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been constructed at an enormous cost. ruffs round their necks, curled and powThe foundations are mostly of granite dered wigs, short Spanish cloaks, and --the superstructure of brick and stucco. swords. The same persons, whose numThe designs show great variety and ber is limited to 16, attend at marriage sometimes beauty. The arcade open- festivals, and form also a sort of bodying out of the Jungfernstieg is deserving guard to the magistrates. Their situof attention for its extent and beauty. ations were formerly purchased at a Other improvements consist in conduct- high price, in consideration of the pering the drains to the Elbe without al. quisites and fees attached to them. lowing them to enter the canals, and Upon the death of a burgomaster or in causing the water of the Alster basin other personage of importance in the to flow through the town canals, and in town, the town trumpeter, a civic offi. the conversion into a new quarter of cer, is set to blow a dirge from one of the town of a low marshy tract on the the steeples. rt. bank of the Elbe called Hammer- The churches have little architectural brook. It has been intersected by ca- beauty. St. Nicholas, however, with a nals, the water pumped out by a steam- tower at the W, end, of openwork, will engine - the surface raised 4 ft. over a be a beautiful building. It is designed space of an English square m. by the by the English architect Scott, who rubbish arising from the fire ; thus built Camberwell Ch. St. Peter's has turning to account what would other been rebuilt, and is a fine lofty church. wise have been an encumbrance; and St. Michael's has one of the loftiest the whole is being covered with streets steepl in Europe, 456 feet high, and warehouses.

about 100 feet higher than St. Paul's in The objects chiefly calculated to at- London (340 ft.), from which the town tract a stranger's attention are, first, the and the Elbe, nearly as far as the sea, Costumes seen in the streets of Ham-Holstein on the N., and Hanover on the burg; they are not a little singular. S., present themselves advantageously Servant girls, housemaids, and cooks, to view. It is also the station of the according to the custom of the place, fire-watch (§ 43.). rarely appear in public except in the The Börse (Exchange), a fine build.gayest attire ; with lace caps, long kid ing on the Adolphs Platz, is well degloves, and a splendid shawl. The last signed. It forms a noble hall 48 paces article is elegantly arranged under the by 26, exclusive of the surrounding coarm, so as to conceal a basket shaped lonade. On the first floor are reading like a child's coffin, containing clothes, rooms, offices, &c., corresponding with butter or cheese, or other articles pur- Lloyd's in London, and called the Börchased at market, as the case may be. senhalle. "A stranger can be introduced The peasants who frequent the market

to read the papers.

It is also the seat wear a very picturesque attire; they are of the Commercium, or Board of Trade, chiefly natives of a part of the Hamburg of the Chamber of Commerce (Hanterritory bordering on the Elbe, called delsgericht), presided over by 2 lawyers Vierland, which is principally laid out and 9 merchants, as judges. Change in gardens, and supplies the market commences at 1 o'clock, and it is worth with vegetables. The costume of some while to see the crowd that comes throngof the other peasant women of the ing in at that hour. At this time the neighbourhood is likewise picturesque: smartest and prettiest of the Vierlander they are distinguished by a small cap Aower girls may be seen about the at the back of the head, covered with Börse. gold or silver embroidery, and a gaily The Schulgebäude, erected 1834 on decorated boddice.

the site of the ancient Dom, includes Funeral processions in Hamburg are the Johanneum, a college under the care not composed of friends of the deceased, of excellent professors, where a good but of hired mourners, called Reiten classical and commercial education is Diener, dressed in black, with plaited given for 120 marks per annum. The


Town Library, consisting of about ances and music generally very good. 200,000 vols, and many curious MSS., | The play begins at 64 and usually ends has been removed to this building. before 10.

The charitable institutions of Ham- The Thalia Theater, Pferde Market, burg are on a very munificent scale. is chiefly famed for comic pieces, and The Orphan Asylum (Waisenhaus) pro- is a popular resort. vides for 600 children, who are received The public ball rooms in and about as infants, reared, educated, and bound the town, though not frequented by appentices to some useful trade. The the most respectable classes, being often Great Hospital (Krankenhaus), in the the resort of low company, deserve to suburb of St. George, is capable of be looked at as one of the peculiarities containing from 4000 to 5000 sick. The of the place. The best are the Elbe yearly cost of supporting this admirable Pavilion, and the Schweitzer Pavilion. institution is nearly 17,000l. Its utility Some of the cellars for suppers, beer, is not confined to the poor alone, as &c. are worth a visit. even persons of the higher classes resort Public Amusements in Hamburg and to the hospital to avail themselves of the neighbourhood are advertised in the the advantages of the excellent medical daily papers taken in at all the hotels treatment which they may here obtain. and cafés. Such patients are admitted as lodgers, The Hamburg hung beef is celeon payment of a sum varying from 8d. brated. to 8s. a day. The Chapel contains a Hamburg had once the misfortune painting by Overbeck. The subject is to be a fortified town, and in conseChrist's Agony in the Garden, with quence was subjected to the horrors the 3 disciples sleeping below. The of a siege from the French, and was arrangement and attitudes are Giot- twice occupied by their armies, who, tesque, the colour thick and low. under Davoust, in 1813, exercised the

The House in which Klopstock the most cruel severities and atrocities poet lived 30 years (1774-1803), and upon the inhabitants; many hundreds died, is No. 27. in the Königstrasse. of whomn, men, women, and children,

Some of the merchants possess a few were driven out of the town to perish. good pictures, but there are no collec- ! The Ramparts no longer exist, being tions of much consequence here. levelled and converted into delightful

Ræding's Museum is a collection of boulevards or gardens, neatly laid out, odds and ends, with some real curiosi- which extend nearly round the town, ties, where half an hour may be spent and between the two Alster basins. when there is nothing better to do. The most pleasing view of the town

The old and new Jungfernstieg (Mai- and river, the shipping and opposite den's Walk) and the Alsterdamm are shore of the Elbe, presents itself from broad walks around the sides of a basin the eminence, at the extremity of these of water formed by damming up the walks nearest to Altona, called the small river Alster. Here is the fash- | Elbhöhe, or Stintfang. ionable promenade, especially resorted The picturesque part of the city to in the summer evenings, when the runs eastward from the harbour. The surface of the water is covered with weighing-house and many of the brickgaily painted boats filled with water nogging tumble-down old buildings, parties. It is flanked on 3 sides by along the waterside and the adjoining handsome rows of new houses, and canals, offer admirable subjects for the has a broad terrace all round its mar- pencil. In the morning these canals gin. At the water-side are the two are crowded with the Vierlanders, in most frequented cafés in the town, their picturesque costume, and boats called Pavilions. There are floating laden with vegetables, fruit, &c. There baths on the Alster.

is also a picturesque old church in this The Stadt Theater is one of the neighbourhood, most rich in colour, largest in Germany, and the perform- and quaint in outline.

The City

About this part of the town a large and the Norwegian and Swedish in portion of the poorer inhabitants live the Grosse Theater-strasse. in cellars under the houses. In winter, post is the office for letters to and from and after a prevalence of west winds, England. which drive the waters of the German Consuls.-All the states of the new ocean into the mouth of the Elbe, the and old world are represented here. tides rise to a great height (sometimes The British and most of the other 20 ft.) inundating all the streets near Consulate Offices, are near the harthe river. The tenants of these cellars bour. Travellers not already proare then driven from their habitations vided with a rise to their passports for by the water, which keeps possession of the countries they intend to visit had them for days, leaving them filled with better procure them here. ooze, and in a most unhealthy condition Hackney-coaches, called Droskies, from the moisture. The upper part of ply for hire in all the principal thothe house is let under condition that roughfares of the town. They are good the occupiers of the cellars are to re- and cheap. Any distance within the ceive shelter at such seasons of cala- town costs about 8d., and if hired by mity.

the hour the charge is ls. 6d. Outside the Damm Gate, not far The gates of Hamburg are shut from the Jungfernstieg, is the public every evening at dusk, and a toll, inCemetery, which deserves a visit, as ex- creasing progressively every hour till hibiting the customs and usages of 12, is demanded, after which persons Germany with regard to the resting- may pass and repass all through the place of the dead. ($ 45.)

night, upon payment of 1 mark each. The merchants of Hamburg are ce- All eatables brought into the town are lebrated for their hospitality and the taxed at the gates, and even private goodness of their dinners, as all stran- carriages are sometimes searched, and gers can testify who are well introduced. game found in them has been seized. It is customary to give vails to ser

Omnibuses ply through the town in vants in private houses; they expect various directions, to Altona and Rainat least two marks from each visitor. ville's garden, The English residents here are very Environs. — It is a very pleasant numerous, and their language is almost drive to descend the right bank of the universally understood even by the Ger- Elbe from Altona to Blankenese. The

They have recently erected, slopes bordering on the river are stud. with partial aid from the British Go- ded with country seats of merchants, vernment, a Church for themselves. A and possess considerable natural beauty. British chargé d'affaires and consul | Between Hamburg and Altona runs a general and vice-consul reside here. narrow strip of about half a mile, called Reading Rooms At Perthes, Besser, Hamburgerburg, occupied by low taand Maukes, 12. Jungfernstieg, more verns and dancing-rooms; in fact, a than 150 newspapers and journals are sort of Wapping, extending to the gate taken in. Entrance for a week, 1 mark. of Altona, where the uniform of the The best shops are upon the S. side of sentinel and the Danish coat of arms the Jungfernstieg, and the adjoining mark the frontier of Holstein. At the street Neuer Wall.

further end of Altona is the suburb Post Office. — Many foreign states of Ottonsen, where the brave Duke of have separate post-offices at Ham- Brunswick died, in 1806, from the burg. The City post, the Thurn and wound he had received in the battle of Taxis,' and Hanoverian post-offices, Jena. In the churchyard, by the side are in a large building with a lofty of the road, and under an umbrageous tower, on which the telegraph is placed, elm, is The Tomb of Klopstock, author in the Post-strasse ; the Prussian, is in of the “ Messiah." Here is also a the Gänsemarkt; the Danish and monument to the 1138 Hamburgers, Mecklenburg, in the grosse Bleichen; / who perished in 1813-14, during the


siege and occupation of Hamburg by | Hamburg, and the droskies are very the French, and are interred here in slow and uncertain conveyances. Tra. one common grave:- the subject of a vellers are conveyed by steamer to the pretty poem by Ruckert.

Further on station at Harburg for the Hanover is Rainville's Tuvern and garden, over- line. looking the Elbe. The house itself was inhabited successively by Dumou

ROUTE 57. rier and Bourrienne. The view is fine, the cuisine very tolerable, and in fine HAMBURG TO LÜBECK AND TRAVEMÜNDE. summer afternoons very respectable company repair bither to dine or take by Schønberg 8 Germ. = 381 Eng. coffee. Booth's Nursery Gardens, near miles ; by Oldeslohe 9 Germ.

= 46 Flottbeck, contain many choice and Eng. miles. rare flowers. The amateur of horti- Schnellpost, by Oldeslohe, twice a culture will do wisely in purchasing day, 6 hours. This road, down to 1840 seeds of stocks, wall-flowers, &c., which a disgrace to a civilised country, is are brought to singular perfection here. now good, and macadamised; but it At Blankenese, about 6 miles from makes a considerable detour through Hamburg, Mr. Bauer's Pleasure Oldeslohe. It lies through a pleasant Grounds, laid out in the Dutch taste, and fertile country. The territory of thrown open

to the public on Hamburg ends at Wandsbeck. In the Thursdays and Sundays, are a com- churchyard is the grave of Claudius. mon resort of the cockneys of Ham- 3 Ahrensburg in Holstein. burg.

3 Oldeslohe on the Trave : saltIn an opposite direction, about 3 m. works. N. E. from Hamburg, lies the Holstein A kind of long cart, called Stuhl. village of Wandsbeck, in a very pretty situ- wagen, is much used in this country ation. Every Sunday and holiday it over- | upon the sandy cross roads. The body flows with visitors from Hamburg of is made of wicker-work, so that it all classes, who repair hither to walk in bends and yields to the ups and downs the gardens of the Schloss, and enjoy of the road. The seats are suspended the amusements of waltzing and music. across it, but as it is not hung on 'Tycho Brahe the astronomer lived in springs, the jolting is intolerable, and the chateau, and Voss the poet also re- the best plan is to fill the bottom with sided here.

hay, upon which the traveller may reSteam-boats across the Elbe to Haar- cline more at his ease. burg 8 times a day. (Rte. 59.) To The territory belonging to Lübeck Amsterdam every 5 days, in 30 or 40 begins about 6 m. from its walls : it hours ;-- to London, Tuesday and Fri. | is limited, comprehending altogether day at night: in winter, they start from 36,000 inhab., and is bounded by. HolCuxhaven; to Hull, 4 times a week, stein, Lauenberg, and Mecklenburg. average passage 42 hours; to Havre, - 34 LÜBECK. — Inns, Stadt Hamburg; once a week in 50 or 60 hours; to very good :--bed, 1 mark 8 schillings; Cuxhaven, 4 times a week, in 6 or 8 breakfast, 12 schill. ; dinner, with bottle hours ;

- to Heligoland, and up the of wine and coffee, 2 marks 12 sch. ; Elbe to Magdeburg, daily.

H. du Nord, also very good :- - table Schnellposts daily to Bremen to d'hôte at 3 o'clock, I mark 8 sch. ; Lübeck twice a-day.

Fünf Thürme (5 towers); Stadt LonRailroads to Berlin (Route 61.); don. to Kiel (from Altona). (See Hand- Money. Accounts are kept in marks book of Northern Europe); - to Ha- courant and schillings as at Hamburg, nover (Rte. 59.). Care should be except banking accounts, which are in taken to allow plenty of time for reach- marks banco. The small current coin ing the station of the Kiel railway, is as much worn as at Hamburg, and which is a considerable distance from | is valueless out of Lübeck.

The Free Hanse town of Lübeck is earth that were ever made; planted built on a ridge between the rivers with avenues, and laid out with walks Trave and Wackenitz, which entirely and drives, from which the eye looks surround its walls, and has a population down on the water and shipping. of 25,600 souls; including its surround- Lübeck is one of the most picturesque ing territory, 47,000.

Lübeck was old towns in Germany, and deserves built by the Emperor Conrad, A. D. inore attention than is usually given to 1066. It was repeatedly destroyed by it by travellers. In external appearthe Danes. In the commencement of ance, its buildings have undergone little the 13th cent. it was declared a free change since the 15th century. Its imperial city by the Emp. Frederick houses, distinguished by their quaint II.

At a later period it entered into, gables, and often by the splendour of and subsequently became the most con- their architecture, its feudal gates, its siderable of the towns forming, the Gothic churches, and its venerable Hanseatic League, and as such de- Rathhaus, all speak of the period of served the name of the Carthage of the its prosperity as an imperial free city. North. For full 4 centuries, from 1260 Principal Buildings :— The Dom or to 1669, Lübeck maintained that pro- | Cathedral at the S. end of the town minent position, the seat of the govern- (begun 1170, and finished, after interment of the Confederation, the re- ruptions, 1341), contains, in its side pository of its archives, and the station chapels, the monuments of many of the of its fleet, to the command of which patrician families of Lübeck, and, in the she was entitled to appoint one of her choir, the tombs of numerous bishops own citizens.

From the dissolution of and canons. The screen of the choir the League, however, her importance is perhaps one of the finest existing diminished, and her commerce decayed, specimens of wood carving of the early until she dwindled into the existing German school, about the period of state of insignificance, from which she Lucas Cranach. The figures are the is not likely soon to emerge, and which size of life, full of expression, and adis at once made evident to the stranger, mirably executed. But the finest work by the deserted and grass-grown streets, of art in Lübeck is in one of the chaand the numerous empty houses. pels in the N. aisle. It is an altar

After the fatal defeat of Jena (1806), piece with wings, covered with a double Blucher, retreating with the wreck of set of shutters Outside the outer pair the Prussian army, and hotly pursued the Annunciation is represented in griby 3 French generals, Bernadotte, saille. The drawing is more free and Soult, and Murat, threw himself into graceful in this than in the coloured this unfortunate town, in spite of the pictures. The first pair of shutters remonstrances of its senate and citi. being opened, St. Blaize, St. John, St. zens, and thereby involved it in his Jerome, and St. Ægidius are seen own ruin. A bloody engagement com- noble and grave figures, betraying some menced outside the walls, but continued timidity in drawing, but with heads full through the streets, and ended in the of character and individuality. These expulsion of the Prussians, and in the figures are executed in the most finished sacking and pillage of Lübeck for 3 manner, and with the richest colours. days. The French army of 75,000 men When the second pair of shutters is was long quartered upon the town, to opened, the Pictures of the Passion are complete its ruin and misery.

seen in 3 compartments, each having a It is an interesting town, prettily principal subject ; but Memling, as situated. Its haven, enlivened by ship was usual with the early masters, both ping, is bounded on one side by the German and Italian, has introduced, in quay and its picturesque or grotesque no less than 23 distinct groups placed old houses and magazines, and on the in the background, many of the events other side by the lofty Ramparts, pro- previous and accessory to the principal bably some of the largest mounds of | event set forth. The main group on


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