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most probable explanation of it is, that a town of 1700 inhab., anciently a Roinstead of being one continuous water- man station, Bædæ Vicus. course, it is nothing more than a num- About 10 m. W. of Bitburg, within ber of small unconnected aqueducts the frontier of Luxemburg, but scarcely built at the same time, and probably accessible by roads, stands Vianden, a with similar materials, to supply dif- castle exceeding in' extent almost any ferent stations on the Roman road on the Rhine, an ancient possession of with water.
the house of Nassau, seated on a rock About 4.1 miles beyond Prüm is above the river l'Our. It was in good Schönecken, a small village of 1538 preservation until within a few years, inhab. The ruins of the ancient castle when it was put up for sale, and unstand upon a commanding height. It roofed. It has a remarkable chapel in originally belonged to the family of the form of a decagon. 17 m. S. W. the Counts of Vianden, who possessed of Bitburg is the ancient convent of the advowson of the abbey of Prüm; it Echternach, also in Luxemburg. Its was destroyed by the French in 1802, Church of St. Willibrod is a basilica of and sold by them for building mate- great antiquity : its pillars, decorated rials.
with Corinthian capitals, may be relies 2} Balesfeld. Between this and Bit- of some Roman edifice. burg, the road does not pass a single At Fliessem, about 3 miles from village; the country is a tract of Bitburg, on the road to Prüm, and not high land, with a rough climate, and a more than į a mile from the road, is a barren soil, but abounding in woods, Roman villa. It contains very perfect and frequently opening into beautiful and beautiful mosaics, and a hiypocaust views. The inhabitants are rude and in excellent preservation, curiously unpolished, their houses and persons illustrating the mode of heating buildalike slovenly, in proportion as the land ings and apartments by the Romans. they inhabit is wild and remote. They Two Roman mile-stones were dug up are also ignorant and superstitious; and in a wood near Bitburg ; they stood on not contented with keeping the usual the ancient high road, a short distance holidays and festivals of the church, from the new post-road. They bear almost every village has a patron the name of the Emperor Hadrian, in saint of its own, in whose honour festi- whose reign they were set up, and the vals are celebrated. Each saint is sup- distance marked upon them was 22,000 posed to have a peculiar province, and paces (M. P. XXII.) from Treves. to preside over some particular class of Between Bitburg and diseases. Thus St. Apollonia is in- 1 Helenenberg there is not a single voked in cases of tooth-ache; St. Blaize, village; but traces of the Roman road to avert sore throats; St. Lambert, to appear in sight from time to time. cure epilepsy; St. Odilia, for sore eyes; The very beautiful church at HelenenSt. Lucia, for other complaints ; St. berg (called also the hospital) is now Gertrude is engaged to drive away rats; turned into a barn. Near Pallien, a and St. Wendelin is looked upon as the village whose inhabitants live partly in protector of cattle. On their anni. caves cut out of the rooks, the road is versaries the people flock in crowds to carried over a deep ravine upon a the churches dedicated to these medical bridge of a single arch, built by Naposaints so rich in remedies, bringing leon (p. 312.); and a passage has been offerings not only of money, but also of hewn for the road itself in the solid butter, eggs, pigs' heads, &c., which rock, for a considerable distance, until give the church the appearance of a it reaches the bank of the Moselle, market-place, rather than a place of immediately opposite the city of worship. Upon those days no work is 24 Treves--see p. 308. The view done, and the evening concludes usually of Treves in descending is very striking; in drinking and gambling.
the traveller should therefore contrive 2. Bitburg (Inn, Poste, not good), ! to arrive before dark.
SPA TO COBLENZ.
of them, Montbijou, lies on our road a ROUTE 44.
little way out of the town.
The road enters the great highway
from Aix to Treves (Rte. 43.), about 204 Pruss. miles=934 Eng.
8 m, from Malmedy, a little beyond Two easy days by post to Hilles, 2 Bütgenbach (Rte. 43.). heim the 1st day. The engineering 2 Losheim, in p. 320. Here a road and making of the road is very good, branches off to the E., passing under and passing through a volcanic country, the ruined castle Kronenburg, to it is chiefly formed with an excellent 18 Stadtkyll. Inn, Post (on the material basalt. Though carried high road from Treves to Cologne): through a hilly country, the road is so crossing it you reach well laid out, that 8 miles an hour on 2 Hillesheim. Inn, Post; coman average may be made. The country fortable, with civil people, who make offers very
varied scenery, hill and vale, high charges; a curious old town, surbeech-forests, heaths, corn, and grass- rounded by walls, from which there are lands.
fine views From a hill near it a fine A gradual ascent of nearly 4 miles, view is obtained of the Eifel. shaded by an agreeable avenue of trees, The country hence to Kellberg and leads out of the valley of Spa, passing Mayen presents fine forests and patches first the abandoned gaming-house, and of beech, and some oak, with hills of afterwards the mineral spring of Sau- volcanic forms in all directions. venière, situated in a clump of trees. 3 Kellberg. – Inn, Post. A public Beyond this lies a high, level, and bare carriage runs between the Ahr valley district of barren heath, resembling and Kellberg, meeting that between Dartmoor. At the village of Francour- Coblenz and Losheim. Views of the champs the road to Malmedy, turning castle of Nurberg. Through an inteto the left, leaves that to Stavelot, in resting country, passing many dome. whose church is preserved the very topped hills (from whose egg-shape curious Shrine (Chasse) of St. Remacle. perhaps the district is called Ei-fel (?) It is of copper gilt, ornamented with and near to the picturesque castle Virprecious stones, mosaics, and statuettes neberg, to of the Saint, the Virgin, and twelve 3 Mayen. See Rte. 41. and 40. on Apostles, of silver gilt. It is probably the post-road to a work of the 11th cent, About 13 3} Coblenz (Rte. 37.). mile further runs the Prussian frontier, where baggage is slightly examined (§ 47.). A fine view is gained on
ROUTE 45, winding down the steep hill, of red sandstone, from the table land into THE UPPER EIFEL PRÜM TO GEROLSTEIN, Malmedy.
DAUN, AND LÜTZERATH. 23 Malmedy (Inn, Weisses Ross, a humble inn), a small town of 4000 The country of the Eifel Gebirge is inhab., famous for the manufacture of particularly interesting to the geolosole leather for shoes, there being 50 gist, from the decided traces of volcanic tanneries here in active work. The agency which it exhibits in its lava hides are derived from South America; currents, and numerous extinct craters, the Ardennes forest furnishes the best many of them now filled with lakes or bark; the greater part of Germany is tarns. Apart from this consideration, supplied from Malmedy and Stavelot, the scenery of the Eifel has many feaa and many of the tanners are very tures of no inconsiderable beauty and wealthy. The fantastic houses and interest to induce the ordinary traveller gardens, in and around the town, to visit it. “ The high ground constichiefly their property, are somewhat in tuting this tract of country is much the Dutch style. The most remarkable diversified with finely formed emi
nences, which are often conical or situated in the cliffs termed the Buchencrater-shaped, and frequently wooded ; loch, formed by one of the numerous the valleys are remarkable sometimes fissures in the strata, but probably enfor their bold and rocky sides, frequently larged by art. Thence the field may capped with old castles, and contracting be crossed to the Ice grotto of Roth, in 'into narrow glens; sometimes for their order to see which lights and a guide softer or wooded and verdant charac- may be procured at a farm-house and ter ; above all, the great peculiarity of inn near the church of Roth. In this the district is the secluded, often much cavern, which is a sort of natural iceconcealed, and singular “MAARS’ or house, ice is always to be found during crater-lakes." — T. T. Meres in En- the summer, but it is said to disappear glish.
in winter. In returning to Gerolstein, The region of the Eifel is still the the road may be varied by crossing the haunt of wolves and wild boars ; the base of the Auberg, where innumerable former not unfrequently approach hu- fossil shells, corals, &c. are found strewed man habitations in the winter, and over the surface of the fields. Several commit depredations on the flocks, persons in Gerolstein form collections
The traveller visiting the Eifel from of them for sale. T. T. One of the Aix-la-Chapelle or Spa, will proceed curiosities of the neighbourhood is a by the roads described in routes 43.' or mineral spring, called Brudeldreis, op44. as far as Prüm (Rte. 43.). A post- posite Birresborn, on a hill within the road runs hence to Bonn and Cologne. Gerolstein wald. In the summer it At Prüm we may turn aside to enter dries up; but if a cupful of water be upon the district of the Eifel. The thrown into the basin of rock from roads throughout it are almost invari- which it issues, a rattling is heard, and ably bad, especially in wet weather, a jet of water spirted out. Dead bodies and the country hilly.
of birds and other small animals are Gerolstein, where the tour of the Eifel often found near it, destroyed by having properly begins, is about 10 m. from alighted within the range of the noxious Prüm. It has a tolerable inn, with vapour issuing from it (carbonic acid good beds, kept by the Burgermeister gas), but it is a fable that birds are (Schreiber). It is a picturesque town killed in flying over it. Peasants stoopon the Kyll, in a valley running between ing down to drink are repulsed by the cliffs of lime-stone and dolomite, which, suffocating vapour, which being heavier more particularly on the north side, than the air lies along the surface of often present precipitous and striking the water, in a stratum more or less escarpments, and peculiarly formed, and deep as the atmosphere is agitated or sometimes isolated rocky eminences. calm. Above the town are the ruins of a The road from Gerolstein to KirchCastle. An interesting excursion, and weiler (3 miles) passes the Casselburg, one that may easily be accomplished in a picturesque stronghold, surmounting a forenoon, is to start by the footpath a mass of basaltic rock. Dochweiler, leading to the clear carbonated spring 3 miles farther, is a village built of at the bottom of the valley, to cross the lava. Near it, to the N. W. is a large river Kyll, and ascend the hill opposite basin-shaped crater called Dreiser (to the north of the town). On the Weiher, which, though now a meadow, summit is a perfectly formed dry crater was evidently at a former period filled called the Pfaffenkaule. The surface with water, and is still remarkable for of the hollow is now cultivated, but its numerous mineral springs. Dreis, traces of volcanic action are every where in the dialect of the Eifel, means a apparent. A little to the west is a mineral spring. - Olivine, à comparastream of lava, which divides into 2 tively rare mineral, is found at the branches, and includes a hollow space south side of the crater, sometimes in termed the Hagelskaule. Near it, to masses 18 inches in diameter, and the south, there is a considerable cavern, augite is also met with. Glassy felspar
is found at Hohenfels, near this. Some sets out from the post-house on the 1, of the highest hills in the Eifel surround bank of the Nahe, close to Bingen the Dreiser-Weiher.
bridge. The chief part of this road is 5 miles from Dochweiler lies Daun ; excellent, though hilly; it is carried where Hölzer's inn is good. The castle out of the valley of the Nahe by well was the family residence and the birth- constructed zig-zags, and at one point, place of the Marshal who led the Aus- where seats have been erected, comtrian armies in the Seven Years' war, mands a charming view. and defeated Frederick the Great at There is considerable beauty in the Collin. On the summit of a steep ac- gorge leading down to the village of clivity near this lie 3 crater lakes, 14 Stromberg, with the ruins of separated from each other by a narrow Castle Goldenfels, which was bravely partition of slaty rock. The principal defended against the French, 1793, by one, the Gmunden Maar, is very beauti- the Prussian Lieut. v. Gauvain, with ful. From Daun, a detour should be 35 men. A monument commemorates made by Stadfeld to Manderscheid, in the event. order to see its old castle and the 3 Simmern. (Inn Post.) Meerfelder Maar, another considerable We follow the line of the old Ro. crater-lake in a perfectly circular basin, man road as far as Kirchberg. 100 fathoms deep; the water does not 2 Buchenbeuern. From this to occupy the whole of it. Close to it Berncastel the road is very hilly, runrises the hill of Mosenberg, remarkable ning over the high table-land of the for its 4 volcanic cones of slag; 3 of Hundsrück (Dog's Back) which exthem are perfect; 1 is broken down tends between the Rhine, Moselle, and on the south; from 1 of them a cur- Nahe. For a considerable distance rent of basaltic lava descends into the neither house nor human being is to be valley.
The country is a bleak uncul. Gillenfeld (Burgermaster Zilchen's tivated waste of moor and moss, with Inn), on the road to Lützerath, passing forest interspersed. Here and there a Hedersdorf, is the next point of in- distant view over hills and valleys apterest. Here is situated the Pulver- pears. We again follow the line of the maar, one of the largest and most old Roman road, called in the country beautiful crater-lakes of the Eifel, 330 Steinstrasse. By the side of it is seen ft. deep. On the way from Gillenfeld a small truncated tower (Stumpfe to Lützerath is the village of Strötz- Thurm), said to be (?) a Roman work. busch, built in the hollow of a crater- It is supposed, indeed, that the Rolake, and near it there are remains man station Belginum, or Tabernæ, of another crater, formerly perhaps a may have stood upon this spot. А lake.
little farther on, the road descends There is a post road from Lützerath through a narrow and winding ravine to Daun, 2} Germ. m.; but it does (the Tiefenbach-thal), whose sides, not pass through Gillenfeld or Strötz- formed of ragged slate rocks, are exbusch ; and from Daun through Doch- | ceedingly picturesque, in many places weiler to Hillesheim, 21 Germ. m. overhanging the road, and sprinkled Lützerath is distant from Daun, by over with trees and underwood. Conthe direct road, about 12 English m.
siderable mines have been driven into We have now entered upon Route 41. these rocks, and roofing slate is ob
tained from them. Many of the en
trances to them open close upon the ROUTE 46.
road side. At the bottom of this steep descent lies
34 Berncastel, on the Moselle.
Inn, Three Kings. Page 317. 164 Pruss, miles = 76 Eng. miles. The Moselle is here passed by a Schnellpost daily in 145 hours. It ferry-boat; a good road leads to
BINGEN TO TREVES.
3 Hetzerath, on the high road from now a Lunatic Asylum. Coblenz to Treves.
233 Germ. m. = 105 Eng. m. A macadamised post road, 14 Germ. m. shorter than that by Coblenz. wet or foggy weather it is preferable to that by the Rhine: no inn between Siegburg and Limburg. Schnellpost daily in 23 hrs.
A new road
runs to Bonn, crossing the Sieg by a ferry some way below Siegburg, and the Rhine by the flying bridge.
French General Marceau (the Bayard of the republic) received his death wound in an action with the Austrians under the Archduke Charles. See p. 278. 1 Wahlerod or Wahlroth, the first station in the territory of Nassau.
2 Freilingen. Country high and 2 Wallmeroth. woody (the skirt of the Westerwald) as you approach the Lahn.
2 Limburg (Inn, Post), in Rte. 96. Nieder-Selters, whence the celebrated water is obtained, is passed on this stage; it is described under the head Schwalbach, in Rte. 95. 3 Würges.
Königstein, Rte. 97.
3 Siegburg (Inn, Star, tolerable), a town of 2500 inhab., on the Sieg, about 4 m. above its junction with the Rhine. Upon the rock of St. Michael, in a singularly beautiful situation, immediately overhanging the town, stands the ancient Benedictine Abbey, founded in 1060 by Archbishop Hanno, who is buried within the fine Church. It is
2 FRANKFURT A. M., Rte 95.