes of Mexico, in a series of eoloured wax figures-copies of two of Northcote's pictures, by Chinese native artists, very well executeda vast assortment of Chinese musical instruments; the modern invention of the mouth harmonica was taken from one of them - Japanese weapons: one of the most formidable is a sort of scythe fixed vertically upon the end of a long pole saddle of the Turkish Pasha of

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Shumla, strangled for having yielded that fortress to the Russians in 1828. The Asiatic collection was chiefly formed by Kruger.

A model of the mines of Freiberg. The head and horns of a stag in the centre of the trunk of a tree, which has grown around them so that the points of the antlers alone project.

The Historical Collection is highly interesting as illustrating in many instances the characters and lives of remarkable men, and it is for the most part undoubtedly authentic: it contains-the model of a windmill made by Peter the Great with his own hands, while working as a ship-carpenter in Holland. - The Robes of the Orders of the Garter given by George IV., and of the Holy Ghost given by Louis XVIII., to the late king of Prussia; between the two is the scarlet dress of a Doctor of Civil Law given to him by the University of Oxford, on the occasion of his visit in 1814. The hussar dress, and cap surmounted with a black eagle's wing, worn by the Prussian General Ziethen -two cannon balls, each with one side flattened, are said to have been fired by opposite parties in the siege of Magdeburg, and to have met together in the air !

Some of the relics here preserved are peculiarly national, such as a cast taken after death from the face of Frederick the Great, the bullet which wounded him in the battle of Rossbach, 1760, - a wax figure of him clothed in the very uniform he wore on the day of his death; the coat is rusty and tarnished, the scabbard of the sword is mended with sealing-wax by his own hand; his books and walking-cane, his baton, and the favourite flute, his solace in hours of relaxation, are carefully preserved here along with his pocket-handkerchief, which he used to the last; it is a dirty rag, very tattered, though patched in many places. This confirms the description of Dr. Moore, who visited the palace in Frederick's lifetime. "The whole wardrobe consisted of two blue coats, faced with red, the lining of one a little torn; two yellow waistcoats, a good deal soiled with

Spanish snuff; three pairs of yellow breeches, and a suit of blue velvet embroidered with silver, for grand occasions. I imagined at first that the man had got a few of the king's old clothes, and kept them here to amuse strangers; but, upon inquiry, I was assured that what I have mentioned, with two suits of uniform which he has at Sans Souci, form the entire wardrobe of the king of Prussia. Our attendant said he had never known it more complete."

Opposite the figure of Frederick is placed a glass-case containing the stars, orders, and decorations presented to Bonaparte by the different sovereigns of Europe, one of the most conspicuous being the Prussian black eagle: England alone, it appears, contributed none. They were taken by the Prussians after the battle of Waterloo, in his carriage, from which he escaped so narrowly that he left his hat behind him, which is also preserved here. Not far off are Blücher's orders. A cast in wax from the face of the beautiful queen Louisa of Prussia. A cast of Moreau's face, taken after death. The camp chair of the great Gustavus Adolphus. Frederick the Great's father's collection of well used tobacco pipes. The cap and sword worn by the Great Elector at the battle of Fehrbellin. A white dress that belonged to Murat is so fantastic in shape, and gaudy in gold lace, as fully to explain and justify the nickname of Franconi, given him by Bonaparte. Two executioner's swords, remarkable on account of the persons whose heads have been cut off by them. A rich and elaborately ornamented cabinet, called the Pomeranian Chest, was made at Augsburg, 1617, for Philip II. Duke of Pomerania, and is a mine of art in itself. A great variety of articles made of amber, and many specimens, rough and cut, of this neral, which is found in great quantities within the Prussian dominion.

in ivory. The Descent of the Fallen
Angels, an elaborately minute carving
of many figures in ivory. The whole
life of Christ, minutely carved in wood.
A battle piece, by A. Dürer.
An ex-
tensive collection of carvings and reliefs
in ivory, gold and silver plate, cups and
vases enriched with bas-reliefs and
precious stones. An elephant's tusk
carved with hunting scenes, probably a
work of the 10th cent., is curious for
its antiquity. The old ivories and ena-
melled reliquaries are very fine. Here
are some red cups of Böttcher's original
Dresden china-ware, and 2 pale ones
with Gothic patterns, very rare spe-
cimens. Baron Trenck's drinking cup,
engraved by him while in prison. Lu-
ther's beer jug, very large measure. A
very beautiful series of miniature por-
traits; among them Gustavus Adol-
phus and his daughter Christina.
detailed catalogue of the Kuntskammer,
drawn up by Kugler, has been printed.


The late King's Private Residence, a modest mansion opposite the arsenal, is preserved just as it was left by its former occupant; and in its interior decoration it displays the simplicity and good taste which characterised him. The furniture and decorations are of native manufacture; the pictures, &c. are the productions of national art and talents. In the principal apartment are very good copies of Raphael's best pictures by Prussian artists.

The Museum, facing the Lustgarten. This very handsome edifice was finished in 1830, from the designs of the distinguished architect Schinkel; its foundations are laid on many thousand piles, as the spot on which it stands was previously a branch of the Spree, which has been filled up.

Before the entrance is a gigantic basin of polished granite, 22 feet in dimi-ameter.

Among the works of art in this museum are a head carved in wood, by A. Dürer. A bas-relief of Orpheus and Eurydice, in bronze, by Peter Vischer. An ivory crucifix, attributed to M. Angelo. A large basin with bas-reliefs

The block out of which it was formed was a vast isolated boulder, known as the great Markgrafenstein, and lay at Fürstenwald, nearly 30 m. from Berlin. It was conveyed thence in a flat-bottomed boat along the Spree to Berlin, and there polished by the aid of a steam engine.

At the rt. side of the staircase, is a

group in bronze, representing the combat of an Amazon with a tiger, by Kiss. The walls of the noble colonnade running along the front have been adorned with frescoes by Cornelius. They were executed under the direction of Cornelius from the designs of Schinkel, and are so illustrative of a style of composition frequently displayed in German art, that the explanation of the obscure allegories which they contain is here given. They profess to illustraté allegorically the history of the formation of the universe and the intellectual development of mankind. On the left of the entrance, on ascending the steps, are represented "the sun in his chariot rising from the sea to give light to the world. In the clouds which reflect his glory are the Graces, with the sacred swans of the deity. Lively pictures of hope for the coming day rise out of the morning clouds. A choir of harpers in the clouds announce the rising of the sun. The life of the day is represented by various allegories. The grand and beautiful female who spreads over herself a mantle, under which several groups of sleepers repose, is the Night. Selene shedding light drives her chariot through the night. Saturn and the Titans withdraw into the gloom of past time. Lastly, Uranus is leading the dance of "the starry host." On the right of the entrance, the spring of Imagination rises under the stroke from the hoof of Pegasus. Morning and Spring of Life: shepherd races in the enjoyment of nature by poetry, and games of strength and activity. Beginnings of art in the outlines of shadows. Summer and Midday: the harvest and its joys. Behind the waterfall from the fountain of poetry, resembling a veil, sit the Fates in the lap of the earth; while every thing draws animation and strength from the fountain. Evening and Autumn: - vintage, workshops of artists, and discovery of the Corinthian capital. Warriors return home, and Age is delighted by the visit of the Muses. Night and Winter: the wise man watched by Psyche investigates the course of the stars. The moon descends into the sea.

The grey-headed old man is absorbed in considering the elements. The seaman launches out into the ocean over which the moon sheds its light."

The collections which the Museum contains consist of 1. Vases and bronzes, on the ground floor. 2. The Sculpture Gallery, and collection of old china and painted glass, on the 1st floor.-3. The Picture Gallery, on the upper story.

1. Collection of Vases, Bronzes, and Gems. Entrance at the back of the Museum. — Admittance, Mond., Wed., and Fri., 10 to 4, by tickets. Among the most remarkable objects in bronze, are the following:- An extensive series of Roman Penates, or Household Gods; Roman arms, armour, spear, back and breast plates, greaves for the legs, and various utensils; a sacrificial axe, a large circular shield, a small statue of an elephant, of good workmanship. There are numerous articles in terra cotta, and various inscriptions on stone and metal.

Among the 2814 gems, are many first-rate works, from the collection of Stosch; a cornelian with the 7 before Thebes; portrait of Pompey; young Hercules; Jupiter, Serapis, and Ceres.

The Vases amount in number to 1600. They are exceedingly well classified, according to country and shape, and those bearing designs on the lower side, arranged upon tables of lookingglass. The contents of this portion of the Museum are principally derived from the collections of Bartholdy, Pruss. minister at Rome, Von Kollar, Austrian commander at Naples, and from that formerly in the Palace. From its nature, it is better calculated to interest the antiquarian than the general observer.

2. The entrance to the Sculpture Gallery is through a grand circular hall extending the whole height of the building, and very imposing from its size and proportions. Around it are antique statues, and in the centre a magnificent malachite vase, a gift of the Emp. Nicholas. The antiquities are principally composed of the collection of Cardinal Polignac. It may

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