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which Cornelis De Witt was confined, 1672, on a false charge of conspiring to assassinate the Prince of Orange. The populace, incited to fury by the calumnies circulated against him and his brother John, the Grand Pensionary, broke into the prison at a moment when the latter had been enticed hither by a report that his brother's life was in danger, dragged them forth, and literally tore them to pieces, with ferocity more befitting wild beasts than human beings. The State Prisons, besides the interest they possess from historical associations, are curious, on account of "the tortures inflicted on the prisoners (within the last two centuries), not surpassed in cruelty even at Venice in its worst times: the rack, the pulley, the oubliettes, &c. are still shown." I. Fm. A few yards from the spot where the De Witts were murdered, in the Kneuterdyk, opposite the Hartogstraatje, may be seen the modest mansion of the Grand Pensionary De Witt, who, though the first citizen of the richest country in the world, and perhaps the profoundest statesman in Europe, baffling the encroaching policy of France, and frightening London with the roar of his cannon in the Thames, was never seen in public but in the most homely dress, kept only a single servant, and rarely made use of a coach. Barneveldt lived in a house which now forms part of the hotel of the Minister of Finance in the Lang Voorhout.
The Picture Gallery and Museum are situated in the building called the Maurits Huis, from Prince Maurice of Nassau, Governor of Brazil, and afterwards of Cleve, by whom it was built. It is between the Plein and the Vyver. They are open to the public daily, except Sunday, from 9 to 3, on Saturday from 10 to 1.
The Picture Gallery is almost entirely confined to the works of Dutch masters, and contains some of their finest works. It is not possible to point out the rooms which contain the works here mentioned, as there is nothing to distinguish the rooms. The numbers are those of 1848.
The most remarkable pictures are, Paul Potter (123.) Young Bull, — his masterpiece, remarkable as one of the few examples in which the artist painted animals as large as life. There cannot be a greater contrast to a very generalised mode of treatment than that displayed in the celebrated picture of The Bull,' by P. Potter, which approaches the nearest to deception of any really fine work of art I have seen. The painter seems to have omitted nothing that he saw in nature which art could represent, and yet its reality is free from any still-life unpleasantness. It is admired for its truth, but to a cultivated eye it has that something more than mere truth that is indispensable to a work of art; it has great taste throughout,—displayed no less in the general arrangement of the masses and forms, than in the most minute particulars. The grandeur of the sky, and the beautiful treatment of the distant meadow, show that the painter had the power of seizing the finest characteristics of the large features of nature, while the exquisite manner in which the beautiful forms of the leaves of a dock, and their colours, compose with one of the legs of the young bull, display as fine an eye for her most intricate beauties. Throughout the picture, indeed, we see that the hand has been directed by the eye of a consummate artist, and not merely by a skilful copyist."- Prof. Leslie, R. A. This picture was carried to Paris by the French, and was classed by them fourth in value of all the paintings then in the Louvre ; the Transfiguration, by Raphael, ranking first; and the Communion of St. Jerome, by Domenichino, second; Titian's Peter Martyr, third. They who know those three great works will probably be startled at the place thus assigned to this picture. Paul Potter's Bull has been valued at 5000l.; the Dutch government, it is stated, offered Napoleon 4 times that sum if he would consent to suffer it to remain at the Hague. D. T. (124.) The Cow drinking; "finely painted, remarkable for the strong reflection in the water."
R.*. Rembrandt. (127.) A Surgeon, Professor Tulp, attended by his Pupils, proceeding to dissect a Dead Body. Though an unpleasing subject, it is a most wonderful painting, and one of the artist's finest works. "To avoid making it an object disagreeable to look at, the figure is but just cut at the wrist. There are seven other portraits, coloured like nature itself, fresh and highly finished; one of the figures behind has a paper in his hand, on which are written the names of the rest. Rembrandt has also added his own name, with the date, 1672. The dead body is perfectly well drawn (a little fore-shortened), and seems to have been just washed. Nothing can be more truly the colour of dead flesh. The legs and feet, which are nearest the eye, are in shadow; the principal light, which is on the body, is by that means preserved of a compact form." R. Physicians assert that they can ascertain that it is the body of a person who died from inflammation of the lungs. This picture formerly stood in the Anatomy School (Snijkamer) of Amsterdam, but was purchased by the King for 32,000 guilders (27001.) - (131.) Portrait young man with hat and feathers: "for colouring and force nothing can exceed it." R. (128.) St. Simeon receiving the Infant Jesus in the Temple. (129.) "A study of Susanna for a picture. It appears very extraordinary that Rembrandt should have taken so much pains, and have made at last so very ugly and ill. favoured a figure; but his attention was principally directed to the colouring and effect, in which, it must be acknowledged, he has attained the highest degree of excellence." R. Rubens. His first wife, Catherine Brintes (135.), and his second wife, Helena Forman (136.): "both fine portraits; but the last by far the most beautiful and the best coloured." R.(137.) Portrait of his Confessor. Van Dyk. (37.) Six por
The quotations marked R. are derived from Sir Joshua Reynolds' "Tour in Holland and Flanders.".
traits of the Huygens family. —— (40.) Portrait of Simon, a painter of Antwerp. "This is one of the very few pictures that can be seen of Van Dyk which is in perfect preservation; and, on examining it closely, it appeared to me a perfect pattern of portrait painting; every part is distinctly marked, but with the lightest hand, and without destroying the breadth of light: the colouring is perfectly true to nature, though it has not the brilliant effect of sunshine such as is seen in Rubens's wife: it is nature seen by common daylight." R. — (38, 39.) Two fine portraits, of a Gentleman, and "a Lady with a feather in her hand;" R.: called, incorrectly, the Duke and Duchess of Buckingham; from the coat of arms in the corner, they are probably either Dutch or German. "A Virgin and Infant Christ, coloured in the manner of Rubens, so much so as to appear, at first sight, to be of his hand; but the character of the child shows it to be Van Dyk's." R. The only picture in the gallery answering to this description is one attributed (and to all appearance correctly) to Murillo (223.) — Ferdinand Bol.(17.) Portrait of Admiral de Ruyter. Keyzer. (82.) Four Burgomasters of Amsterdam deliberating on the reception of Mary de' Medici into their city. "A very good picture." — (81.) A small full-length of a Magistrate in Black: excellent. Gerard Douw. (35.) A Woman sitting near a window, with a child in a cradle; a very pleasing picture.-(36.) woman with a light." R.: very highly finished. Wouvermans. (188.) A Bat"The Hay Cart," and (195.) “The Manège:” three excellent specimens of this artist. "Here are many of the best works of Wouvermans, whose pictures are well worthy the attention and close examination of a painter. One of the most remarkable of them is known by the name of the Hay Cart: another, in which there is a coach and horses, is equally excellent. These pictures are in his three different manners: his middle manner is by much the best; the first and last have
tle piece. (196.)
not that liquid softness which characterises his best works. Besides his great skill in colouring, his horses are correctly drawn, very spirited, of a beautiful form, and always in unison with their ground. Upon the whole, he is one of the few painters whose excellence, in his way, is such as leaves nothing. to be wished for." R.- ·Berghem. (12.) An Italian View. -(14.) Banditti robbing a Caravan: excellent. Vanderwerf. (186.) The Flight into Egypt: "one of his best." R. “Terburg. (169.) A Woman seated on the ground, leaning her elbow against a man's knee, and a trumpeter delivering a letter." R.-Poussin. Venus asleep: a Satyr drawing off the drapery. R. The painting to which Sir Joshua alludes is probably (139.), described in the catalogue as the dream of Astolpho from Ariosto, by one of Rubens's scholars. John Breughel. "Two pictures of flowers and fruits, with animals; one serves for a border to a bad portrait (?), the other (26. called The Flight into Egypt) to a picture of Rottenhamer: the frames are much better than the pictures." R.-(28.) Figures by Rubens. Paradise. The largest and best of Breughel's pictures on this subject: see Kugler, § LVIII. 4. p. 302.— (95.) Metzu. Emblematical representation of Justice. -(89.) Lingelbach. The Departure of Charles II. from Scheveningen for England in 1660. (116, 117.) A. Van Ostade. "The exterior and interior of a cottage.". F. Mieris; (100.) Boy blowing bubbles.-(98.) "Dutch gallantry: a man pinching the ear of a dog, which lies on his mistress's lap." R. Called in the catalogue, The Painter and his Wife.
Van der Helst; (59.) Portrait of Paul Potter, taken a few days before his death. - Schalken; (146.) A Lady at her toilette. A beautiful candlelight effect.(150.) Portrait of William III.-Jan Steen; (160.) The Menagerie, one of his best works. In the distance the house at Hondsholredijk. —(157.) Human life: see Kugler, § LIII. 2.; and other very good pictures. — A. Van de Velde; (178.) The Seashore at Schevening. Hoekgeest (a
rare master): (62.) The tomb of William Prince of Orange in the New Church, Delft. "It is painted in the manner of De Witt, but I think better." R. Teniers; (168.) "An alchemist.”
(167.) "A kitchen.” R.—Velasquez ; (225.) Portrait of a boy; said to be Charles Balthazar, son of Philip IV. of Spain. Unknown; (273.) Portrait of the Emp. Charles V.; a sketch. -Vernet; (219.) A storm at sea. Hondekoeter (64–67.) & Weenix (184, 185.); One or two admirable specimens of these masters, representing birds and game alive and dead. - Van Huissum; Fruit and flower pieces. (72, 73.) — De Heem ; Fruit, done with the utmost perfection." R. (56, 57.)- Snyders. — (153.) "A large hunting piece, well painted, but it occupies too much space. His works, from the subjects, their size, and, we may add, from their being so common, seem to be better suited to a hall or ante-room, than any other place." R. The landscape is by Rubens.
Among the older pictures are, by Albert Durer; Two portraits (202.) said to be of Laurence Coster, the inventor of printing, and (203.) P. Aretin.. Holbein; (210.) A small portrait of a man with a hawk; on it is written Robert Cheseman, 1533. "Admirable for its truth and precision, and extremely well coloured. The blue flat ground behind the head gives a general effect of dryness to the picture: had the ground been varied, and made to harmonise more with the figure, this portrait might have stood in competition with the works of the best portrait painters." R. — (211.) Jane Seymour; (209.) A portrait called Sir Thomas More; on it is the date 1542: it is quite unlike Sir T. More, who was beheaded 6 July, 1535: fine portraits.
The Royal Cabinet of Curiosities, a highly interesting collection, is placed in the lower story of the Maurits Huis. Several apartments are occupied entirely with objects of curiosity from China and Japan, and rare productions brought from the Dutch colonies; one division is devoted to historical relics of
distinguished persons. Some of the most remarkable objects are here enumerated.
The Costumes of China, illustrated by figures of persons of various ranks, in porcelain; as the Emperor, a Bonze or Priest, Mandarins, &c., each in his peculiar dress. An immense variety of articles manufactured by the Chinese in porcelain. Figures and other objects elaborately carved in ivory, mother-of-pearl, and soap-stone, or steatite. A chess-board, differing but little from that of Europe; articles in daily use amongst the Chinese, as, the chopsticks, which serve instead of knives and forks; the calculating table (swampon, or abacus), with which they cast accounts; specimens of visiting cards 2 feet square, &c.; and a view of the palace of the Emperor of China, at Pekin.
The rarities from Japan are unique, as the Dutch are the only European nation admitted into that country, and have therefore alone opportunities for procuring curiosities. They give a most satisfactory insight into the manners and habits of that remote and highly civilised country. The value of this collection is increased by the extreme difficulty of bringing such objects to Europe; as the laws of the Japanese strictly prohibit their exportation, under pain of death. A plan of Jeddo, the metropolis of Japan, a city (it is said) of at least 2,000,000 inhabitants, and 20 leagues in circumference. A curious model, made by the Japanese with the most minute attention to details, of the island of Desima, the Dutch Factory in Japan. Several hundred figures are introduced into it, giving a precise idea of the occupation of the people, the furniture of their houses, their dress, &c. The Deities of China and Japan in porcelain, &c. A whole wardrobe of Japanese dresses, made of silks and other stuffs.
A large collection of Japan ware, as boxes, trays, tea-chests, &c., of far finer workmanship and more elaborately painted than the ordinary specimens commonly met with in Europe. Japanese weapons, particularly various
species of krits or dirks, and swords, of remarkably fine steel, which in temper are said to surpass any thing which Birmingham, or even Damascus, can produce. The Japanese are tremendously expert in the use of this their favourite weapon: with one blow they can sever a man's body in twain. The upper classes of society claim the privilege of wearing two swords at once. The matchlock barrels deposited here are excellent in the quality of the steel, and in the beauty of the workmanship. Among the articles of military equip ment is a coat of Japanese mail, with a steel visor formed into a grotesque face, and ornamented with mustachios of bristles and horns of brass. A Nori mon, or Japanese palanquin; the needles and other apparatus with which the operation of acupuncture is performed by the Japanese physicians, are deserv ing the attention of medical men.
Many cases are entirely filled with dresses, arms, implements, canoes, and household utensils of savage nations, from various parts of the world. Here is a model of Fieschi's infernal machine, and a Russian knout.
Among the Historical Relics are the armour of Admiral de Ruiter, with the medal and chain given him by the States General. The baton of Admiral Piet Hein. The armour of Admiral Tromp, with the marks of more than one bullet on it. The chairs of Jacqueline of Holland, and of Barneveldt, brought from his prison. The portrait and sword of Van Speyk, who blew up his vessel before Antwerp, 1831, and the chair on which General Chassé sat during the siege of the citadel. A portion of the bed on which the Czar Peter slept in his hut at Zaandam. The shirt and waistcoat worn by William III. of England the 3 last days of his life. A specimen of the beggar's bowl (jatte de Gueux) which formed a part of the insignia of the confederate chiefs who freed Holland from the yoke of Spain, worn by them along with a wallet, as symbols of the name of beggar (gueux), with which their enemies intended to have stigmatised them. A ball of wood, full of nails, each driven in by one of
the confederates, when they swore to be faithful to one another, and steadfast in the enterprise. The dress of William Prince of Orange, on the day when he was murdered at Delft by Balthazar Gerards. It is a plain grey leathern doublet, sprinkled with blood, pierced by the balls, and showing marks of the powder. By the side of it is the pistol used by the assassin, and two of the fatal bullets. A model of the cabin in which Peter the Great resided while a ship-builder at Zaandam. A large baby-house, fitted up to show the nature of a Dutch ménage, intended by Peter as a present to his wife.
Opposite to the Palace of the King of Holland, in the Noord Einde, is the new Palace, built by the late King (who died 17th March, 1849) when Prince of Orange. He was a liberal patron of the arts, and no traveller should omit seeing this very splendid collection, which includes the valuable pictures formerly in his Palace at Brussels. Easy admittance is obtained, by applying to the porter between 9 and 12 every day. During the King's residence, application should be made not later than 9, after which hour, the private apartments, where are the modern paintings, are closed to strangers. A fee is given to the keeper; 1 guilder will suffice for 1 or 2 persons: and a proportionate sum for a larger party.
Ágainst the screen, which encloses the garden and hothouses of the new Palace, is placed a spirited equestrian statue in bronze of William I. Prince of Orange, the first Stadtholder. It is by an amateur, Count de Nieuwkerke. The statue is awkwardly placed, just in front of the arch in the centre of the screen, and so close to it, that all passage through the arch is prevented, yet the arch has an iron gate. The entrance to the picture gallery is under the tower which is just beyond this statue, in the direction of Scheveningen. Entering under this tower, a long Gothic cloister or corridor, hung chiefly with portraits, leads into a fine Gothic room, in which are the following excellent and interesting pictures (beginning on the left hand on entering, the numbers are
those of the catalogue, several copies of which may be found in the rooms): (22.) Q. Messys. The Virgin. (1.) Van Eyck. The Annunciation, painted for Philip the Good.-(2.) The Virgin of Lucca (166.) Van der Helst, a young man presenting his intended wife to his parents; a capital picture, remarkable for heads full of character and expres sion, and for the execution of the surfaces of the different materials of the drape ries.-(55.) J. Van Eyck. A falconer. (29.) Bernard van Orley. The Virgin and Child. (93.) G. Romano. Alexander the Great. (17.) H. Memling. Baptism of Christ. (4.) and (5.) Two paintings, formerly in the Hotel de Ville at Louvain, by an early mas ter, Dierick Stuerbout (Dirk of Haarlem), (1468). They represent an event which is said to have actually taken place at the Court of the Emp. Otho. A certain Count was accused by the Empress (a second Potiphar's wife), of making improper advances towards her during the Emperor's absence. In the one picture is seen the execution of the Count on this false charge; the other shows his wife kneeling before the Emperor, with the head of her husband in one hand, proving his innocence by holding a red-hot iron in the other. They are both curious as an instance of the justification by fiery ordeal, and remarkable as works of art; for, in spite of the stiffness and leanness of the figures, the colouring is admirable, and the finish extreme.—(16.) H. Memling. The Birth of St. John.-(165.) Lucas van Leyden. Descent from the Cross: —(40.) Adoration of the Magi.—(27.) (23.) (25. and 26.) (24.) Pictures representing the History of Job, by Bernard van Orley. - (45.) Lambert Lombard (properly L. Suterman). The Chastisements of God. (179.) H. Memling. An altar with shutters; The Adoration; and portraits of the donors. (20.) Q. Messys. Coronation of the Virgin, discovered 1792 walled up in the ch. of St. Donatus at Bruges. (43.) Lambert Lombard. A Vision. (38.) J. de Mabuse. Life of St. Augustin. (15.) H. Memling. A portable altar piece, called that of Charles